Abstract

Two aspects of ocean modelling are treated: representation of ocean waves considering all size-classes of waves and tracing of light-interactions at the wavy sea surface. Nonlinear wave profiles are realized accounting for a wide range of climatologically relevant sea states and wind speeds. Polarized ray tracing is used to investigate air-incident and whitecap-free reflectance and transmittance distributions with high angular resolution subject to sea-characterizing parameters, such as significant wave height, peak wave period, wind speed, and surface roughness. Wave-shadowing effects of incident and multiple reflected rays are fully considered. Their influence mostly starts with incidence angles greater than 60°, i.e., when the sun is near the horizon, and is especially pronounced for steep sea states. The net effect of multiple reflections is a redistribution of reflectance and transmittance fractions in their respective hemispheres and a slight increase of the net transmission of light into the sea. Revised reflectance and transmittance distribution functions, RDF and TDF, are provided depending on surface roughness in terms of the mean-square slope; reference is made to other sea state parameters. In comparison with the slope statistics approach, uncertainties related to sun near the horizon are reduced and on average this study yields somewhat higher reflectance values with some variability related to the sea state. By means of provided data, irradiance and radiance reflectances can be computed using desired sky radiance distributions, e.g., clear sky, overcast or partly cloudy sky, as well as wind or sea state information including wave propagation direction.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

22 June 2016: A correction was made to Fig. 4.


OSA Recommended Articles
Polarized reflectance and transmittance properties of windblown sea surfaces

Curtis D. Mobley
Appl. Opt. 54(15) 4828-4849 (2015)

Light transfer at the ocean surface modeled using high resolution sea surface realizations

Susan Kay, John Hedley, Samantha Lavender, and Alex Nimmo-Smith
Opt. Express 19(7) 6493-6504 (2011)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. Cox and W. Munk, “Measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun’s glitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44(11), 838–850 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. W. Preisendorfer and C. D. Mobley, “Albedos and glitter patterns of a wind-roughened Sea surface,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16(7), 1293–1316 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. D. Mobley, “Estimation of the remote-sensing reflectance from above-surface measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38(36), 7442–7455 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, and J. A. Guinn., “Radiative transfer in the earth’s atmosphere and ocean: influence of ocean waves,” Appl. Opt. 14(8), 1924–1936 (1975).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. T. Nakajima and M. Tanaka, “Effect of wind-generated waves on the transfer of solar radiation in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 29(6), 521–537 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  6. C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, and R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32(36), 7484–7504 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. Borovoi, A. Konoshonkin, and L. Kolokolova, “Glints from particulate media and wavy surfaces,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 113(18), 2542–2551 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Chami, B. Lafrance, B. Fougnie, J. Chowdhary, T. Harmel, and F. Waquet, “OSOAA: a vector radiative transfer model of coupled atmosphere-ocean system for a rough sea surface application to the estimates of the directional variations of the water leaving reflectance to better process multi-angular satellite sensors data over the ocean,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27829–27852 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Surface-roughness considerations for atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. I: The Rayleigh-scattering component,” Appl. Opt. 31(21), 4247–4260 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. F. Steinmetz, P. Y. Deschamps, and D. Ramon, “Atmospheric correction in presence of sun glint: application to MERIS,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9783–9800 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. D. Müller, H. Krasemann, R. J. Brewin, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. G. Grant, S. B. Groom, F. Mélin, T. Platt, P. Regner, S. Sathyendranath, F. Steinmetz, and J. Swinton, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: I. A methodology for assessing atmospheric correction processors based on in-situ measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 242–256 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. Hieronymi and A. Macke, “On the influence of wind and waves on underwater irradiance fluctuations,” Ocean Sci. 8(4), 455–471 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  13. V. Haltrin, W. E. McBride, and A. D. Weidemann, “Fresnel reflection by wavy sea surface,” inProceedings of IGARSS5, 1863–1865 (2000).
  14. S. Kay, J. Hedley, S. Lavender, and A. Nimmo-Smith, “Light transfer at the ocean surface modeled using high resolution sea surface realizations,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6493–6504 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. C. D. Mobley, “Polarized reflectance and transmittance properties of windblown sea surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 54(15), 4828–4849 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. K. E. Hanley, S. E. Belcher, and P. P. Sullivan, “A global climatology of wind-wave interaction,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 40(6), 1263–1282 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  17. A. Semedo, K. Sušelj, A. Rutgersson, and A. Sterl, “A global view on the wind sea and swell climate and variability from ERA-40,” J. Clim. 24(5), 1461–1479 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. Hieronymi, “Ocean Colour at low sun and high waves,” in Proceedings of Sentinel-3 for Science Workshop, ESA SP-734 (2015).
  19. D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  20. V. C. Khon, I. I. Mokhov, F. A. Pogarskiy, A. Babanin, K. Dethloff, A. Rinke, and H. Matthes, “Wave heights in the 21st century Arctic Ocean simulated with a regional climate model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41(8), 2956–2961 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  21. M. S. Longuet-Higgins, “On the distribution of the heights of sea waves: some effects of nonlinearity and finite band width,” J. Geophys. Res. 85(C3), 1519–1523 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  22. T. Elfouhaily, B. Chapron, K. Katsaros, and D. Vandemark, “A unified directional spectrum for long and short wind‐driven waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(C7), 15781–15796 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  23. A. Bringer, B. Chapron, A. Mouche, and C. A. Guerin, “Revisiting the short-wave spectrum of the sea surface in the light of the weighted curvature approximation,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 52(1), 679–689 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  24. M. A. Donelan and W. J. Pierson., “Radar scattering and equilibrium ranges in wind‐generated waves with application to scatterometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 92(C5), 4971–5029 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  25. P. A. Hwang, “Observations of swell influence on ocean surface roughness,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(C12), C12024 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  26. W. Munk, “An inconvenient sea truth: spread, steepness, and skewness of surface slopes,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 1(1), 377–415 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. C. J. Zappa, K. L. Banner, H. Schultz, J. R. Gemmrich, R. P. Morison, D. A. LeBel, and T. Dickey, “An overview of sea state conditions and air‐sea fluxes during RaDyO,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C7), C00H19 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  28. W. J. Plant, “Short wind waves on the ocean: Wavenumber‐frequency spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 120(3), 2147–2158 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  29. W. J. Pierson and L. Moskowitz, “A proposed spectral form for fully developed wind seas based on the similarity theory of S. A. Kitaigorodskii,” J. Geophys. Res. 69(24), 5181–5190 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  30. ITTC, “The specialist committee on waves – Final report and recommendations to the 23rd ITTC,” inProceedings of 23rd ITTC 2, 505–551 (2002).
  31. D. Vandemark, B. Chapron, J. Sun, G. H. Crescenti, and H. C. Graber, “Ocean wave slope observations using radar backscatter and laser altimeters,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 34(12), 2825–2842 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  32. B. Kinsman, Wind waves: their generation and propagation on the ocean surface, (Courier Corporation, 1965).
  33. G. Z. Forristall, “Wave crest distributions: Observations and second-order theory,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 30(8), 1931–1943 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  34. M. Hieronymi, “Monte Carlo code for the study of the dynamic light field at the wavy atmosphere-ocean interface,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Pub. 8 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  35. F. M. Bréon and N. Henriot, “Spaceborne observations of ocean glint reflectance and modeling of wave slope distributions,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C6), C06005 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  36. N. Ebuchi and S. Kizu, “Probability distribution of surface wave slope derived using sun glitter images from Geostationary Meteorological Satellite and surface vector winds from scatterometers,” J. Oceanogr. 58(3), 477–486 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  37. Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  38. D. Zhao and Y. Toba, “Dependence of whitecap coverage on wind and wind-wave properties,” J. Oceanogr. 57(5), 603–616 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  39. C. S. Garbe, A. Rutgersson, J. Boutin, G. de Leeuw, B. Delille, C. W. Fairall, N. Gruber, J. Hare, D. T. Ho, M. T. Johnson, P. D. Nightingale, H. Pettersson, J. Piskozub, E. Sahlee, W. Tsai, B. Ward, D. K. Woolf, and C. J. Zappa, “Transfer across the air-sea interface,” in Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions of Gases and Particles (Springer, 2014,) pp. 55–112.
  40. H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of ocean-color sensors,” Appl. Opt. 33(33), 7754–7763 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. A. A. Kokhanovsky, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(C5), C05021 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  42. D. Kiefhaber, S. Reith, R. Rocholz, and B. Jähne, “High-speed imaging of short wind waves by shape from refraction,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 9, 14015 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  43. C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).
  44. Z. Xu and D. K. Yue, “Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulation for the near-ocean-surface high-resolution downwelling irradiance statistics,” Opt. Eng. 53(5), 051408 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  45. M. Hieronymi and A. Macke, “Spatiotemporal underwater light field fluctuations in the open ocean,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 5, 10019 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  46. M. Hieronymi, A. Macke, and O. Zielinski, “Modeling of wave-induced irradiance variability in the upper ocean mixed layer,” Ocean Sci. 8(2), 103–120 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  47. D. D’Alimonte, G. Zibordi, T. Kajiyama, and J. C. Cunha, “Monte Carlo code for high spatial resolution ocean color simulations,” Appl. Opt. 49(26), 4936–4950 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  48. D. Stramski and J. Tegowski, “Effects of intermittent entrainment of air bubbles by breaking wind waves on ocean reflectance and underwater light field,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C12), 31345–31360 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  49. A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt. 41(30), 6289–6306 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  50. P. W. Zhai, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, D. M. Winker, P. L. Lucker, Z. Lee, and D. B. Josset, “Uncertainty in the bidirectional reflectance model for oceanic waters,” Appl. Opt. 54(13), 4061–4069 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  51. R. W. Austin and G. Halikas, “The index of refraction of seawater,” Tech. Report SIO 76–1 (1976).
  52. G. Zibordi, G. J. Donlon, and A. C. Parr, Optical Radiometry for Ocean Climate Measurements, Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences 47 (Academic, 2014).
  53. G. Zibordi, “Experimental evaluation of theoretical sea surface reflectance factors relevant to above-water radiometry,” Opt. Express 24(6), A446–A459 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  54. D. D’Alimonte and T. Kajiyama, “Effects of light polarization and waves slope statistics on the reflectance factor of the sea surface,” Opt. Express 24(8), 7922–7942 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

