Abstract

The lack of optical constants information for hybrid perovskite of CH3NH3PbBr3 in thin films form can delay the progress of efficient LED or laser demonstration. Here, we report on the optical constants (complex refractive index and dielectric function) of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite thin films using spectroscopic ellipsometry. Due to the existence of voids, the refractive index of the thin films is around 8% less than the single crystals counterpart. The energy bandgap is around 2.309 eV as obtained from photoluminescence and spectrophotometry spectra, and calculated from the SE analysis. The precise measurement of optical constants will be useful in designing optical devices using CH3NH3PbBr3 thin films.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (6)

Y. Jiang, A. M. Soufiani, A. Gentle, F. Huang, A. Ho-Baillie, and M. A. Green, “Temperature dependent optical properties of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(6), 061905 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. J. Phillips, A. M. Rashed, R. E. Treharne, J. Kay, P. Yates, I. Z. Mitrovic, A. Weerakkody, S. Hall, and K. Durose, “Maximizing the optical performance of planar CH3NH3PbI3 hybrid perovskite heterojunction stacks,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 147, 327–333 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Shirayama, H. Kadowaki, T. Miyadera, T. Sugita, M. Tamakoshi, M. Kato, T. Fujiseki, D. Murata, S. Hara, T. N. Murakami, S. Fujimoto, M. Chikamatsu, and H. Fujiwara, “Optical transitions in hybrid perovskite solar cells: ellipsometry, density functional theory, and quantum efficiency analyses for CH3NH3PbI3,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 5(1), 014012 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao and K. Zhu, “Organic-inorganic hybrid lead halide perovskites for optoelectronic and electronic applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 45(3), 655–689 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Brittman and E. C. Garnett, “Measuring n and k at the microscale in single crystals of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(1), 616–620 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. M. A. Leguy, P. Azarhoosh, M. I. Alonso, M. Campoy-Quiles, O. J. Weber, J. Yao, D. Bryant, M. T. Weller, J. Nelson, A. Walsh, M. van Schilfgaarde, and P. R. F. Barnes, “Experimental and theoretical optical properties of methylammonium lead halide perovskites,” Nanoscale 8(12), 6317–6327 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (16)

J.-S. Park, S. Choi, Y. Yan, Y. Yang, J. M. Luther, S.-H. Wei, P. Parilla, and K. Zhu, “Electronic structure and optical properties of α-CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite single crystal,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(21), 4304–4308 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. D. Stranks and H. J. Snaith, “Metal-halide perovskites for photovoltaic and light-emitting devices,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(5), 391–402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Petrović, V. Chellappan, and S. Ramakrishna, “Perovskites: solar cells & engineering applications – materials and device developments,” Sol. Energy 122, 678–699 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Cui, H. Yuan, J. Li, X. Xu, Y. Shen, H. Lin, and M. Wang, “Recent progress in efficient hybrid lead halide perovskite solar cells,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 16(3), 036004 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ball, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Horantner, S. Huttner, W. Zhang, E. J. W. Crossland, I. Ramirez, M. Riede, M. B. Johnston, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Optical properties and limiting photocurrent of thin-film perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(2), 602–609 (2015).
[Crossref]

