Abstract

Driven by the forthcoming of 5G mobile communications, the all-IP architecture of mobile core networks, i.e. evolved packet core (EPC) proposed by 3GPP, has been greatly challenged by the users’ demands for higher data rate and more reliable end-to-end connection, as well as operators’ demands for low operational cost. These challenges can be potentially met by software defined optical networking (SDON), which enables dynamic resource allocation according to the users’ requirement. In this article, a novel network architecture for mobile core network is proposed based on SDON. A software defined network (SDN) controller is designed to realize the coordinated control over different entities in EPC networks. We analyze the requirement of EPC-lightpath (EPCL) in data plane and propose an optical switch load balancing (OSLB) algorithm for resource allocation in optical layer. The procedure of establishment and adjustment of EPCLs is demonstrated on a SDON-based EPC testbed with extended OpenFlow protocol. We also evaluate the OSLB algorithm through simulation in terms of bandwidth blocking ratio, traffic load distribution, and resource utilization ratio compared with link-based load balancing (LLB) and MinHops algorithms.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (2)

R. Muñoz, J. Mangues-Bafalluy, R. Vilalta, C. Verikoukis, J. Alonso-Zarate, N. Bartzoudis, A. Georgiadis, M. Payaró, A. Perez-Neira, R. Casellas, R. Martínez, J. Nunez-Martínez, M. Esteso, D. Pubill, O. Font-Bach, P. Henarejos, J. Serra, and F. Vazquez-Gallego, “The CTTC 5G end-to-end experimental platform: integrating heterogeneous wireless/optical networks, distributed cloud, and IoT devices,” IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag. 11(1), 50–63 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Musumeci, C. Bellanzon, N. Carapellese, M. Tornatore, A. Pattavina, and S. Gosselin, “Optimal BBU placement for 5G C-RAN deployment over WDM aggregation networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 34(8), 1963–1970 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

Y. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Lin, J. Han, H. Zheng, Y. Cui, M. Xiao, H. Li, Y. Peng, Y. Ji, and H. Yang, “Field demonstration of multi-domain software-defined transport networking with multi-controller collaboration for data center interconnection [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 7(2), A301–A308 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Skubic, G. Bottari, A. Rostami, F. Cavaliere, and P. Ohlen, “Rethinking optical transport to pave the way for 5G and the networked society (Invited Paper),” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(5), 1084–1091 (2015).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

T. Taleb, M. Corici, C. Parada, A. Jamakovic, S. Ruffino, G. Karagiannis, and T. Magedanz, “EASE: EPC as a service to ease mobile core network deployment over Cloud,” IEEE Netw. 29(2), 78–88 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, J. Zhang, R. Gu, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, K. Xu, M. Song, H. Li, and X. Wang, “Baseband unit cloud interconnection enabled by flexible grid optical networks with software defined elasticity,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 90–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Giust, L. Cominardi, and C. J. Bernardos, “Distributed mobility management for future 5G networks: overview and analysis of existing approaches,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(1), 142–149 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

J. G. Andrews, S. Buzzi, W. Choi, S. V. Hanly, A. Lozano, A. C. K. Soong, and J. C. Zhang, “What will 5G be?” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 32(6), 1065–1082 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Boccardi, R. W. Heath, A. Lozano, T. L. Marzetta, and P. Popovski, “Five disruptive technology directions for 5G,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), 74–80 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Chen and J. Zhao, “The requirements, challenges, and technologies for 5G of terrestrial mobile telecommunication,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(5), 36–43 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

A. Tzanakaki, M. P. Anastasopoulos, G. S. Zervas, B. R. Rofoee, R. Nejabati, and D. Simeonidou, “Virtualization of heterogeneous wireless-optical network and IT infrastructures in support of cloud and mobile cloud services,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(8), 155–161 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, C. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic traffic grooming in elastic optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 31(1), 4–12 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, L. Velasco, D. Careglio, V. Lopez, and J. Comellas, “Elastic spectrum allocation for time-carying traffic in flex-grid optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 31(1), 26–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Yang, X. Yu, L. Wang, and X. Fu, “Experimental demonstration of OpenFlow-based control plane for elastic lightpath provisioning in Flexi-Grid optical networks,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1364–1373 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Channegowda, R. Nejabati, and D. Simeonidou, “Software-defined optical networks technology and infrastructure: enabling software-defined optical network operations [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5(10), A274–A282 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

Y. Wang, X. Cao, Q. Hu, and Y. Pan, “Towards elastic and fine-granular bandwidth allocation in spectrum-sliced optical networks,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 4(11), 906–917 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, C. Lv, W. Zhang, S. Huang, X. Zhang, and W. Gu, “Multi-link failure restoration with dynamic load balancing in spectrum-elastic optical path networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(1), 21–28 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(11), 66–73 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2004 (1)

L. Ruan, H. Luo, and C. Liu, “A dynamic routing algorithm with load balancing heuristics for restorable connections in WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 22(9), 1823–1829 (2004).
[Crossref]

Alonso-Zarate, J.