2015 (5)

P. W. Zhai, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, D. M. Winker, P. L. Lucker, Z. Lee, and D. B. Josset, “Uncertainty in the bidirectional reflectance model for oceanic waters,” Appl. Opt. 54(13), 4061–4069 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. D. Mobley, “Polarized reflectance and transmittance properties of windblown sea surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 54(15), 4828–4849 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chami, B. Lafrance, B. Fougnie, J. Chowdhary, T. Harmel, and F. Waquet, “OSOAA: a vector radiative transfer model of coupled atmosphere-ocean system for a rough sea surface application to the estimates of the directional variations of the water leaving reflectance to better process multi-angular satellite sensors data over the ocean,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27829–27852 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Plant, “Short wind waves on the ocean: Wavenumber‐frequency spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 120(3), 2147–2158 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Müller, H. Krasemann, R. J. Brewin, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. G. Grant, S. B. Groom, F. Mélin, T. Platt, P. Regner, S. Sathyendranath, F. Steinmetz, and J. Swinton, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: I. A methodology for assessing atmospheric correction processors based on in-situ measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 242–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

D. Kiefhaber, S. Reith, R. Rocholz, and B. Jähne, “High-speed imaging of short wind waves by shape from refraction,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 9, 14015 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Xu and D. K. Yue, “Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulation for the near-ocean-surface high-resolution downwelling irradiance statistics,” Opt. Eng. 53(5), 051408 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. C. Khon, I. I. Mokhov, F. A. Pogarskiy, A. Babanin, K. Dethloff, A. Rinke, and H. Matthes, “Wave heights in the 21st century Arctic Ocean simulated with a regional climate model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41(8), 2956–2961 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Bringer, B. Chapron, A. Mouche, and C. A. Guerin, “Revisiting the short-wave spectrum of the sea surface in the light of the weighted curvature approximation,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 52(1), 679–689 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

M. Hieronymi, A. Macke, and O. Zielinski, “Modeling of wave-induced irradiance variability in the upper ocean mixed layer,” Ocean Sci. 8(2), 103–120 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Hieronymi and A. Macke, “On the influence of wind and waves on underwater irradiance fluctuations,” Ocean Sci. 8(4), 455–471 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. J. Zappa, K. L. Banner, H. Schultz, J. R. Gemmrich, R. P. Morison, D. A. LeBel, and T. Dickey, “An overview of sea state conditions and air‐sea fluxes during RaDyO,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C7), C00H19 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Borovoi, A. Konoshonkin, and L. Kolokolova, “Glints from particulate media and wavy surfaces,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 113(18), 2542–2551 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

A. Semedo, K. Sušelj, A. Rutgersson, and A. Sterl, “A global view on the wind sea and swell climate and variability from ERA-40,” J. Clim. 24(5), 1461–1479 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Kay, J. Hedley, S. Lavender, and A. Nimmo-Smith, “Light transfer at the ocean surface modeled using high resolution sea surface realizations,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6493–6504 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Steinmetz, P. Y. Deschamps, and D. Ramon, “Atmospheric correction in presence of sun glint: application to MERIS,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9783–9800 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

