Abstract

We report the correlation between inner morphology, size and whispering gallery mode (WGM) behavior in ZnO microspheres (MSs) grown by hydrothermal method. WGMs in different ZnO microspheres with diameters in the range of 2 - 6 μm were analyzed by a modified refractive index (MRI) scheme. We found that the size dependence of WGMs in our system is more complicated than others because of the appearance of porosity inside each sphere. Such features might account for the refractive index change and peak shift. Despite that, our MRI scheme can detect such complex features and reproduce universal relations between all important quantities of a microsphere WGM resonator.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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Corrections

3 August 2016: A correction was made to the author affiliations.


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2015 (2)

D. Nakamura, N. Tetsuyama, T. Shimogaki, Y. Sato, Y. Mizokami, M. Higashihata, and T. Okada, “Optical characterization of ZnO microspheres produced by laser ablation in air,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 10(2), 162–165 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Wang, L. Jiang, E. J. Kim, and S. H. Hahn, “Electronic structure and optical properties of Zn(OH)2: LDA+U calculations and intense yellow luminescence,” RSC Advances 5(106), 87496–87503 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

J. Dai, C. Xu, T. Nakamura, Y. Wang, J. Li, and Y. Lin, “Electron-hole plasma induced band gap renormalization in ZnO microlaser cavities,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28831–28837 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Liao, Y. Dou, S. M. Hwang, M. S. Park, L. Jiang, J. H. Kim, and S. X. Dou, “Generalized self-assembly of scalable two-dimensional transition metal oxide nanosheets,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3813 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Tetsuyama, K. Fusazaki, Y. Mizokami, T. Shimogaki, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, and T. Okada, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from hetero p-n junction between a single ZnO microsphere and p-GaN thin film,” Opt. Express 22(8), 10026–10031 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Okamoto, K. Inaba, T. Iida, H. Ishihara, S. Ichikawa, and M. Ashida, “Fabrication of single-crystalline microspheres with high sphericity from anisotropic materials,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5186 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xu, J. Dai, G. Zhu, G. Zhu, Y. Lin, J. Li, and Z. Shi, “Whispering-gallery mode lasing in ZnO microcavities,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 469–494 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

K. Okazaki, T. Shimogaki, K. Fusazaki, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, N. Koshizaki, and T. Okada, “Ultraviolet whispering-gallery-mode lasing in ZnO micro/nano sphere crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211105 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Okamoto, Y. Minowa, and M. Ashida, “White light lasing of ZnO microspheres fabricated by laser ablation,” Proc. SPIE 8263, 82630K (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

G. Dai, Y. Zhang, R. Lin, Q. Wan, Q. Zhang, A. Pan, and B. Zou, “Visible whispering gallery modes in ZnO microwires with varied cross sections,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(3), 033101 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

J. H. Pan, H. Dou, Z. Xiong, C. Xu, J. Ma, and X. S. Zhao, “Porous photocatalysts for advanced water purifications,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(22), 4512–4528 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery mode microresonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(3), 457–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Ahn, Y. Y. Kim, D. C. Kim, S. K. Mohanta, and H. K. Cho, “A comparative analysis of deep level emission in ZnO layers deposited by various methods,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 013502 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. Liu, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, J. Y. Park, K. H. Koh, and K. H. Park, “Identification of dispersion-dependent hexagonal cavity modes of an individual ZnO nanonail,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263102 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

Y. F. Zhu, D. H. Fan, and W. Z. Shen, “Template-free synthesis of zinc oxide hollow microspheres in aqueous solution at low temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(50), 18629–18635 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

W. Liu, S. L. Gu, J. D. Ye, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, X. Zhou, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, Y. D. Zheng, Y. Hang, and C. L. Zhang, “Blue, yellow ZnO homostructural light-emitting diode realized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 092101 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. L. Kuo, T. J. Kuo, and M. H. Huang, “Hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO microspheres and hexagonal microrods with sheetlike and platelike nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(43), 20115–20121 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Nobis and M. Grundmann, “Low-order optical whispering-gallery modes in hexagonal,” Phys. Rev. A 72(6), 063806 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

R. Könenkamp, R. C. Word, and C. Schlegel, “Vertical nanowire light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 6004–6006 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

J. Wiersig, “Hexagonal dielectric resonators and micro crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 67(2), 023807 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, C. H.