R. Muñoz, J. Mangues-Bafalluy, R. Vilalta, C. Verikoukis, J. Alonso-Zarate, N. Bartzoudis, A. Georgiadis, M. Payaró, A. Perez-Neira, R. Casellas, R. Martínez, J. Nunez-Martínez, M. Esteso, D. Pubill, O. Font-Bach, P. Henarejos, J. Serra, and F. Vazquez-Gallego, “The CTTC 5G end-to-end experimental platform: integrating heterogeneous wireless/optical networks, distributed cloud, and IoT devices,” IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag. 11(1), 50–63 (2016).
[Crossref]

Anastasopoulos, M. P.

A. Tzanakaki, M. P. Anastasopoulos, G. S. Zervas, B. R. Rofoee, R. Nejabati, and D. Simeonidou, “Virtualization of heterogeneous wireless-optical network and IT infrastructures in support of cloud and mobile cloud services,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(8), 155–161 (2013).
[Crossref]

Andrews, J. G.

J. G. Andrews, S. Buzzi, W. Choi, S. V. Hanly, A. Lozano, A. C. K. Soong, and J. C. Zhang, “What will 5G be?” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 32(6), 1065–1082 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bartzoudis, N.

R. Muñoz, J. Mangues-Bafalluy, R. Vilalta, C. Verikoukis, J. Alonso-Zarate, N. Bartzoudis, A. Georgiadis, M. Payaró, A. Perez-Neira, R. Casellas, R. Martínez, J. Nunez-Martínez, M. Esteso, D. Pubill, O. Font-Bach, P. Henarejos, J. Serra, and F. Vazquez-Gallego, “The CTTC 5G end-to-end experimental platform: integrating heterogeneous wireless/optical networks, distributed cloud, and IoT devices,” IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag. 11(1), 50–63 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bellanzon, C.

Bernardos, C. J.

F. Giust, L. Cominardi, and C. J. Bernardos, “Distributed mobility management for future 5G networks: overview and analysis of existing approaches,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(1), 142–149 (2015).
[Crossref]

Boccardi, F.

F. Boccardi, R. W. Heath, A. Lozano, T. L. Marzetta, and P. Popovski, “Five disruptive technology directions for 5G,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), 74–80 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bottari, G.

Buzzi, S.

J. G. Andrews, S. Buzzi, W. Choi, S. V. Hanly, A. Lozano, A. C. K. Soong, and J. C. Zhang, “What will 5G be?” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 32(6), 1065–1082 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cao, X.

Carapellese, N.

Careglio, D.

M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, L. Velasco, D. Careglio, V. Lopez, and J. Comellas, “Elastic spectrum allocation for time-carying traffic in flex-grid optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 31(1), 26–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

Casellas, R.

R. Muñoz, J. Mangues-Bafalluy, R. Vilalta, C. Verikoukis, J. Alonso-Zarate, N. Bartzoudis, A. Georgiadis, M. Payaró, A. Perez-Neira, R. Casellas, R. Martínez, J. Nunez-Martínez, M. Esteso, D. Pubill, O. Font-Bach, P. Henarejos, J. Serra, and F. Vazquez-Gallego, “The CTTC 5G end-to-end experimental platform: integrating heterogeneous wireless/optical networks, distributed cloud, and IoT devices,” IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag. 11(1), 50–63 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cavaliere, F.

Channegowda, M.

Chen, B.

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, C. Lv, W. Zhang, S. Huang, X. Zhang, and W. Gu, “Multi-link failure restoration with dynamic load balancing in spectrum-elastic optical path networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(1), 21–28 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Chen, S.

S. Chen and J. Zhao, “The requirements, challenges, and technologies for 5G of terrestrial mobile telecommunication,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(5), 36–43 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choi, W.

J. G. Andrews, S. Buzzi, W. Choi, S. V. Hanly, A. Lozano, A. C. K. Soong, and J. C. Zhang, “What will 5G be?” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 32(6), 1065–1082 (2014).
[Crossref]

Comellas, J.

M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, L. Velasco, D. Careglio, V. Lopez, and J. Comellas, “Elastic spectrum allocation for time-carying traffic in flex-grid optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 31(1), 26–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cominardi, L.

F. Giust, L. Cominardi, and C. J. Bernardos, “Distributed mobility management for future 5G networks: overview and analysis of existing approaches,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(1), 142–149 (2015).
[Crossref]

Corici, M.