D. D’Alimonte, G. Zibordi, T. Kajiyama, and J. C. Cunha, “Monte Carlo code for high spatial resolution ocean color simulations,” Appl. Opt. 49(26), 4936–4950 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. E. Hanley, S. E. Belcher, and P. P. Sullivan, “A global climatology of wind-wave interaction,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 40(6), 1263–1282 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Hieronymi and A. Macke, “Spatiotemporal underwater light field fluctuations in the open ocean,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 5, 10019 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

W. Munk, “An inconvenient sea truth: spread, steepness, and skewness of surface slopes,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 1(1), 377–415 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

P. A. Hwang, “Observations of swell influence on ocean surface roughness,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(C12), C12024 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

F. M. Bréon and N. Henriot, “Spaceborne observations of ocean glint reflectance and modeling of wave slope distributions,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C6), C06005 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

D. Vandemark, B. Chapron, J. Sun, G. H. Crescenti, and H. C. Graber, “Ocean wave slope observations using radar backscatter and laser altimeters,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 34(12), 2825–2842 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. A. Kokhanovsky, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(C5), C05021 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

N. Ebuchi and S. Kizu, “Probability distribution of surface wave slope derived using sun glitter images from Geostationary Meteorological Satellite and surface vector winds from scatterometers,” J. Oceanogr. 58(3), 477–486 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt. 41(30), 6289–6306 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

D. Zhao and Y. Toba, “Dependence of whitecap coverage on wind and wind-wave properties,” J. Oceanogr. 57(5), 603–616 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. Stramski and J. Tegowski, “Effects of intermittent entrainment of air bubbles by breaking wind waves on ocean reflectance and underwater light field,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C12), 31345–31360 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

G. Z. Forristall, “Wave crest distributions: Observations and second-order theory,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 30(8), 1931–1943 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

T. Elfouhaily, B. Chapron, K. Katsaros, and D. Vandemark, “A unified directional spectrum for long and short wind‐driven waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(C7), 15781–15796 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1987 (1)

M. A. Donelan and W. J. Pierson., “Radar scattering and equilibrium ranges in wind‐generated waves with application to scatterometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 92(C5), 4971–5029 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

R. W. Preisendorfer and C. D. Mobley, “Albedos and glitter patterns of a wind-roughened Sea surface,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16(7), 1293–1316 (1986).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

T. Nakajima and M. Tanaka, “Effect of wind-generated waves on the transfer of solar radiation in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 29(6), 521–537 (1983).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

M. S. Longuet-Higgins, “On the distribution of the heights of sea waves: some effects of nonlinearity and finite band width,” J. Geophys. Res. 85(C3), 1519–1523 (1980).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

1964 (1)

W. J. Pierson and L. Moskowitz, “A proposed spectral form for fully developed wind seas based on the similarity theory of S. A. Kitaigorodskii,” J. Geophys. Res. 69(24), 5181–5190 (1964).
[Crossref]

1954 (1)

Andrae, U.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Antoine, D.

Babanin, A.

V. C. Khon, I. I. Mokhov, F. A. Pogarskiy, A. Babanin, K. Dethloff, A. Rinke, and H. Matthes, “Wave heights in the 21st century Arctic Ocean simulated with a regional climate model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41(8), 2956–2961 (2014).
[Crossref]

Balmaseda, M. A.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Balsamo, G.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Banner, K. L.

C. J. Zappa, K. L. Banner, H. Schultz, J. R. Gemmrich, R. P. Morison, D. A. LeBel, and T. Dickey, “An overview of sea state conditions and air‐sea fluxes during RaDyO,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C7), C00H19 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bauer, P.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bechtold, P.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Belcher, S. E.

K. E. Hanley, S. E. Belcher, and P. P. Sullivan, “A global climatology of wind-wave interaction,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 40(6), 1263–1282 (2010).
[Crossref]

Beljaars, A. C. M.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Berrisford, P.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bidlot, J.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bormann, N.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Borovoi, A.

A. Borovoi, A. Konoshonkin, and L. Kolokolova, “Glints from particulate media and wavy surfaces,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 113(18), 2542–2551 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bréon, F. M.

F. M. Bréon and N. Henriot, “Spaceborne observations of ocean glint reflectance and modeling of wave slope distributions,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C6), C06005 (2006).
[Crossref]

Brewin, R. J.

D. Müller, H. Krasemann, R. J. Brewin, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. G. Grant, S. B. Groom, F. Mélin, T. Platt, P. Regner, S. Sathyendranath, F. Steinmetz, and J. Swinton, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: I. A methodology for assessing atmospheric correction processors based on in-situ measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 242–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bringer, A.

A. Bringer, B. Chapron, A. Mouche, and C. A. Guerin, “Revisiting the short-wave spectrum of the sea surface in the light of the weighted curvature approximation,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 52(1), 679–689 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brockmann, C.

D. Müller, H. Krasemann, R. J. Brewin, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. G. Grant, S. B. Groom, F. Mélin, T. Platt, P. Regner, S. Sathyendranath, F. Steinmetz, and J. Swinton, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: I. A methodology for assessing atmospheric correction processors based on in-situ measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 242–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chami, M.

Chapron, B.

A. Bringer, B. Chapron, A. Mouche, and C. A. Guerin, “Revisiting the short-wave spectrum of the sea surface in the light of the weighted curvature approximation,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 52(1), 679–689 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Vandemark, B. Chapron, J. Sun, G. H. Crescenti, and H. C. Graber, “Ocean wave slope observations using radar backscatter and laser altimeters,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 34(12), 2825–2842 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Elfouhaily, B. Chapron, K. Katsaros, and D. Vandemark, “A unified directional spectrum for long and short wind‐driven waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(C7), 15781–15796 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chowdhary, J.

Cisewski, M.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cox, C.

Crescenti, G. H.

D. Vandemark, B. Chapron, J. Sun, G. H. Crescenti, and H. C. Graber, “Ocean wave slope observations using radar backscatter and laser altimeters,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 34(12), 2825–2842 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cunha, J. C.

D’Alimonte, D.

de Rosnay, P.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dee, D. P.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Delsol, C.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Deschamps, P. Y.

D. Müller, H. Krasemann, R. J. Brewin, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. G. Grant, S. B. Groom, F. Mélin, T. Platt, P. Regner, S. Sathyendranath, F. Steinmetz, and J. Swinton, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: I. A methodology for assessing atmospheric correction processors based on in-situ measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 242–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Steinmetz, P. Y. Deschamps, and D. Ramon, “Atmospheric correction in presence of sun glint: application to MERIS,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9783–9800 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dethloff, K.