C. H. Ahn, Y. Y. Kim, D. C. Kim, S. K. Mohanta, and H. K. Cho, “A comparative analysis of deep level emission in ZnO layers deposited by various methods,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 013502 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ahn, Y. H.

J. Liu, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, J. Y. Park, K. H. Koh, and K. H. Park, “Identification of dispersion-dependent hexagonal cavity modes of an individual ZnO nanonail,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Alivov, Y. I.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Al-Suleiman, M.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashida, M.

S. Okamoto, K. Inaba, T. Iida, H. Ishihara, S. Ichikawa, and M. Ashida, “Fabrication of single-crystalline microspheres with high sphericity from anisotropic materials,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5186 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Okamoto, Y. Minowa, and M. Ashida, “White light lasing of ZnO microspheres fabricated by laser ablation,” Proc. SPIE 8263, 82630K (2012).
[Crossref]

Avrutin, V.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bakin, A.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Behrends, A.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boukos, N.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, B. Q.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, S. W.

Chang, Y. C.

Che Mofor, A.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, P. J.

Chiasera, A.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery mode microresonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(3), 457–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chien, P. C.

Cho, H. K.

C. H. Ahn, Y. Y. Kim, D. C. Kim, S. K. Mohanta, and H. K. Cho, “A comparative analysis of deep level emission in ZnO layers deposited by various methods,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 013502 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cho, S. J.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Conti, G. N.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery mode microresonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(3), 457–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Czekalla, C.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, G.

G. Dai, Y. Zhang, R. Lin, Q. Wan, Q. Zhang, A. Pan, and B. Zou, “Visible whispering gallery modes in ZnO microwires with varied cross sections,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(3), 033101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dai, J.

C. Xu, J. Dai, G. Zhu, G. Zhu, Y. Lin, J. Li, and Z. Shi, “Whispering-gallery mode lasing in ZnO microcavities,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 469–494 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Dai, C. Xu, T. Nakamura, Y. Wang, J. Li, and Y. Lin, “Electron-hole plasma induced band gap renormalization in ZnO microlaser cavities,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28831–28837 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dogan, S.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dou, H.

J. H. Pan, H. Dou, Z. Xiong, C. Xu, J. Ma, and X. S. Zhao, “Porous photocatalysts for advanced water purifications,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(22), 4512–4528 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dou, S. X.

Z. Sun, T. Liao, Y. Dou, S. M. Hwang, M. S. Park, L. Jiang, J. H. Kim, and S. X. Dou, “Generalized self-assembly of scalable two-dimensional transition metal oxide nanosheets,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3813 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dou, Y.

Z. Sun, T. Liao, Y. Dou, S. M. Hwang, M. S. Park, L. Jiang, J. H. Kim, and S. X. Dou, “Generalized self-assembly of scalable two-dimensional transition metal oxide nanosheets,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3813 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dumeige, Y.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery mode microresonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(3), 457–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

El-Shaer, A.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, D. H.

Y. F. Zhu, D. H. Fan, and W. Z. Shen, “Template-free synthesis of zinc oxide hollow microspheres in aqueous solution at low temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(50), 18629–18635 (2007).
[Crossref]

Feick, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Féron, P.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery mode microresonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(3), 457–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, M.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery mode microresonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(3), 457–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fusazaki, K.

N. Tetsuyama, K. Fusazaki, Y. Mizokami, T. Shimogaki, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, and T. Okada, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from hetero p-n junction between a single ZnO microsphere and p-GaN thin film,” Opt. Express 22(8), 10026–10031 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Okazaki, T. Shimogaki, K. Fusazaki, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, N. Koshizaki, and T. Okada, “Ultraviolet whispering-gallery-mode lasing in ZnO micro/nano sphere crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Grundmann, M.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Nobis and M. Grundmann, “Low-order optical whispering-gallery modes in hexagonal,” Phys. Rev. A 72(6), 063806 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gu, S. L.

W. Liu, S. L. Gu, J. D. Ye, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, X. Zhou, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, Y. D. Zheng, Y. Hang, and C. L. Zhang, “Blue, yellow ZnO homostructural light-emitting diode realized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 092101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Guinard, J.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hahn, S. H.