T. Taleb, M. Corici, C. Parada, A. Jamakovic, S. Ruffino, G. Karagiannis, and T. Magedanz, “EASE: EPC as a service to ease mobile core network deployment over Cloud,” IEEE Netw. 29(2), 78–88 (2015).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y.

Deng, J.

Ding, J.

J. Ding, Y. Li, and D. Jin, “Characterizing the phenomenon of traffic tide for large-scale mobile cellular data networks,” 2015 IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), Hong Kong, China, Apr. 2015, pp.45–46.
[Crossref]

Esteso, M.

R. Muñoz, J. Mangues-Bafalluy, R. Vilalta, C. Verikoukis, J. Alonso-Zarate, N. Bartzoudis, A. Georgiadis, M. Payaró, A. Perez-Neira, R. Casellas, R. Martínez, J. Nunez-Martínez, M. Esteso, D. Pubill, O. Font-Bach, P. Henarejos, J. Serra, and F. Vazquez-Gallego, “The CTTC 5G end-to-end experimental platform: integrating heterogeneous wireless/optical networks, distributed cloud, and IoT devices,” IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag. 11(1), 50–63 (2016).
[Crossref]

Font-Bach, O.

R. Muñoz, J. Mangues-Bafalluy, R. Vilalta, C. Verikoukis, J. Alonso-Zarate, N. Bartzoudis, A. Georgiadis, M. Payaró, A. Perez-Neira, R. Casellas, R. Martínez, J. Nunez-Martínez, M. Esteso, D. Pubill, O. Font-Bach, P. Henarejos, J. Serra, and F. Vazquez-Gallego, “The CTTC 5G end-to-end experimental platform: integrating heterogeneous wireless/optical networks, distributed cloud, and IoT devices,” IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag. 11(1), 50–63 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fu, X.

Georgiadis, A.

R. Muñoz, J. Mangues-Bafalluy, R. Vilalta, C. Verikoukis, J. Alonso-Zarate, N. Bartzoudis, A. Georgiadis, M. Payaró, A. Perez-Neira, R. Casellas, R. Martínez, J. Nunez-Martínez, M. Esteso, D. Pubill, O. Font-Bach, P. Henarejos, J. Serra, and F. Vazquez-Gallego, “The CTTC 5G end-to-end experimental platform: integrating heterogeneous wireless/optical networks, distributed cloud, and IoT devices,” IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag. 11(1), 50–63 (2016).
[Crossref]

Giust, F.

F. Giust, L. Cominardi, and C. J. Bernardos, “Distributed mobility management for future 5G networks: overview and analysis of existing approaches,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(1), 142–149 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gosselin, S.

Gu, R.

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, J. Zhang, R. Gu, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, K. Xu, M. Song, H. Li, and X. Wang, “Baseband unit cloud interconnection enabled by flexible grid optical networks with software defined elasticity,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 90–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gu, W.

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, C. Lv, W. Zhang, S. Huang, X. Zhang, and W. Gu, “Multi-link failure restoration with dynamic load balancing in spectrum-elastic optical path networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(1), 21–28 (2012).
[Crossref]

Guo, H.

Han, J.

Hanly, S. V.

J. G. Andrews, S. Buzzi, W. Choi, S. V. Hanly, A. Lozano, A. C. K. Soong, and J. C. Zhang, “What will 5G be?” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 32(6), 1065–1082 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, R.

Heath, R. W.

F. Boccardi, R. W. Heath, A. Lozano, T. L. Marzetta, and P. Popovski, “Five disruptive technology directions for 5G,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), 74–80 (2014).
[Crossref]

Henarejos, P.

R. Muñoz, J. Mangues-Bafalluy, R. Vilalta, C. Verikoukis, J. Alonso-Zarate, N. Bartzoudis, A. Georgiadis, M. Payaró, A. Perez-Neira, R. Casellas, R. Martínez, J. Nunez-Martínez, M. Esteso, D. Pubill, O. Font-Bach, P. Henarejos, J. Serra, and F. Vazquez-Gallego, “The CTTC 5G end-to-end experimental platform: integrating heterogeneous wireless/optical networks, distributed cloud, and IoT devices,” IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag. 11(1), 50–63 (2016).
[Crossref]

Hu, Q.

Huang, S.

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, C. Lv, W. Zhang, S. Huang, X. Zhang, and W. Gu, “Multi-link failure restoration with dynamic load balancing in spectrum-elastic optical path networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(1), 21–28 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hung, M.

Jajszczyk, A.

I. Szczesniak, A. Jajszczyk, and A. Pach, “Mobile routing in elastic optical networks,” IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC), Shanghai, China, Oct.2014, pp. 107–111.
[Crossref]

Jamakovic, A.