V. C. Khon, I. I. Mokhov, F. A. Pogarskiy, A. Babanin, K. Dethloff, A. Rinke, and H. Matthes, “Wave heights in the 21st century Arctic Ocean simulated with a regional climate model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41(8), 2956–2961 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dickey, T.

C. J. Zappa, K. L. Banner, H. Schultz, J. R. Gemmrich, R. P. Morison, D. A. LeBel, and T. Dickey, “An overview of sea state conditions and air‐sea fluxes during RaDyO,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C7), C00H19 (2012).
[Crossref]

Doerffer, R.

D. Müller, H. Krasemann, R. J. Brewin, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. G. Grant, S. B. Groom, F. Mélin, T. Platt, P. Regner, S. Sathyendranath, F. Steinmetz, and J. Swinton, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: I. A methodology for assessing atmospheric correction processors based on in-situ measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 242–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Donelan, M. A.

M. A. Donelan and W. J. Pierson., “Radar scattering and equilibrium ranges in wind‐generated waves with application to scatterometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 92(C5), 4971–5029 (1987).
[Crossref]

Dragani, R.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ebuchi, N.

N. Ebuchi and S. Kizu, “Probability distribution of surface wave slope derived using sun glitter images from Geostationary Meteorological Satellite and surface vector winds from scatterometers,” J. Oceanogr. 58(3), 477–486 (2002).
[Crossref]

Elfouhaily, T.

T. Elfouhaily, B. Chapron, K. Katsaros, and D. Vandemark, “A unified directional spectrum for long and short wind‐driven waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(C7), 15781–15796 (1997).
[Crossref]

Flittner, D.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fomferra, N.

D. Müller, H. Krasemann, R. J. Brewin, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. G. Grant, S. B. Groom, F. Mélin, T. Platt, P. Regner, S. Sathyendranath, F. Steinmetz, and J. Swinton, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: I. A methodology for assessing atmospheric correction processors based on in-situ measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 242–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Forristall, G. Z.

G. Z. Forristall, “Wave crest distributions: Observations and second-order theory,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 30(8), 1931–1943 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fougnie, B.

Franz, B. A.

D. Müller, H. Krasemann, R. J. Brewin, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. G. Grant, S. B. Groom, F. Mélin, T. Platt, P. Regner, S. Sathyendranath, F. Steinmetz, and J. Swinton, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: I. A methodology for assessing atmospheric correction processors based on in-situ measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 242–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fuentes, M.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Geer, A. J.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gemmrich, J. R.

C. J. Zappa, K. L. Banner, H. Schultz, J. R. Gemmrich, R. P. Morison, D. A. LeBel, and T. Dickey, “An overview of sea state conditions and air‐sea fluxes during RaDyO,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C7), C00H19 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gentili, B.

Gibson, G.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gordon, H. R.

Graber, H. C.

D. Vandemark, B. Chapron, J. Sun, G. H. Crescenti, and H. C. Graber, “Ocean wave slope observations using radar backscatter and laser altimeters,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 34(12), 2825–2842 (2004).
[Crossref]

Grant, M. G.

D. Müller, H. Krasemann, R. J. Brewin, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. G. Grant, S. B. Groom, F. Mélin, T. Platt, P. Regner, S. Sathyendranath, F. Steinmetz, and J. Swinton, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: I. A methodology for assessing atmospheric correction processors based on in-situ measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 242–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Groom, S. B.

D. Müller, H. Krasemann, R. J. Brewin, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. G. Grant, S. B. Groom, F. Mélin, T. Platt, P. Regner, S. Sathyendranath, F. Steinmetz, and J. Swinton, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: I. A methodology for assessing atmospheric correction processors based on in-situ measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 242–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guerin, C. A.

A. Bringer, B. Chapron, A. Mouche, and C. A. Guerin, “Revisiting the short-wave spectrum of the sea surface in the light of the weighted curvature approximation,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 52(1), 679–689 (2014).
[Crossref]

Guinn, J. A.

Haimberger, L.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Haltrin, V.

V. Haltrin, W. E. McBride, and A. D. Weidemann, “Fresnel reflection by wavy sea surface,” inProceedings of IGARSS5, 1863–1865 (2000).

Hanley, K. E.

K. E. Hanley, S. E. Belcher, and P. P. Sullivan, “A global climatology of wind-wave interaction,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 40(6), 1263–1282 (2010).
[Crossref]

Harmel, T.

Healy, S. B.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hedley, J.

Henriot, N.

F. M. Bréon and N. Henriot, “Spaceborne observations of ocean glint reflectance and modeling of wave slope distributions,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C6), C06005 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hersbach, H.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hieronymi, M.

M. Hieronymi and A. Macke, “On the influence of wind and waves on underwater irradiance fluctuations,” Ocean Sci. 8(4), 455–471 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Hieronymi, A. Macke, and O. Zielinski, “Modeling of wave-induced irradiance variability in the upper ocean mixed layer,” Ocean Sci. 8(2), 103–120 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Hieronymi and A. Macke, “Spatiotemporal underwater light field fluctuations in the open ocean,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 5, 10019 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hólm, E. V.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hostetler, C.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

P. W. Zhai, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, D. M. Winker, P. L. Lucker, Z. Lee, and D. B. Josset, “Uncertainty in the bidirectional reflectance model for oceanic waters,” Appl. Opt. 54(13), 4061–4069 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hwang, P. A.

P. A. Hwang, “Observations of swell influence on ocean surface roughness,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(C12), C12024 (2008).
[Crossref]

Isaksen, L.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jähne, B.

D. Kiefhaber, S. Reith, R. Rocholz, and B. Jähne, “High-speed imaging of short wind waves by shape from refraction,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 9, 14015 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jin, Z.

Josset, D. B.

Kajiyama, T.

Kållberg, P.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Katsaros, K.

T. Elfouhaily, B. Chapron, K. Katsaros, and D. Vandemark, “A unified directional spectrum for long and short wind‐driven waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(C7), 15781–15796 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kattawar, G. W.

Kay, S.

Khon, V. C.

V. C. Khon, I. I. Mokhov, F. A. Pogarskiy, A. Babanin, K. Dethloff, A. Rinke, and H. Matthes, “Wave heights in the 21st century Arctic Ocean simulated with a regional climate model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41(8), 2956–2961 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kiefhaber, D.

D. Kiefhaber, S. Reith, R. Rocholz, and B. Jähne, “High-speed imaging of short wind waves by shape from refraction,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 9, 14015 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kizu, S.

N. Ebuchi and S. Kizu, “Probability distribution of surface wave slope derived using sun glitter images from Geostationary Meteorological Satellite and surface vector winds from scatterometers,” J. Oceanogr. 58(3), 477–486 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, S.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Köhler, M.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kokhanovsky, A. A.

A. A. Kokhanovsky, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(C5), C05021 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kolokolova, L.