M. Wang, L. Jiang, E. J. Kim, and S. H. Hahn, “Electronic structure and optical properties of Zn(OH)2: LDA+U calculations and intense yellow luminescence,” RSC Advances 5(106), 87496–87503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hang, Y.

W. Liu, S. L. Gu, J. D. Ye, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, X. Zhou, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, Y. D. Zheng, Y. Hang, and C. L. Zhang, “Blue, yellow ZnO homostructural light-emitting diode realized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 092101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Higashihata, M.

D. Nakamura, N. Tetsuyama, T. Shimogaki, Y. Sato, Y. Mizokami, M. Higashihata, and T. Okada, “Optical characterization of ZnO microspheres produced by laser ablation in air,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 10(2), 162–165 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Tetsuyama, K. Fusazaki, Y. Mizokami, T. Shimogaki, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, and T. Okada, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from hetero p-n junction between a single ZnO microsphere and p-GaN thin film,” Opt. Express 22(8), 10026–10031 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Okazaki, T. Shimogaki, K. Fusazaki, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, N. Koshizaki, and T. Okada, “Ultraviolet whispering-gallery-mode lasing in ZnO micro/nano sphere crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, M. H.

C. L. Kuo, T. J. Kuo, and M. H. Huang, “Hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO microspheres and hexagonal microrods with sheetlike and platelike nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(43), 20115–20121 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, S. M.

Z. Sun, T. Liao, Y. Dou, S. M. Hwang, M. S. Park, L. Jiang, J. H. Kim, and S. X. Dou, “Generalized self-assembly of scalable two-dimensional transition metal oxide nanosheets,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3813 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ichikawa, S.

S. Okamoto, K. Inaba, T. Iida, H. Ishihara, S. Ichikawa, and M. Ashida, “Fabrication of single-crystalline microspheres with high sphericity from anisotropic materials,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5186 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iida, T.

S. Okamoto, K. Inaba, T. Iida, H. Ishihara, S. Ichikawa, and M. Ashida, “Fabrication of single-crystalline microspheres with high sphericity from anisotropic materials,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5186 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inaba, K.

S. Okamoto, K. Inaba, T. Iida, H. Ishihara, S. Ichikawa, and M. Ashida, “Fabrication of single-crystalline microspheres with high sphericity from anisotropic materials,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5186 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishihara, H.

S. Okamoto, K. Inaba, T. Iida, H. Ishihara, S. Ichikawa, and M. Ashida, “Fabrication of single-crystalline microspheres with high sphericity from anisotropic materials,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5186 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jestin, Y.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery mode microresonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(3), 457–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jiang, L.

M. Wang, L. Jiang, E. J. Kim, and S. H. Hahn, “Electronic structure and optical properties of Zn(OH)2: LDA+U calculations and intense yellow luminescence,” RSC Advances 5(106), 87496–87503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Liao, Y. Dou, S. M. Hwang, M. S. Park, L. Jiang, J. H. Kim, and S. X. Dou, “Generalized self-assembly of scalable two-dimensional transition metal oxide nanosheets,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3813 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, D. C.

C. H. Ahn, Y. Y. Kim, D. C. Kim, S. K. Mohanta, and H. K. Cho, “A comparative analysis of deep level emission in ZnO layers deposited by various methods,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 013502 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kim, E. J.

M. Wang, L. Jiang, E. J. Kim, and S. H. Hahn, “Electronic structure and optical properties of Zn(OH)2: LDA+U calculations and intense yellow luminescence,” RSC Advances 5(106), 87496–87503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. H.

Z. Sun, T. Liao, Y. Dou, S. M. Hwang, M. S. Park, L. Jiang, J. H. Kim, and S. X. Dou, “Generalized self-assembly of scalable two-dimensional transition metal oxide nanosheets,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3813 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. Y.

C. H. Ahn, Y. Y. Kim, D. C. Kim, S. K. Mohanta, and H. K. Cho, “A comparative analysis of deep level emission in ZnO layers deposited by various methods,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 013502 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kind, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koh, K. H.