T. Taleb, M. Corici, C. Parada, A. Jamakovic, S. Ruffino, G. Karagiannis, and T. Magedanz, “EASE: EPC as a service to ease mobile core network deployment over Cloud,” IEEE Netw. 29(2), 78–88 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ji, Y.

Jin, D.

J. Ding, Y. Li, and D. Jin, “Characterizing the phenomenon of traffic tide for large-scale mobile cellular data networks,” 2015 IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), Hong Kong, China, Apr. 2015, pp.45–46.
[Crossref]

Jinno, M.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(11), 66–73 (2009).
[Crossref]

Karagiannis, G.

T. Taleb, M. Corici, C. Parada, A. Jamakovic, S. Ruffino, G. Karagiannis, and T. Magedanz, “EASE: EPC as a service to ease mobile core network deployment over Cloud,” IEEE Netw. 29(2), 78–88 (2015).
[Crossref]

Klinkowski, M.

M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, L. Velasco, D. Careglio, V. Lopez, and J. Comellas, “Elastic spectrum allocation for time-carying traffic in flex-grid optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 31(1), 26–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kozicki, B.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(11), 66–73 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Y. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Lin, J. Han, H. Zheng, Y. Cui, M. Xiao, H. Li, Y. Peng, Y. Ji, and H. Yang, “Field demonstration of multi-domain software-defined transport networking with multi-controller collaboration for data center interconnection [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 7(2), A301–A308 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, J. Zhang, R. Gu, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, K. Xu, M. Song, H. Li, and X. Wang, “Baseband unit cloud interconnection enabled by flexible grid optical networks with software defined elasticity,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 90–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

J. Ding, Y. Li, and D. Jin, “Characterizing the phenomenon of traffic tide for large-scale mobile cellular data networks,” 2015 IEEE Conference on Computer Communications Workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), Hong Kong, China, Apr. 2015, pp.45–46.
[Crossref]

Lin, H.

Lin, Y.

Liu, C.

L. Ruan, H. Luo, and C. Liu, “A dynamic routing algorithm with load balancing heuristics for restorable connections in WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 22(9), 1823–1829 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

Liu, S.

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, J. Zhang, R. Gu, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, K. Xu, M. Song, H. Li, and X. Wang, “Baseband unit cloud interconnection enabled by flexible grid optical networks with software defined elasticity,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 90–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lopez, V.

M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, L. Velasco, D. Careglio, V. Lopez, and J. Comellas, “Elastic spectrum allocation for time-carying traffic in flex-grid optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 31(1), 26–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lozano, A.

F. Boccardi, R. W. Heath, A. Lozano, T. L. Marzetta, and P. Popovski, “Five disruptive technology directions for 5G,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), 74–80 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. G. Andrews, S. Buzzi, W. Choi, S. V. Hanly, A. Lozano, A. C. K. Soong, and J. C. Zhang, “What will 5G be?” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 32(6), 1065–1082 (2014).
[Crossref]

Luo, H.

L. Ruan, H. Luo, and C. Liu, “A dynamic routing algorithm with load balancing heuristics for restorable connections in WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 22(9), 1823–1829 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lv, C.

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, C. Lv, W. Zhang, S. Huang, X. Zhang, and W. Gu, “Multi-link failure restoration with dynamic load balancing in spectrum-elastic optical path networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(1), 21–28 (2012).
[Crossref]

Magedanz, T.

T. Taleb, M. Corici, C. Parada, A. Jamakovic, S. Ruffino, G. Karagiannis, and T. Magedanz, “EASE: EPC as a service to ease mobile core network deployment over Cloud,” IEEE Netw. 29(2), 78–88 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mangues-Bafalluy, J.

R. Muñoz, J. Mangues-Bafalluy, R. Vilalta, C. Verikoukis, J. Alonso-Zarate, N. Bartzoudis, A. Georgiadis, M. Payaró, A. Perez-Neira, R. Casellas, R. Martínez, J. Nunez-Martínez, M. Esteso, D. Pubill, O. Font-Bach, P. Henarejos, J. Serra, and F. Vazquez-Gallego, “The CTTC 5G end-to-end experimental platform: integrating heterogeneous wireless/optical networks, distributed cloud, and IoT devices,” IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag. 11(1), 50–63 (2016).
[Crossref]

Martel, C.

S. Zhang, C. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic traffic grooming in elastic optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 31(1), 4–12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Martínez, R.

R. Muñoz, J. Mangues-Bafalluy, R. Vilalta, C. Verikoukis, J. Alonso-Zarate, N. Bartzoudis, A. Georgiadis, M. Payaró, A. Perez-Neira, R. Casellas, R. Martínez, J. Nunez-Martínez, M. Esteso, D. Pubill, O. Font-Bach, P. Henarejos, J. Serra, and F. Vazquez-Gallego, “The CTTC 5G end-to-end experimental platform: integrating heterogeneous wireless/optical networks, distributed cloud, and IoT devices,” IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag. 11(1), 50–63 (2016).
[Crossref]

Marzetta, T. L.