A. Borovoi, A. Konoshonkin, and L. Kolokolova, “Glints from particulate media and wavy surfaces,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 113(18), 2542–2551 (2012).
[Crossref]

Konoshonkin, A.

A. Borovoi, A. Konoshonkin, and L. Kolokolova, “Glints from particulate media and wavy surfaces,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 113(18), 2542–2551 (2012).
[Crossref]

Krasemann, H.

D. Müller, H. Krasemann, R. J. Brewin, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. G. Grant, S. B. Groom, F. Mélin, T. Platt, P. Regner, S. Sathyendranath, F. Steinmetz, and J. Swinton, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: I. A methodology for assessing atmospheric correction processors based on in-situ measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 242–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lafrance, B.

Lavender, S.

LeBel, D. A.

C. J. Zappa, K. L. Banner, H. Schultz, J. R. Gemmrich, R. P. Morison, D. A. LeBel, and T. Dickey, “An overview of sea state conditions and air‐sea fluxes during RaDyO,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C7), C00H19 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, Z.

Lin, B.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Longuet-Higgins, M. S.

M. S. Longuet-Higgins, “On the distribution of the heights of sea waves: some effects of nonlinearity and finite band width,” J. Geophys. Res. 85(C3), 1519–1523 (1980).
[Crossref]

Lucker, P. L.

Macke, A.

M. Hieronymi and A. Macke, “On the influence of wind and waves on underwater irradiance fluctuations,” Ocean Sci. 8(4), 455–471 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Hieronymi, A. Macke, and O. Zielinski, “Modeling of wave-induced irradiance variability in the upper ocean mixed layer,” Ocean Sci. 8(2), 103–120 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Hieronymi and A. Macke, “Spatiotemporal underwater light field fluctuations in the open ocean,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 5, 10019 (2010).
[Crossref]

Matricardi, M.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Matthes, H.

V. C. Khon, I. I. Mokhov, F. A. Pogarskiy, A. Babanin, K. Dethloff, A. Rinke, and H. Matthes, “Wave heights in the 21st century Arctic Ocean simulated with a regional climate model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41(8), 2956–2961 (2014).
[Crossref]

McBride, W. E.

V. Haltrin, W. E. McBride, and A. D. Weidemann, “Fresnel reflection by wavy sea surface,” inProceedings of IGARSS5, 1863–1865 (2000).

McNally, A. P.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mélin, F.

D. Müller, H. Krasemann, R. J. Brewin, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. G. Grant, S. B. Groom, F. Mélin, T. Platt, P. Regner, S. Sathyendranath, F. Steinmetz, and J. Swinton, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: I. A methodology for assessing atmospheric correction processors based on in-situ measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 242–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mobley, C. D.

Mokhov, I. I.

V. C. Khon, I. I. Mokhov, F. A. Pogarskiy, A. Babanin, K. Dethloff, A. Rinke, and H. Matthes, “Wave heights in the 21st century Arctic Ocean simulated with a regional climate model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41(8), 2956–2961 (2014).
[Crossref]

Monge-Sanz, B. M.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Morcrette, J.-J.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Morel, A.

Morison, R. P.

C. J. Zappa, K. L. Banner, H. Schultz, J. R. Gemmrich, R. P. Morison, D. A. LeBel, and T. Dickey, “An overview of sea state conditions and air‐sea fluxes during RaDyO,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C7), C00H19 (2012).
[Crossref]

Moskowitz, L.

W. J. Pierson and L. Moskowitz, “A proposed spectral form for fully developed wind seas based on the similarity theory of S. A. Kitaigorodskii,” J. Geophys. Res. 69(24), 5181–5190 (1964).
[Crossref]

Mouche, A.

A. Bringer, B. Chapron, A. Mouche, and C. A. Guerin, “Revisiting the short-wave spectrum of the sea surface in the light of the weighted curvature approximation,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 52(1), 679–689 (2014).
[Crossref]

Müller, D.

D. Müller, H. Krasemann, R. J. Brewin, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. G. Grant, S. B. Groom, F. Mélin, T. Platt, P. Regner, S. Sathyendranath, F. Steinmetz, and J. Swinton, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: I. A methodology for assessing atmospheric correction processors based on in-situ measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 242–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Munk, W.

W. Munk, “An inconvenient sea truth: spread, steepness, and skewness of surface slopes,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 1(1), 377–415 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Cox and W. Munk, “Measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun’s glitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44(11), 838–850 (1954).
[Crossref]

Nakajima, T.

T. Nakajima and M. Tanaka, “Effect of wind-generated waves on the transfer of solar radiation in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 29(6), 521–537 (1983).
[Crossref]

Nimmo-Smith, A.

Omar, A.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, B.-K.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pelon, J.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Peubey, C.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pierson, W. J.

M. A. Donelan and W. J. Pierson., “Radar scattering and equilibrium ranges in wind‐generated waves with application to scatterometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 92(C5), 4971–5029 (1987).
[Crossref]

W. J. Pierson and L. Moskowitz, “A proposed spectral form for fully developed wind seas based on the similarity theory of S. A. Kitaigorodskii,” J. Geophys. Res. 69(24), 5181–5190 (1964).
[Crossref]

Plant, W. J.

W. J. Plant, “Short wind waves on the ocean: Wavenumber‐frequency spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 120(3), 2147–2158 (2015).
[Crossref]

Plass, G. N.

Platt, T.

D. Müller, H. Krasemann, R. J. Brewin, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. G. Grant, S. B. Groom, F. Mélin, T. Platt, P. Regner, S. Sathyendranath, F. Steinmetz, and J. Swinton, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: I. A methodology for assessing atmospheric correction processors based on in-situ measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 242–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pogarskiy, F. A.

V. C. Khon, I. I. Mokhov, F. A. Pogarskiy, A. Babanin, K. Dethloff, A. Rinke, and H. Matthes, “Wave heights in the 21st century Arctic Ocean simulated with a regional climate model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41(8), 2956–2961 (2014).
[Crossref]

Poli, P.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Preisendorfer, R. W.

R. W. Preisendorfer and C. D. Mobley, “Albedos and glitter patterns of a wind-roughened Sea surface,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16(7), 1293–1316 (1986).
[Crossref]

Ramon, D.

Regner, P.

D. Müller, H. Krasemann, R. J. Brewin, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. G. Grant, S. B. Groom, F. Mélin, T. Platt, P. Regner, S. Sathyendranath, F. Steinmetz, and J. Swinton, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: I. A methodology for assessing atmospheric correction processors based on in-situ measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 242–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Reinersman, P.

Reith, S.

D. Kiefhaber, S. Reith, R. Rocholz, and B. Jähne, “High-speed imaging of short wind waves by shape from refraction,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 9, 14015 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rinke, A.