C.-W. Chen, S.-Y. Hsiao, C.-Y. Chen, H.-W. Kang, Z.-Y. Huang, and H.-W. Lin, “Optical properties of organometal halide perovskite thin films and general device structure design rules for perovskite single and tandem solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(17), 9152–9159 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. A. Green, Y. Jiang, A. M. Soufiani, and A. Ho-Baillie, “Optical properties of photovoltaic organic–inorganic lead halide perovskites,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(23), 4774–4785 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jiang, M. A. Green, R. Sheng, and A. Ho-Baillie, “Optical modelling data for room temperature optical properties of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites,” Data Brief 3, 201–208 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Lin, A. Armin, R. C. R. Nagiri, P. L. Burn, and P. Meredith, “Electro-optics of perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 106–112 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ziang, L. Shifeng, Q. Laixiang, P. Shuping, W. Wei, Y. Yu, Y. Li, C. Zhijian, W. Shufeng, D. Honglin, Y. Minghui, and G. G. Qin, “Refractive index and extinction coefficient of CH3NH3PbI3 studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(1), 29–43 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. L. Z. Hoye, M. R. Chua, K. P. Musselman, G. Li, M.-L. Lai, Z.-K. Tan, N. C. Greenham, J. L. MacManus-Driscoll, R. H. Friend, and D. Credgington, “Enhanced performance in fluorene-free organometal halide perovskite light-emitting diodes using tunable, low electron affinity oxide electron injectors,” Adv. Mater. 27(8), 1414–1419 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kim, H. Cho, J. H. Heo, T.-S. Kim, N. Myoung, C.-L. Lee, S. H. Im, and T.-W. Lee, “Multicolored organic/inorganic hybrid perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1248–1254 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Li, Z.-K. Tan, D. Di, M. L. Lai, L. Jiang, J. H.-W. Lim, R. H. Friend, and N. C. Greenham, “Efficient light-emitting diodes based on nanocrystalline perovskite in a dielectric polymer matrix,” Nano Lett. 15(4), 2640–2644 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sadhanala, S. Ahmad, B. Zhao, N. Giesbrecht, P. M. Pearce, F. Deschler, R. L. Z. Hoye, K. C. Gödel, T. Bein, P. Docampo, S. E. Dutton, M. F. L. De Volder, and R. H. Friend, “Blue-green color tunable solution processable organolead chloride-bromide mixed halide perovskites for optoelectronic applications,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6095–6101 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Sheng, A. Ho-Baillie, S. Huang, S. Chen, X. Wen, X. Hao, and M. A. Green, “Methylammonium lead bromide perovskite-based solar cells by vapor-assisted deposition,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(7), 3545–3549 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

Q. Chen, H. Zhou, Z. Hong, S. Luo, H.-S. Duan, H.-H. Wang, Y. Liu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells via vapor-assisted solution process,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(2), 622–625 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Green, A. Ho-Baillie, and H. J. Snaith, “The emergence of perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 8(7), 506–514 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Gao, M. Gratzel, and M. K. Nazeeruddin, “Organohalide lead perovskites for photovoltaic applications,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(8), 2448–2463 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

J. H. Noh, S. H. Im, J. H. Heo, T. N. Mandal, and S. I. Seok, “Chemical management for colorful, efficient, and stable inorganic-organic hybrid nanostructured solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1764–1769 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition,” Nature 501(7467), 395–398 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

C. Braganza, L. C. Chien, M. R. Fisch, and R. G. Petschek, “Spectrographic ellipsometry study of a liquid crystal display substrate consisting of thin films of SiO2, polyimide and indium tin oxide on glass,” Thin Solid Films 519(13), 4384–4389 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

S. Kohli, V. Manivannan, J. N. Hilfiker, P. R. McCurdy, R. A. Enzenroth, K. L. Barth, W. P. Smith, R. Luebs, and W. S. Sampath, “Effect of chemical treatment on the optical properties of a cadmium telluride photovoltaic device investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Sol. Energy Eng. 131(2), 021009 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Kojima, K. Teshima, Y. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, “Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6050–6051 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

K. Tanaka, T. Takahashi, T. Ban, T. Kondo, K. Uchida, and N. Miura, “Comparative study on the excitons in lead-halide-based perovskite-type crystals CH3NH3PbBr3 CH3NH3PbI3,” Solid State Commun. 127(9–10), 619–623 (2003).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(3), 371–373 (1996).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

J. Tauc, R. Grigorovici, and A. Vancu, “Optical properties and electronic structure of amorphous germanium,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 15(2), 627–637 (1966).
[Crossref]

1935 (1)

D. A. G. Bruggeman, “Berechnung verschiedener physikalischer Konstanten von heterogenen Substanzen. I. Dielektrizitätskonstanten und Leitfähigkeiten der Mischkörper aus isotropen Substanzen,” Ann. Phys. 416(7), 636–664 (1935).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, S.