J. Liu, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, J. Y. Park, K. H. Koh, and K. H. Park, “Identification of dispersion-dependent hexagonal cavity modes of an individual ZnO nanonail,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Könenkamp, R.

R. Könenkamp, R. C. Word, and C. Schlegel, “Vertical nanowire light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 6004–6006 (2004).
[Crossref]

Koshizaki, N.

K. Okazaki, T. Shimogaki, K. Fusazaki, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, N. Koshizaki, and T. Okada, “Ultraviolet whispering-gallery-mode lasing in ZnO micro/nano sphere crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kuo, C. L.

C. L. Kuo, T. J. Kuo, and M. H. Huang, “Hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO microspheres and hexagonal microrods with sheetlike and platelike nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(43), 20115–20121 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuo, T. J.

C. L. Kuo, T. J. Kuo, and M. H. Huang, “Hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO microspheres and hexagonal microrods with sheetlike and platelike nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(43), 20115–20121 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwack, H. S.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le Si Dang, D.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

J. Liu, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, J. Y. Park, K. H. Koh, and K. H. Park, “Identification of dispersion-dependent hexagonal cavity modes of an individual ZnO nanonail,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

C. Xu, J. Dai, G. Zhu, G. Zhu, Y. Lin, J. Li, and Z. Shi, “Whispering-gallery mode lasing in ZnO microcavities,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 469–494 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Dai, C. Xu, T. Nakamura, Y. Wang, J. Li, and Y. Lin, “Electron-hole plasma induced band gap renormalization in ZnO microlaser cavities,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28831–28837 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liao, T.

Z. Sun, T. Liao, Y. Dou, S. M. Hwang, M. S. Park, L. Jiang, J. H. Kim, and S. X. Dou, “Generalized self-assembly of scalable two-dimensional transition metal oxide nanosheets,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3813 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, R.

G. Dai, Y. Zhang, R. Lin, Q. Wan, Q. Zhang, A. Pan, and B. Zou, “Visible whispering gallery modes in ZnO microwires with varied cross sections,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(3), 033101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.

C. Xu, J. Dai, G. Zhu, G. Zhu, Y. Lin, J. Li, and Z. Shi, “Whispering-gallery mode lasing in ZnO microcavities,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 469–494 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Dai, C. Xu, T. Nakamura, Y. Wang, J. Li, and Y. Lin, “Electron-hole plasma induced band gap renormalization in ZnO microlaser cavities,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28831–28837 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, J. Y. Park, K. H. Koh, and K. H. Park, “Identification of dispersion-dependent hexagonal cavity modes of an individual ZnO nanonail,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, S. M.

W. Liu, S. L. Gu, J. D. Ye, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, X. Zhou, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, Y. D. Zheng, Y. Hang, and C. L. Zhang, “Blue, yellow ZnO homostructural light-emitting diode realized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 092101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

W. Liu, S. L. Gu, J. D. Ye, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, X. Zhou, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, Y. D. Zheng, Y. Hang, and C. L. Zhang, “Blue, yellow ZnO homostructural light-emitting diode realized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 092101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lorenz, M.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, J.

J. H. Pan, H. Dou, Z. Xiong, C. Xu, J. Ma, and X. S. Zhao, “Porous photocatalysts for advanced water purifications,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(22), 4512–4528 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mao, S.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Minowa, Y.

S. Okamoto, Y. Minowa, and M. Ashida, “White light lasing of ZnO microspheres fabricated by laser ablation,” Proc. SPIE 8263, 82630K (2012).
[Crossref]

Mizokami, Y.

D. Nakamura, N. Tetsuyama, T. Shimogaki, Y. Sato, Y. Mizokami, M. Higashihata, and T. Okada, “Optical characterization of ZnO microspheres produced by laser ablation in air,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 10(2), 162–165 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Tetsuyama, K. Fusazaki, Y. Mizokami, T. Shimogaki, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, and T. Okada, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from hetero p-n junction between a single ZnO microsphere and p-GaN thin film,” Opt. Express 22(8), 10026–10031 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mohanta, S. K.

C. H. Ahn, Y. Y. Kim, D. C. Kim, S. K. Mohanta, and H. K. Cho, “A comparative analysis of deep level emission in ZnO layers deposited by various methods,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 013502 (2009).
[Crossref]

Moirangthem, R. S.