V. C. Khon, I. I. Mokhov, F. A. Pogarskiy, A. Babanin, K. Dethloff, A. Rinke, and H. Matthes, “Wave heights in the 21st century Arctic Ocean simulated with a regional climate model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41(8), 2956–2961 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rocholz, R.

D. Kiefhaber, S. Reith, R. Rocholz, and B. Jähne, “High-speed imaging of short wind waves by shape from refraction,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 9, 14015 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rutgersson, A.

A. Semedo, K. Sušelj, A. Rutgersson, and A. Sterl, “A global view on the wind sea and swell climate and variability from ERA-40,” J. Clim. 24(5), 1461–1479 (2011).
[Crossref]

Santa-Maria, M.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sathyendranath, S.

D. Müller, H. Krasemann, R. J. Brewin, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. G. Grant, S. B. Groom, F. Mélin, T. Platt, P. Regner, S. Sathyendranath, F. Steinmetz, and J. Swinton, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: I. A methodology for assessing atmospheric correction processors based on in-situ measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 242–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schultz, H.

C. J. Zappa, K. L. Banner, H. Schultz, J. R. Gemmrich, R. P. Morison, D. A. LeBel, and T. Dickey, “An overview of sea state conditions and air‐sea fluxes during RaDyO,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C7), C00H19 (2012).
[Crossref]

Semedo, A.

A. Semedo, K. Sušelj, A. Rutgersson, and A. Sterl, “A global view on the wind sea and swell climate and variability from ERA-40,” J. Clim. 24(5), 1461–1479 (2011).
[Crossref]

Simmons, A. J.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stamnes, K.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, and R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32(36), 7484–7504 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stavn, R. H.

Steinmetz, F.

D. Müller, H. Krasemann, R. J. Brewin, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. G. Grant, S. B. Groom, F. Mélin, T. Platt, P. Regner, S. Sathyendranath, F. Steinmetz, and J. Swinton, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: I. A methodology for assessing atmospheric correction processors based on in-situ measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 242–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Steinmetz, P. Y. Deschamps, and D. Ramon, “Atmospheric correction in presence of sun glint: application to MERIS,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9783–9800 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sterl, A.

A. Semedo, K. Sušelj, A. Rutgersson, and A. Sterl, “A global view on the wind sea and swell climate and variability from ERA-40,” J. Clim. 24(5), 1461–1479 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stramski, D.

D. Stramski and J. Tegowski, “Effects of intermittent entrainment of air bubbles by breaking wind waves on ocean reflectance and underwater light field,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C12), 31345–31360 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, P. P.

K. E. Hanley, S. E. Belcher, and P. P. Sullivan, “A global climatology of wind-wave interaction,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 40(6), 1263–1282 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sun, J.

D. Vandemark, B. Chapron, J. Sun, G. H. Crescenti, and H. C. Graber, “Ocean wave slope observations using radar backscatter and laser altimeters,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 34(12), 2825–2842 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sun, W.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sušelj, K.

A. Semedo, K. Sušelj, A. Rutgersson, and A. Sterl, “A global view on the wind sea and swell climate and variability from ERA-40,” J. Clim. 24(5), 1461–1479 (2011).
[Crossref]

Swinton, J.

D. Müller, H. Krasemann, R. J. Brewin, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. G. Grant, S. B. Groom, F. Mélin, T. Platt, P. Regner, S. Sathyendranath, F. Steinmetz, and J. Swinton, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: I. A methodology for assessing atmospheric correction processors based on in-situ measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 242–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, M.

T. Nakajima and M. Tanaka, “Effect of wind-generated waves on the transfer of solar radiation in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 29(6), 521–537 (1983).
[Crossref]

Tavolato, C.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tegowski, J.

D. Stramski and J. Tegowski, “Effects of intermittent entrainment of air bubbles by breaking wind waves on ocean reflectance and underwater light field,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C12), 31345–31360 (2001).
[Crossref]

Thépaut, J.-N.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Toba, Y.

D. Zhao and Y. Toba, “Dependence of whitecap coverage on wind and wind-wave properties,” J. Oceanogr. 57(5), 603–616 (2001).
[Crossref]

Trepte, C.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Trepte, C. R.

Uppala, S. M.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

van de Berg, L.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vandemark, D.

D. Vandemark, B. Chapron, J. Sun, G. H. Crescenti, and H. C. Graber, “Ocean wave slope observations using radar backscatter and laser altimeters,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 34(12), 2825–2842 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Elfouhaily, B. Chapron, K. Katsaros, and D. Vandemark, “A unified directional spectrum for long and short wind‐driven waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(C7), 15781–15796 (1997).
[Crossref]

Vaughan, M.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vitart, F.

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

Waquet, F.

Weidemann, A. D.

V. Haltrin, W. E. McBride, and A. D. Weidemann, “Fresnel reflection by wavy sea surface,” inProceedings of IGARSS5, 1863–1865 (2000).

Weimer, C.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Winker, D.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Winker, D. M.

Wu, D.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

Z. Xu and D. K. Yue, “Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulation for the near-ocean-surface high-resolution downwelling irradiance statistics,” Opt. Eng. 53(5), 051408 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, P.

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yue, D. K.

Z. Xu and D. K. Yue, “Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulation for the near-ocean-surface high-resolution downwelling irradiance statistics,” Opt. Eng. 53(5), 051408 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zappa, C. J.

C. J. Zappa, K. L. Banner, H. Schultz, J. R. Gemmrich, R. P. Morison, D. A. LeBel, and T. Dickey, “An overview of sea state conditions and air‐sea fluxes during RaDyO,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C7), C00H19 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhai, P. W.

Zhao, D.

D. Zhao and Y. Toba, “Dependence of whitecap coverage on wind and wind-wave properties,” J. Oceanogr. 57(5), 603–616 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zibordi, G.

Zielinski, O.