A. Sadhanala, S. Ahmad, B. Zhao, N. Giesbrecht, P. M. Pearce, F. Deschler, R. L. Z. Hoye, K. C. Gödel, T. Bein, P. Docampo, S. E. Dutton, M. F. L. De Volder, and R. H. Friend, “Blue-green color tunable solution processable organolead chloride-bromide mixed halide perovskites for optoelectronic applications,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6095–6101 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alonso, M. I.

A. M. A. Leguy, P. Azarhoosh, M. I. Alonso, M. Campoy-Quiles, O. J. Weber, J. Yao, D. Bryant, M. T. Weller, J. Nelson, A. Walsh, M. van Schilfgaarde, and P. R. F. Barnes, “Experimental and theoretical optical properties of methylammonium lead halide perovskites,” Nanoscale 8(12), 6317–6327 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Armin, A.

Q. Lin, A. Armin, R. C. R. Nagiri, P. L. Burn, and P. Meredith, “Electro-optics of perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 106–112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Azarhoosh, P.

A. M. A. Leguy, P. Azarhoosh, M. I. Alonso, M. Campoy-Quiles, O. J. Weber, J. Yao, D. Bryant, M. T. Weller, J. Nelson, A. Walsh, M. van Schilfgaarde, and P. R. F. Barnes, “Experimental and theoretical optical properties of methylammonium lead halide perovskites,” Nanoscale 8(12), 6317–6327 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ball, J. M.

J. M. Ball, S. D. Stranks, M. T. Horantner, S. Huttner, W. Zhang, E. J. W. Crossland, I. Ramirez, M. Riede, M. B. Johnston, R. H. Friend, and H. J. Snaith, “Optical properties and limiting photocurrent of thin-film perovskite solar cells,” Energy Environ. Sci. 8(2), 602–609 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ballif, C.

P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ban, T.

K. Tanaka, T. Takahashi, T. Ban, T. Kondo, K. Uchida, and N. Miura, “Comparative study on the excitons in lead-halide-based perovskite-type crystals CH3NH3PbBr3 CH3NH3PbI3,” Solid State Commun. 127(9–10), 619–623 (2003).
[Crossref]

Barnes, P. R. F.

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Z. K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
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M. A. Green, Y. Jiang, A. M. Soufiani, and A. Ho-Baillie, “Optical properties of photovoltaic organic–inorganic lead halide perovskites,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(23), 4774–4785 (2015).
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Y. Jiang, M. A. Green, R. Sheng, and A. Ho-Baillie, “Optical modelling data for room temperature optical properties of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites,” Data Brief 3, 201–208 (2015).
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R. Sheng, A. Ho-Baillie, S. Huang, S. Chen, X. Wen, X. Hao, and M. A. Green, “Methylammonium lead bromide perovskite-based solar cells by vapor-assisted deposition,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(7), 3545–3549 (2015).
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Y. Jiang, A. M. Soufiani, A. Gentle, F. Huang, A. Ho-Baillie, and M. A. Green, “Temperature dependent optical properties of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(6), 061905 (2016).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, “Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition,” Nature 501(7467), 395–398 (2013).
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Kang, H.-W.

C.-W. Chen, S.-Y. Hsiao, C.-Y. Chen, H.-W. Kang, Z.-Y. Huang, and H.-W. Lin, “Optical properties of organometal halide perovskite thin films and general device structure design rules for perovskite single and tandem solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3(17), 9152–9159 (2015).
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Lee, C.-L.