F. Boccardi, R. W. Heath, A. Lozano, T. L. Marzetta, and P. Popovski, “Five disruptive technology directions for 5G,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), 74–80 (2014).
[Crossref]

Matsuoka, S.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(11), 66–73 (2009).
[Crossref]

Morita, I.

Mukherjee, B.

S. Zhang, C. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic traffic grooming in elastic optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 31(1), 4–12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Muñoz, R.

R. Muñoz, J. Mangues-Bafalluy, R. Vilalta, C. Verikoukis, J. Alonso-Zarate, N. Bartzoudis, A. Georgiadis, M. Payaró, A. Perez-Neira, R. Casellas, R. Martínez, J. Nunez-Martínez, M. Esteso, D. Pubill, O. Font-Bach, P. Henarejos, J. Serra, and F. Vazquez-Gallego, “The CTTC 5G end-to-end experimental platform: integrating heterogeneous wireless/optical networks, distributed cloud, and IoT devices,” IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag. 11(1), 50–63 (2016).
[Crossref]

Musumeci, F.

Nejabati, R.

M. Channegowda, R. Nejabati, and D. Simeonidou, “Software-defined optical networks technology and infrastructure: enabling software-defined optical network operations [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5(10), A274–A282 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Tzanakaki, M. P. Anastasopoulos, G. S. Zervas, B. R. Rofoee, R. Nejabati, and D. Simeonidou, “Virtualization of heterogeneous wireless-optical network and IT infrastructures in support of cloud and mobile cloud services,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(8), 155–161 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nunez-Martínez, J.

R. Muñoz, J. Mangues-Bafalluy, R. Vilalta, C. Verikoukis, J. Alonso-Zarate, N. Bartzoudis, A. Georgiadis, M. Payaró, A. Perez-Neira, R. Casellas, R. Martínez, J. Nunez-Martínez, M. Esteso, D. Pubill, O. Font-Bach, P. Henarejos, J. Serra, and F. Vazquez-Gallego, “The CTTC 5G end-to-end experimental platform: integrating heterogeneous wireless/optical networks, distributed cloud, and IoT devices,” IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag. 11(1), 50–63 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ohlen, P.

Pach, A.

I. Szczesniak, A. Jajszczyk, and A. Pach, “Mobile routing in elastic optical networks,” IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC), Shanghai, China, Oct.2014, pp. 107–111.
[Crossref]

Pan, Y.

Parada, C.

T. Taleb, M. Corici, C. Parada, A. Jamakovic, S. Ruffino, G. Karagiannis, and T. Magedanz, “EASE: EPC as a service to ease mobile core network deployment over Cloud,” IEEE Netw. 29(2), 78–88 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pattavina, A.

Payaró, M.

R. Muñoz, J. Mangues-Bafalluy, R. Vilalta, C. Verikoukis, J. Alonso-Zarate, N. Bartzoudis, A. Georgiadis, M. Payaró, A. Perez-Neira, R. Casellas, R. Martínez, J. Nunez-Martínez, M. Esteso, D. Pubill, O. Font-Bach, P. Henarejos, J. Serra, and F. Vazquez-Gallego, “The CTTC 5G end-to-end experimental platform: integrating heterogeneous wireless/optical networks, distributed cloud, and IoT devices,” IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag. 11(1), 50–63 (2016).
[Crossref]

Peng, Y.

Perez-Neira, A.

R. Muñoz, J. Mangues-Bafalluy, R. Vilalta, C. Verikoukis, J. Alonso-Zarate, N. Bartzoudis, A. Georgiadis, M. Payaró, A. Perez-Neira, R. Casellas, R. Martínez, J. Nunez-Martínez, M. Esteso, D. Pubill, O. Font-Bach, P. Henarejos, J. Serra, and F. Vazquez-Gallego, “The CTTC 5G end-to-end experimental platform: integrating heterogeneous wireless/optical networks, distributed cloud, and IoT devices,” IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag. 11(1), 50–63 (2016).
[Crossref]

Popovski, P.

F. Boccardi, R. W. Heath, A. Lozano, T. L. Marzetta, and P. Popovski, “Five disruptive technology directions for 5G,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), 74–80 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pubill, D.