M. Hieronymi, A. Macke, and O. Zielinski, “Modeling of wave-induced irradiance variability in the upper ocean mixed layer,” Ocean Sci. 8(2), 103–120 (2012).
[Crossref]

Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (1)

W. Munk, “An inconvenient sea truth: spread, steepness, and skewness of surface slopes,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 1(1), 377–415 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (9)

C. D. Mobley, “Estimation of the remote-sensing reflectance from above-surface measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38(36), 7442–7455 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, and J. A. Guinn., “Radiative transfer in the earth’s atmosphere and ocean: influence of ocean waves,” Appl. Opt. 14(8), 1924–1936 (1975).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Mobley, B. Gentili, H. R. Gordon, Z. Jin, G. W. Kattawar, A. Morel, P. Reinersman, K. Stamnes, and R. H. Stavn, “Comparison of numerical models for computing underwater light fields,” Appl. Opt. 32(36), 7484–7504 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Surface-roughness considerations for atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. I: The Rayleigh-scattering component,” Appl. Opt. 31(21), 4247–4260 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Mobley, “Polarized reflectance and transmittance properties of windblown sea surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 54(15), 4828–4849 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon and M. Wang, “Influence of oceanic whitecaps on atmospheric correction of ocean-color sensors,” Appl. Opt. 33(33), 7754–7763 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D’Alimonte, G. Zibordi, T. Kajiyama, and J. C. Cunha, “Monte Carlo code for high spatial resolution ocean color simulations,” Appl. Opt. 49(26), 4936–4950 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt. 41(30), 6289–6306 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. W. Zhai, Y. Hu, C. R. Trepte, D. M. Winker, P. L. Lucker, Z. Lee, and D. B. Josset, “Uncertainty in the bidirectional reflectance model for oceanic waters,” Appl. Opt. 54(13), 4061–4069 (2015).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (1)

Y. Hu, K. Stamnes, M. Vaughan, J. Pelon, C. Weimer, D. Wu, M. Cisewski, W. Sun, P. Yang, B. Lin, A. Omar, D. Flittner, C. Hostetler, C. Trepte, D. Winker, G. Gibson, and M. Santa-Maria, “Sea surface wind speed estimation from space-based lidar measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8(13), 3593–3601 (2008).
[Crossref]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

V. C. Khon, I. I. Mokhov, F. A. Pogarskiy, A. Babanin, K. Dethloff, A. Rinke, and H. Matthes, “Wave heights in the 21st century Arctic Ocean simulated with a regional climate model,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 41(8), 2956–2961 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. (1)

A. Bringer, B. Chapron, A. Mouche, and C. A. Guerin, “Revisiting the short-wave spectrum of the sea surface in the light of the weighted curvature approximation,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 52(1), 679–689 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Clim. (1)

A. Semedo, K. Sušelj, A. Rutgersson, and A. Sterl, “A global view on the wind sea and swell climate and variability from ERA-40,” J. Clim. 24(5), 1461–1479 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Eur. Opt. Soc. (2)

M. Hieronymi and A. Macke, “Spatiotemporal underwater light field fluctuations in the open ocean,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 5, 10019 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Kiefhaber, S. Reith, R. Rocholz, and B. Jähne, “High-speed imaging of short wind waves by shape from refraction,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. 9, 14015 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (10)

A. A. Kokhanovsky, “Spectral reflectance of whitecaps,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(C5), C05021 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. Stramski and J. Tegowski, “Effects of intermittent entrainment of air bubbles by breaking wind waves on ocean reflectance and underwater light field,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(C12), 31345–31360 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. A. Donelan and W. J. Pierson., “Radar scattering and equilibrium ranges in wind‐generated waves with application to scatterometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 92(C5), 4971–5029 (1987).
[Crossref]

P. A. Hwang, “Observations of swell influence on ocean surface roughness,” J. Geophys. Res. 113(C12), C12024 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. S. Longuet-Higgins, “On the distribution of the heights of sea waves: some effects of nonlinearity and finite band width,” J. Geophys. Res. 85(C3), 1519–1523 (1980).
[Crossref]

T. Elfouhaily, B. Chapron, K. Katsaros, and D. Vandemark, “A unified directional spectrum for long and short wind‐driven waves,” J. Geophys. Res. 102(C7), 15781–15796 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. J. Zappa, K. L. Banner, H. Schultz, J. R. Gemmrich, R. P. Morison, D. A. LeBel, and T. Dickey, “An overview of sea state conditions and air‐sea fluxes during RaDyO,” J. Geophys. Res. 117(C7), C00H19 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. J. Plant, “Short wind waves on the ocean: Wavenumber‐frequency spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 120(3), 2147–2158 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. J. Pierson and L. Moskowitz, “A proposed spectral form for fully developed wind seas based on the similarity theory of S. A. Kitaigorodskii,” J. Geophys. Res. 69(24), 5181–5190 (1964).
[Crossref]

F. M. Bréon and N. Henriot, “Spaceborne observations of ocean glint reflectance and modeling of wave slope distributions,” J. Geophys. Res. 111(C6), C06005 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Oceanogr. (2)

N. Ebuchi and S. Kizu, “Probability distribution of surface wave slope derived using sun glitter images from Geostationary Meteorological Satellite and surface vector winds from scatterometers,” J. Oceanogr. 58(3), 477–486 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. Zhao and Y. Toba, “Dependence of whitecap coverage on wind and wind-wave properties,” J. Oceanogr. 57(5), 603–616 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. Oceanogr. (4)

R. W. Preisendorfer and C. D. Mobley, “Albedos and glitter patterns of a wind-roughened Sea surface,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 16(7), 1293–1316 (1986).
[Crossref]

K. E. Hanley, S. E. Belcher, and P. P. Sullivan, “A global climatology of wind-wave interaction,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 40(6), 1263–1282 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Vandemark, B. Chapron, J. Sun, G. H. Crescenti, and H. C. Graber, “Ocean wave slope observations using radar backscatter and laser altimeters,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 34(12), 2825–2842 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Z. Forristall, “Wave crest distributions: Observations and second-order theory,” J. Phys. Oceanogr. 30(8), 1931–1943 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (2)

T. Nakajima and M. Tanaka, “Effect of wind-generated waves on the transfer of solar radiation in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 29(6), 521–537 (1983).
[Crossref]

A. Borovoi, A. Konoshonkin, and L. Kolokolova, “Glints from particulate media and wavy surfaces,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 113(18), 2542–2551 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ocean Sci. (2)

M. Hieronymi and A. Macke, “On the influence of wind and waves on underwater irradiance fluctuations,” Ocean Sci. 8(4), 455–471 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Hieronymi, A. Macke, and O. Zielinski, “Modeling of wave-induced irradiance variability in the upper ocean mixed layer,” Ocean Sci. 8(2), 103–120 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Z. Xu and D. K. Yue, “Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulation for the near-ocean-surface high-resolution downwelling irradiance statistics,” Opt. Eng. 53(5), 051408 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

D. P. Dee, S. M. Uppala, A. J. Simmons, P. Berrisford, P. Poli, S. Kobayashi, U. Andrae, M. A. Balmaseda, G. Balsamo, P. Bauer, P. Bechtold, A. C. M. Beljaars, L. van de Berg, J. Bidlot, N. Bormann, C. Delsol, R. Dragani, M. Fuentes, A. J. Geer, L. Haimberger, S. B. Healy, H. Hersbach, E. V. Hólm, L. Isaksen, P. Kållberg, M. Köhler, M. Matricardi, A. P. McNally, B. M. Monge-Sanz, J.-J. Morcrette, B.-K. Park, C. Peubey, P. de Rosnay, C. Tavolato, J.-N. Thépaut, and F. Vitart, “The ERA‐Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(656), 553–597 (2011).
[Crossref]

Remote Sens. Environ. (1)

D. Müller, H. Krasemann, R. J. Brewin, C. Brockmann, P. Y. Deschamps, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. A. Franz, M. G. Grant, S. B. Groom, F. Mélin, T. Platt, P. Regner, S. Sathyendranath, F. Steinmetz, and J. Swinton, “The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative: I. A methodology for assessing atmospheric correction processors based on in-situ measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 162, 242–256 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (9)

M. Hieronymi, “Ocean Colour at low sun and high waves,” in Proceedings of Sentinel-3 for Science Workshop, ESA SP-734 (2015).