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Q. Chen, H. Zhou, Z. Hong, S. Luo, H.-S. Duan, H.-H. Wang, Y. Liu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells via vapor-assisted solution process,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(2), 622–625 (2014).
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S. Kohli, V. Manivannan, J. N. Hilfiker, P. R. McCurdy, R. A. Enzenroth, K. L. Barth, W. P. Smith, R. Luebs, and W. S. Sampath, “Effect of chemical treatment on the optical properties of a cadmium telluride photovoltaic device investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Sol. Energy Eng. 131(2), 021009 (2009).
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J.-S. Park, S. Choi, Y. Yan, Y. Yang, J. M. Luther, S.-H. Wei, P. Parilla, and K. Zhu, “Electronic structure and optical properties of α-CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite single crystal,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(21), 4304–4308 (2015).
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R. L. Z. Hoye, M. R. Chua, K. P. Musselman, G. Li, M.-L. Lai, Z.-K. Tan, N. C. Greenham, J. L. MacManus-Driscoll, R. H. Friend, and D. Credgington, “Enhanced performance in fluorene-free organometal halide perovskite light-emitting diodes using tunable, low electron affinity oxide electron injectors,” Adv. Mater. 27(8), 1414–1419 (2015).
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J. H. Noh, S. H. Im, J. H. Heo, T. N. Mandal, and S. I. Seok, “Chemical management for colorful, efficient, and stable inorganic-organic hybrid nanostructured solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1764–1769 (2013).
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S. Kohli, V. Manivannan, J. N. Hilfiker, P. R. McCurdy, R. A. Enzenroth, K. L. Barth, W. P. Smith, R. Luebs, and W. S. Sampath, “Effect of chemical treatment on the optical properties of a cadmium telluride photovoltaic device investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Sol. Energy Eng. 131(2), 021009 (2009).
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G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
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S. Kohli, V. Manivannan, J. N. Hilfiker, P. R. McCurdy, R. A. Enzenroth, K. L. Barth, W. P. Smith, R. Luebs, and W. S. Sampath, “Effect of chemical treatment on the optical properties of a cadmium telluride photovoltaic device investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” J. Sol. Energy Eng. 131(2), 021009 (2009).
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Q. Lin, A. Armin, R. C. R. Nagiri, P. L. Burn, and P. Meredith, “Electro-optics of perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 106–112 (2015).
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G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
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Mitrovic, I. Z.

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K. Tanaka, T. Takahashi, T. Ban, T. Kondo, K. Uchida, and N. Miura, “Comparative study on the excitons in lead-halide-based perovskite-type crystals CH3NH3PbBr3 CH3NH3PbI3,” Solid State Commun. 127(9–10), 619–623 (2003).
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M. Shirayama, H. Kadowaki, T. Miyadera, T. Sugita, M. Tamakoshi, M. Kato, T. Fujiseki, D. Murata, S. Hara, T. N. Murakami, S. Fujimoto, M. Chikamatsu, and H. Fujiwara, “Optical transitions in hybrid perovskite solar cells: ellipsometry, density functional theory, and quantum efficiency analyses for CH3NH3PbI3,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 5(1), 014012 (2016).
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A. Kojima, K. Teshima, Y. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, “Organometal halide perovskites as visible-light sensitizers for photovoltaic cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6050–6051 (2009).
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G. E. Jellison and F. A. Modine, “Parameterization of the optical functions of amorphous materials in the interband region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(3), 371–373 (1996).
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Moghaddam, R. S.