R. Muñoz, J. Mangues-Bafalluy, R. Vilalta, C. Verikoukis, J. Alonso-Zarate, N. Bartzoudis, A. Georgiadis, M. Payaró, A. Perez-Neira, R. Casellas, R. Martínez, J. Nunez-Martínez, M. Esteso, D. Pubill, O. Font-Bach, P. Henarejos, J. Serra, and F. Vazquez-Gallego, “The CTTC 5G end-to-end experimental platform: integrating heterogeneous wireless/optical networks, distributed cloud, and IoT devices,” IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag. 11(1), 50–63 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rofoee, B. R.

A. Tzanakaki, M. P. Anastasopoulos, G. S. Zervas, B. R. Rofoee, R. Nejabati, and D. Simeonidou, “Virtualization of heterogeneous wireless-optical network and IT infrastructures in support of cloud and mobile cloud services,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(8), 155–161 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rostami, A.

Ruan, L.

L. Ruan, H. Luo, and C. Liu, “A dynamic routing algorithm with load balancing heuristics for restorable connections in WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 22(9), 1823–1829 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ruffino, S.

T. Taleb, M. Corici, C. Parada, A. Jamakovic, S. Ruffino, G. Karagiannis, and T. Magedanz, “EASE: EPC as a service to ease mobile core network deployment over Cloud,” IEEE Netw. 29(2), 78–88 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ruiz, M.

M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, L. Velasco, D. Careglio, V. Lopez, and J. Comellas, “Elastic spectrum allocation for time-carying traffic in flex-grid optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 31(1), 26–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

Serra, J.

R. Muñoz, J. Mangues-Bafalluy, R. Vilalta, C. Verikoukis, J. Alonso-Zarate, N. Bartzoudis, A. Georgiadis, M. Payaró, A. Perez-Neira, R. Casellas, R. Martínez, J. Nunez-Martínez, M. Esteso, D. Pubill, O. Font-Bach, P. Henarejos, J. Serra, and F. Vazquez-Gallego, “The CTTC 5G end-to-end experimental platform: integrating heterogeneous wireless/optical networks, distributed cloud, and IoT devices,” IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag. 11(1), 50–63 (2016).
[Crossref]

Simeonidou, D.

A. Tzanakaki, M. P. Anastasopoulos, G. S. Zervas, B. R. Rofoee, R. Nejabati, and D. Simeonidou, “Virtualization of heterogeneous wireless-optical network and IT infrastructures in support of cloud and mobile cloud services,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(8), 155–161 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Channegowda, R. Nejabati, and D. Simeonidou, “Software-defined optical networks technology and infrastructure: enabling software-defined optical network operations [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5(10), A274–A282 (2013).
[Crossref]

Skubic, B.

Sone, Y.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(11), 66–73 (2009).
[Crossref]

Song, M.

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, J. Zhang, R. Gu, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, K. Xu, M. Song, H. Li, and X. Wang, “Baseband unit cloud interconnection enabled by flexible grid optical networks with software defined elasticity,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 90–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

Soong, A. C. K.

J. G. Andrews, S. Buzzi, W. Choi, S. V. Hanly, A. Lozano, A. C. K. Soong, and J. C. Zhang, “What will 5G be?” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 32(6), 1065–1082 (2014).
[Crossref]

Szczesniak, I.

I. Szczesniak, A. Jajszczyk, and A. Pach, “Mobile routing in elastic optical networks,” IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC), Shanghai, China, Oct.2014, pp. 107–111.
[Crossref]

Takara, H.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(11), 66–73 (2009).
[Crossref]

Taleb, T.

T. Taleb, M. Corici, C. Parada, A. Jamakovic, S. Ruffino, G. Karagiannis, and T. Magedanz, “EASE: EPC as a service to ease mobile core network deployment over Cloud,” IEEE Netw. 29(2), 78–88 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tornatore, M.

Tsukishima, Y.

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(11), 66–73 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tsuritani, T.

Tzanakaki, A.

A. Tzanakaki, M. P. Anastasopoulos, G. S. Zervas, B. R. Rofoee, R. Nejabati, and D. Simeonidou, “Virtualization of heterogeneous wireless-optical network and IT infrastructures in support of cloud and mobile cloud services,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(8), 155–161 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vazquez-Gallego, F.

R. Muñoz, J. Mangues-Bafalluy, R. Vilalta, C. Verikoukis, J. Alonso-Zarate, N. Bartzoudis, A. Georgiadis, M. Payaró, A. Perez-Neira, R. Casellas, R. Martínez, J. Nunez-Martínez, M. Esteso, D. Pubill, O. Font-Bach, P. Henarejos, J. Serra, and F. Vazquez-Gallego, “The CTTC 5G end-to-end experimental platform: integrating heterogeneous wireless/optical networks, distributed cloud, and IoT devices,” IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag. 11(1), 50–63 (2016).
[Crossref]

Velasco, L.