V. Haltrin, W. E. McBride, and A. D. Weidemann, “Fresnel reflection by wavy sea surface,” inProceedings of IGARSS5, 1863–1865 (2000).

M. Hieronymi, “Monte Carlo code for the study of the dynamic light field at the wavy atmosphere-ocean interface,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Pub. 8 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Kinsman, Wind waves: their generation and propagation on the ocean surface, (Courier Corporation, 1965).

C. S. Garbe, A. Rutgersson, J. Boutin, G. de Leeuw, B. Delille, C. W. Fairall, N. Gruber, J. Hare, D. T. Ho, M. T. Johnson, P. D. Nightingale, H. Pettersson, J. Piskozub, E. Sahlee, W. Tsai, B. Ward, D. K. Woolf, and C. J. Zappa, “Transfer across the air-sea interface,” in Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions of Gases and Particles (Springer, 2014,) pp. 55–112.

ITTC, “The specialist committee on waves – Final report and recommendations to the 23rd ITTC,” inProceedings of 23rd ITTC 2, 505–551 (2002).

R. W. Austin and G. Halikas, “The index of refraction of seawater,” Tech. Report SIO 76–1 (1976).

G. Zibordi, G. J. Donlon, and A. C. Parr, Optical Radiometry for Ocean Climate Measurements, Experimental Methods in the Physical Sciences 47 (Academic, 2014).

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water: Radiative Transfer in Natural Waters (Academic, 1994).

Supplementary Material (4)

NameDescription
» Data File 1: CSV (3021 KB)      Reflectance Distribution Function parallel to plane of incidence
» Data File 2: CSV (3021 KB)      Reflectance Distribution Function perpendicular to plane of incidence
» Data File 3: CSV (3021 KB)      Transmittance Distribution Function parallel to plane of incidence
» Data File 4: CSV (3021 KB)      Transmittance Distribution Function perpendicular to plane of incidence

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) ERA-Interim climatological wave classes with combinations of significant wave height HS, peak wave period TP, and average wind speed U10. (b) Probability density function PDF of wave classes (white means no occurrence and thus no consideration for this study). The white frame marks the case used in the example.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Workflow description of sea surface generation and ray tracing: (a) Wave elevation spectrum of the sea state with HS = 2 m, Tp = 9 s, and U10 = 6.1 m s−1. (b) Example of a wave profile generated from the spectrum with color-marked wave slopes. (c) Corresponding distribution (probability density function) of wave slopes with their vertical allocation. (d) Definition of angle directions for wave slopes as well as incidence, reflection, and transmission angles with respect to global coordinates. (e) Determination of wave shadowing. (f) Example of the mapping of ray tracing with multiple (seven) reflections.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Surface contacts from a ray tracing example: (a) Shadowed areas of the wave visualized by the number of free light incidence angles between 0 and 90°; below: sum and spatial allocation of all contact points after multiple reflections from all directions (values between 0 and 45). (b) Mean percentage free light incidence of tilted and vertically attributed wave facets (values between 70 and 100%). (c) Allocation of entry from all multiple reflections.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Shadowing and multiple reflections with incidence angle for the example sea state (solid lines) and the corresponding local wind case with U10 = 6 m s−1 (dashed). (a) Upper contour lines of histogram levels of the horizontal scatter path length. (b) Probability density functions for the occurrence of multiple reflections with number of contacts. (c) Percentage area of unshaded wave segments.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Reflectance (top) and transmittance (below) distribution functions for the example sea state: Parallel (a, e) and perpendicular (b, f) to the incident plane and total unpolarized (c, g) distribution functions. (d) and (h) show the angel-dependent redistribution of reflectance and transmittance due to multiple reflections in terms of differences to single scattering.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Contour plots of RDF (θig, θv) (top) and TDF (θig, θv) (bottom) as functions of mean-square slopes of all sea states at different light incidence angles: (a, e) 0°, (b, f) 30°, (c, g) 60°, and (d, h) 85°. White color corresponds to values near zero or at zero and maximum values can exceed upper legend boundary.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Up/down-wind component of mss from modelled wave profiles with wind speed. The color of the data points shows the sea state steepness H/L. The blue lines show the up- and cross-wind relationship of Cox and Munk [1]. (b) Sea states with corresponding ID number of mean-square slope cases from Table 1. Colored lines mark levels of mss [Fig. 1].
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Reflectance distributions for 10 m s−1 wind speed separated according polarization mode and wind direction components (ID = 12 and 9) (logarithmic color scale).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Total reflectance of all sea states under different light incidence angles: (top) parallel, (center) perpendicular to the incident plane, and (bottom) totally unpolarized. The incidence angles are: (a, e, i) 0°, (b, f, j) 30°, (c, g, k) 60°, and (d, h, l) 85°.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 RDF (θig, θv) and TDFig, θv) of the example for two viewing angle resolutions, namely Δθv = 2° (blue) and 10° (red).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specifications of provided mss-averaged RDF (θig, θv) and TDF (θig, θv) data (see Data File 1, Data File 2, Data File 3, and Data File 4, where acronyms “p” is for parallel and “s” for perpendicular to the plane).

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S l w ( f ) = 5 H S 2 16 T P 4 f 5 exp ( 5 4 T P 4 f 4 ) ,
ζ n ( x , t ) =   ζ a n   cos ( k x   ω t +   α ) ,
ζ a n =   2   S ( ω )   Δ ω .
sin θ i sin θ t =   n w n a ,
R =   | r | 2 and R II =   | r II | 2
r =     sin ( θ i   θ t ) sin ( θ i +   θ t )
r II =     tan ( θ i   θ t ) tan ( θ i +   θ t ) .
R =   1 2 ( R +   R II ) .
R =   R =   R II =   ( n w   n a n w +   n a ) 2 .
D = 100 ( R D F m u l t i p l e   R D F 1 s t ) R D F m u l t i p l e .
m s s u = 0.00316 W and m s s c = 0.003 + 0.00192 W

Metrics