Morkoç, H.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, D.

D. Nakamura, N. Tetsuyama, T. Shimogaki, Y. Sato, Y. Mizokami, M. Higashihata, and T. Okada, “Optical characterization of ZnO microspheres produced by laser ablation in air,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 10(2), 162–165 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Tetsuyama, K. Fusazaki, Y. Mizokami, T. Shimogaki, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, and T. Okada, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from hetero p-n junction between a single ZnO microsphere and p-GaN thin film,” Opt. Express 22(8), 10026–10031 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Okazaki, T. Shimogaki, K. Fusazaki, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, N. Koshizaki, and T. Okada, “Ultraviolet whispering-gallery-mode lasing in ZnO micro/nano sphere crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, T.

Ngo, B. T.

Nobis, T.

T. Nobis and M. Grundmann, “Low-order optical whispering-gallery modes in hexagonal,” Phys. Rev. A 72(6), 063806 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nur, O.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Okada, T.

D. Nakamura, N. Tetsuyama, T. Shimogaki, Y. Sato, Y. Mizokami, M. Higashihata, and T. Okada, “Optical characterization of ZnO microspheres produced by laser ablation in air,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 10(2), 162–165 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Tetsuyama, K. Fusazaki, Y. Mizokami, T. Shimogaki, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, and T. Okada, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from hetero p-n junction between a single ZnO microsphere and p-GaN thin film,” Opt. Express 22(8), 10026–10031 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Okazaki, T. Shimogaki, K. Fusazaki, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, N. Koshizaki, and T. Okada, “Ultraviolet whispering-gallery-mode lasing in ZnO micro/nano sphere crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, S.

S. Okamoto, K. Inaba, T. Iida, H. Ishihara, S. Ichikawa, and M. Ashida, “Fabrication of single-crystalline microspheres with high sphericity from anisotropic materials,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5186 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Okamoto, Y. Minowa, and M. Ashida, “White light lasing of ZnO microspheres fabricated by laser ablation,” Proc. SPIE 8263, 82630K (2012).
[Crossref]

Okazaki, K.

K. Okazaki, T. Shimogaki, K. Fusazaki, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, N. Koshizaki, and T. Okada, “Ultraviolet whispering-gallery-mode lasing in ZnO micro/nano sphere crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Özgür, Ü.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Pan, A.

G. Dai, Y. Zhang, R. Lin, Q. Wan, Q. Zhang, A. Pan, and B. Zou, “Visible whispering gallery modes in ZnO microwires with varied cross sections,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(3), 033101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pan, J. H.

J. H. Pan, H. Dou, Z. Xiong, C. Xu, J. Ma, and X. S. Zhao, “Porous photocatalysts for advanced water purifications,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(22), 4512–4528 (2010).
[Crossref]

Park, J. Y.

J. Liu, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, J. Y. Park, K. H. Koh, and K. H. Park, “Identification of dispersion-dependent hexagonal cavity modes of an individual ZnO nanonail,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, K. H.

J. Liu, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, J. Y. Park, K. H. Koh, and K. H. Park, “Identification of dispersion-dependent hexagonal cavity modes of an individual ZnO nanonail,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263102 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, M. S.

Z. Sun, T. Liao, Y. Dou, S. M. Hwang, M. S. Park, L. Jiang, J. H. Kim, and S. X. Dou, “Generalized self-assembly of scalable two-dimensional transition metal oxide nanosheets,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3813 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pelli, S.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery mode microresonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(3), 457–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Postels, B.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reshchikov, M. A.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Righini, G. C.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery mode microresonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(3), 457–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Russo, R.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sato, Y.

D. Nakamura, N. Tetsuyama, T. Shimogaki, Y. Sato, Y. Mizokami, M. Higashihata, and T. Okada, “Optical characterization of ZnO microspheres produced by laser ablation in air,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 10(2), 162–165 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schlegel, C.

R. Könenkamp, R. C. Word, and C. Schlegel, “Vertical nanowire light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 6004–6006 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shen, W. Z.

Y. F. Zhu, D. H. Fan, and W. Z. Shen, “Template-free synthesis of zinc oxide hollow microspheres in aqueous solution at low temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(50), 18629–18635 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shi, Y.