Z. K. Tan, R. S. Moghaddam, M. L. Lai, P. Docampo, R. Higler, F. Deschler, M. Price, A. Sadhanala, L. M. Pazos, D. Credgington, F. Hanusch, T. Bein, H. J. Snaith, and R. H. Friend, “Bright light-emitting diodes based on organometal halide perovskite,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(9), 687–692 (2014).
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P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
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M. Shirayama, H. Kadowaki, T. Miyadera, T. Sugita, M. Tamakoshi, M. Kato, T. Fujiseki, D. Murata, S. Hara, T. N. Murakami, S. Fujimoto, M. Chikamatsu, and H. Fujiwara, “Optical transitions in hybrid perovskite solar cells: ellipsometry, density functional theory, and quantum efficiency analyses for CH3NH3PbI3,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 5(1), 014012 (2016).
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M. Shirayama, H. Kadowaki, T. Miyadera, T. Sugita, M. Tamakoshi, M. Kato, T. Fujiseki, D. Murata, S. Hara, T. N. Murakami, S. Fujimoto, M. Chikamatsu, and H. Fujiwara, “Optical transitions in hybrid perovskite solar cells: ellipsometry, density functional theory, and quantum efficiency analyses for CH3NH3PbI3,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 5(1), 014012 (2016).
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R. L. Z. Hoye, M. R. Chua, K. P. Musselman, G. Li, M.-L. Lai, Z.-K. Tan, N. C. Greenham, J. L. MacManus-Driscoll, R. H. Friend, and D. Credgington, “Enhanced performance in fluorene-free organometal halide perovskite light-emitting diodes using tunable, low electron affinity oxide electron injectors,” Adv. Mater. 27(8), 1414–1419 (2015).
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Myoung, N.

Y.-H. Kim, H. Cho, J. H. Heo, T.-S. Kim, N. Myoung, C.-L. Lee, S. H. Im, and T.-W. Lee, “Multicolored organic/inorganic hybrid perovskite light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1248–1254 (2015).
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Nagiri, R. C. R.

Q. Lin, A. Armin, R. C. R. Nagiri, P. L. Burn, and P. Meredith, “Electro-optics of perovskite solar cells,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 106–112 (2015).
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Nazeeruddin, M. K.

P. Gao, M. Gratzel, and M. K. Nazeeruddin, “Organohalide lead perovskites for photovoltaic applications,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(8), 2448–2463 (2014).
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P. Löper, M. Stuckelberger, B. Niesen, J. Werner, M. Filipič, S.-J. Moon, J.-H. Yum, M. Topič, S. De Wolf, and C. Ballif, “Complex refractive index spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometry,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(1), 66–71 (2015).
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J. H. Noh, S. H. Im, J. H. Heo, T. N. Mandal, and S. I. Seok, “Chemical management for colorful, efficient, and stable inorganic-organic hybrid nanostructured solar cells,” Nano Lett. 13(4), 1764–1769 (2013).
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J.-S. Park, S. Choi, Y. Yan, Y. Yang, J. M. Luther, S.-H. Wei, P. Parilla, and K. Zhu, “Electronic structure and optical properties of α-CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite single crystal,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 6(21), 4304–4308 (2015).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Material characterizations of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite thin films deposited on FTO with c-TiO2 buffering showing: (a) XRD spectra, (b) SEM top-view with 3D AFM topography inset, (c) PL spectra, and (d) spectrophotometry spectra.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Measurement and analysis for the FTO substrate showing: (a) fitting of measured and modelled SE spectra with MSE of 1.66, (b) schematic of the optical model, (c) wavelength-dependent optical constants, (d) cross-section SEM, and (e) 3D AFM topography. Measurement of SE is also conducted for c-TiO2 layer to determine the wavelength-dependent optical constants, as shown in (f).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Measurement and analysis of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite thin films on glass pre-coated with FTO and a c-TiO2 buffer layer showing (a) fitting of measured and modelled SE spectra with MSE of 1.54, (b) schematic of the optical model, and (c) angled SEM cross-section view (tilted at 52°) indicating the CH3NH3PbBr3 films, c-TiO2 buffer layer and FTO substrate.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Spectra of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite thin films showing (a) wavelength-dependent optical constants and comparison with single crystals, (b) comparison of RI values at specific wavelength for thin films and single crystals, (c) dielectric functions, (d) absorption coefficient and comparison with single crystals (inset showing the Tauc plot), (e) effect of voids on the RI spectra, and (f) effect of voids on the absorption spectra.

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