M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, L. Velasco, D. Careglio, V. Lopez, and J. Comellas, “Elastic spectrum allocation for time-carying traffic in flex-grid optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 31(1), 26–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

Verikoukis, C.

R. Muñoz, J. Mangues-Bafalluy, R. Vilalta, C. Verikoukis, J. Alonso-Zarate, N. Bartzoudis, A. Georgiadis, M. Payaró, A. Perez-Neira, R. Casellas, R. Martínez, J. Nunez-Martínez, M. Esteso, D. Pubill, O. Font-Bach, P. Henarejos, J. Serra, and F. Vazquez-Gallego, “The CTTC 5G end-to-end experimental platform: integrating heterogeneous wireless/optical networks, distributed cloud, and IoT devices,” IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag. 11(1), 50–63 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vilalta, R.

R. Muñoz, J. Mangues-Bafalluy, R. Vilalta, C. Verikoukis, J. Alonso-Zarate, N. Bartzoudis, A. Georgiadis, M. Payaró, A. Perez-Neira, R. Casellas, R. Martínez, J. Nunez-Martínez, M. Esteso, D. Pubill, O. Font-Bach, P. Henarejos, J. Serra, and F. Vazquez-Gallego, “The CTTC 5G end-to-end experimental platform: integrating heterogeneous wireless/optical networks, distributed cloud, and IoT devices,” IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag. 11(1), 50–63 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Wang, S.

Wang, W.

Wang, X.

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, J. Zhang, R. Gu, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, K. Xu, M. Song, H. Li, and X. Wang, “Baseband unit cloud interconnection enabled by flexible grid optical networks with software defined elasticity,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 90–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Wu, J.

Xiao, M.

Xu, K.

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, J. Zhang, R. Gu, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, K. Xu, M. Song, H. Li, and X. Wang, “Baseband unit cloud interconnection enabled by flexible grid optical networks with software defined elasticity,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 90–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

Yu, X.

Yu, Y.

Zervas, G. S.

A. Tzanakaki, M. P. Anastasopoulos, G. S. Zervas, B. R. Rofoee, R. Nejabati, and D. Simeonidou, “Virtualization of heterogeneous wireless-optical network and IT infrastructures in support of cloud and mobile cloud services,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(8), 155–161 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, J. Zhang, R. Gu, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, K. Xu, M. Song, H. Li, and X. Wang, “Baseband unit cloud interconnection enabled by flexible grid optical networks with software defined elasticity,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 90–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, J. Zhang, R. Gu, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, K. Xu, M. Song, H. Li, and X. Wang, “Baseband unit cloud interconnection enabled by flexible grid optical networks with software defined elasticity,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 90–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Yu, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Lin, J. Han, H. Zheng, Y. Cui, M. Xiao, H. Li, Y. Peng, Y. Ji, and H. Yang, “Field demonstration of multi-domain software-defined transport networking with multi-controller collaboration for data center interconnection [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 7(2), A301–A308 (2015).
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H. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, J. Deng, W. Wang, R. He, X. Yu, Y. Ji, H. Zheng, Y. Lin, and H. Yang, “Experimental demonstration of datacenter resources integrated provisioning over multi-domain software defined optical networks (Invited Paper),” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(8), 1515–1521 (2015).
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J. Zhang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Yang, X. Yu, L. Wang, and X. Fu, “Experimental demonstration of OpenFlow-based control plane for elastic lightpath provisioning in Flexi-Grid optical networks,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1364–1373 (2013).
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J. Zhang, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Yang, X. Yu, L. Wang, and X. Fu, “Experimental demonstration of OpenFlow-based control plane for elastic lightpath provisioning in Flexi-Grid optical networks,” Opt. Express 21(2), 1364–1373 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, C. Lv, W. Zhang, S. Huang, X. Zhang, and W. Gu, “Multi-link failure restoration with dynamic load balancing in spectrum-elastic optical path networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(1), 21–28 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. C.

J. G. Andrews, S. Buzzi, W. Choi, S. V. Hanly, A. Lozano, A. C. K. Soong, and J. C. Zhang, “What will 5G be?” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 32(6), 1065–1082 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, C. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic traffic grooming in elastic optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 31(1), 4–12 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, C. Lv, W. Zhang, S. Huang, X. Zhang, and W. Gu, “Multi-link failure restoration with dynamic load balancing in spectrum-elastic optical path networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(1), 21–28 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, C. Lv, W. Zhang, S. Huang, X. Zhang, and W. Gu, “Multi-link failure restoration with dynamic load balancing in spectrum-elastic optical path networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(1), 21–28 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

S. Chen and J. Zhao, “The requirements, challenges, and technologies for 5G of terrestrial mobile telecommunication,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(5), 36–43 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Zheng, H.

IEEE Commun. Mag. (6)

F. Boccardi, R. W. Heath, A. Lozano, T. L. Marzetta, and P. Popovski, “Five disruptive technology directions for 5G,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), 74–80 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Chen and J. Zhao, “The requirements, challenges, and technologies for 5G of terrestrial mobile telecommunication,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(5), 36–43 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, Y. Ji, J. Zhang, R. Gu, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, K. Xu, M. Song, H. Li, and X. Wang, “Baseband unit cloud interconnection enabled by flexible grid optical networks with software defined elasticity,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(9), 90–98 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Tzanakaki, M. P. Anastasopoulos, G. S. Zervas, B. R. Rofoee, R. Nejabati, and D. Simeonidou, “Virtualization of heterogeneous wireless-optical network and IT infrastructures in support of cloud and mobile cloud services,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(8), 155–161 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Jinno, H. Takara, B. Kozicki, Y. Tsukishima, Y. Sone, and S. Matsuoka, “Spectrum-efficient and scalable elastic optical path network: architecture, benefits, and enabling technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 47(11), 66–73 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Giust, L. Cominardi, and C. J. Bernardos, “Distributed mobility management for future 5G networks: overview and analysis of existing approaches,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 53(1), 142–149 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. (4)

M. Klinkowski, M. Ruiz, L. Velasco, D. Careglio, V. Lopez, and J. Comellas, “Elastic spectrum allocation for time-carying traffic in flex-grid optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 31(1), 26–38 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Ruan, H. Luo, and C. Liu, “A dynamic routing algorithm with load balancing heuristics for restorable connections in WDM networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 22(9), 1823–1829 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, C. Martel, and B. Mukherjee, “Dynamic traffic grooming in elastic optical networks,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 31(1), 4–12 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. G. Andrews, S. Buzzi, W. Choi, S. V. Hanly, A. Lozano, A. C. K. Soong, and J. C. Zhang, “What will 5G be?” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 32(6), 1065–1082 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Netw. (1)

T. Taleb, M. Corici, C. Parada, A. Jamakovic, S. Ruffino, G. Karagiannis, and T. Magedanz, “EASE: EPC as a service to ease mobile core network deployment over Cloud,” IEEE Netw. 29(2), 78–88 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag. (1)

R. Muñoz, J. Mangues-Bafalluy, R. Vilalta, C. Verikoukis, J. Alonso-Zarate, N. Bartzoudis, A. Georgiadis, M. Payaró, A. Perez-Neira, R. Casellas, R. Martínez, J. Nunez-Martínez, M. Esteso, D. Pubill, O. Font-Bach, P. Henarejos, J. Serra, and F. Vazquez-Gallego, “The CTTC 5G end-to-end experimental platform: integrating heterogeneous wireless/optical networks, distributed cloud, and IoT devices,” IEEE Veh. Technol. Mag. 11(1), 50–63 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (3)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

B. Chen, J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, C. Lv, W. Zhang, S. Huang, X. Zhang, and W. Gu, “Multi-link failure restoration with dynamic load balancing in spectrum-elastic optical path networks,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(1), 21–28 (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (14)

3GPP Tech. Spec. 29.060, “General packet radio service (GPRS); GPRS tunneling protocol (GTP) across the Gn and Gp interface,” v11.6.0.

3GPP Tech. Spec. 32.752, “Evolved packet core (EPC) network resource model (NRM) integration reference point (IRP); information service (IS) (Release 9),” v9.3.0.

I. Szczesniak, A. Jajszczyk, and A. Pach, “Mobile routing in elastic optical networks,” IEEE/CIC International Conference on Communications in China (ICCC), Shanghai, China, Oct.2014, pp. 107–111.
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 SDON-based EPC architecture.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Signaling procedure of EPCL establishment.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Scenarios of EPCL adjustment.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Cases of EPCL adjustment, (a) caused by handover, (b) caused by overload, (c) caused by both handover and overload where find two possible EPCL for adjustment.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Experimental demonstration deployment diagram, (b) and (c) OFP message trace of EPCL establishment and adjustment.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 24-node USNET divided into three TAs.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Bandwidth blocking ratio.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Traffic load distribution.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Average hops of EPCL under different policies.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Resource utilization ratio.

Equations (8)

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T L n = l i L n r i R ( b r i , l j +2× b guard ) r i , l j
r i R, l j r i ( b r i , l j +2× b guard ) c l j r i , l j
T L n > C n nN
r i ' R, l j r i ( b r i ' , l j +2× b guard ) c l j r i ' , l j
T L n < C n n N
w n = T L n C n × h n
α n = 2× l i L n r i R ( b r i , l j +2× b guard ) C n       r i , l j ,nN
β=( R b r )/( L c l ×128) rR,lL

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