W. Liu, S. L. Gu, J. D. Ye, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, X. Zhou, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, Y. D. Zheng, Y. Hang, and C. L. Zhang, “Blue, yellow ZnO homostructural light-emitting diode realized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 092101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shi, Z.

C. Xu, J. Dai, G. Zhu, G. Zhu, Y. Lin, J. Li, and Z. Shi, “Whispering-gallery mode lasing in ZnO microcavities,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 469–494 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shimogaki, T.

D. Nakamura, N. Tetsuyama, T. Shimogaki, Y. Sato, Y. Mizokami, M. Higashihata, and T. Okada, “Optical characterization of ZnO microspheres produced by laser ablation in air,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 10(2), 162–165 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Tetsuyama, K. Fusazaki, Y. Mizokami, T. Shimogaki, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, and T. Okada, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from hetero p-n junction between a single ZnO microsphere and p-GaN thin film,” Opt. Express 22(8), 10026–10031 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Okazaki, T. Shimogaki, K. Fusazaki, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, N. Koshizaki, and T. Okada, “Ultraviolet whispering-gallery-mode lasing in ZnO micro/nano sphere crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Soria, S.

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery mode microresonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(3), 457–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun, T. Liao, Y. Dou, S. M. Hwang, M. S. Park, L. Jiang, J. H. Kim, and S. X. Dou, “Generalized self-assembly of scalable two-dimensional transition metal oxide nanosheets,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3813 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Teke, A.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tetsuyama, N.

D. Nakamura, N. Tetsuyama, T. Shimogaki, Y. Sato, Y. Mizokami, M. Higashihata, and T. Okada, “Optical characterization of ZnO microspheres produced by laser ablation in air,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 10(2), 162–165 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Tetsuyama, K. Fusazaki, Y. Mizokami, T. Shimogaki, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, and T. Okada, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from hetero p-n junction between a single ZnO microsphere and p-GaN thin film,” Opt. Express 22(8), 10026–10031 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tien, C. H.

Travlos, A.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waag, A.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wan, Q.

G. Dai, Y. Zhang, R. Lin, Q. Wan, Q. Zhang, A. Pan, and B. Zou, “Visible whispering gallery modes in ZnO microwires with varied cross sections,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(3), 033101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

M. Wang, L. Jiang, E. J. Kim, and S. H. Hahn, “Electronic structure and optical properties of Zn(OH)2: LDA+U calculations and intense yellow luminescence,” RSC Advances 5(106), 87496–87503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Weber, E.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiersig, J.

J. Wiersig, “Hexagonal dielectric resonators and micro crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 67(2), 023807 (2003).
[Crossref]

Willander, M.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Word, R. C.

R. Könenkamp, R. C. Word, and C. Schlegel, “Vertical nanowire light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 6004–6006 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wu, Y.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiong, Z.

J. H. Pan, H. Dou, Z. Xiong, C. Xu, J. Ma, and X. S. Zhao, “Porous photocatalysts for advanced water purifications,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(22), 4512–4528 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xu, C.

C. Xu, J. Dai, G. Zhu, G. Zhu, Y. Lin, J. Li, and Z. Shi, “Whispering-gallery mode lasing in ZnO microcavities,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 469–494 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Dai, C. Xu, T. Nakamura, Y. Wang, J. Li, and Y. Lin, “Electron-hole plasma induced band gap renormalization in ZnO microlaser cavities,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28831–28837 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Pan, H. Dou, Z. Xiong, C. Xu, J. Ma, and X. S. Zhao, “Porous photocatalysts for advanced water purifications,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(22), 4512–4528 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yan, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, L. L.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, P.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, J. D.

W. Liu, S. L. Gu, J. D. Ye, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, X. Zhou, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, Y. D. Zheng, Y. Hang, and C. L. Zhang, “Blue, yellow ZnO homostructural light-emitting diode realized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 092101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C. L.

W. Liu, S. L. Gu, J. D. Ye, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, X. Zhou, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, Y. D. Zheng, Y. Hang, and C. L. Zhang, “Blue, yellow ZnO homostructural light-emitting diode realized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 092101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

G. Dai, Y. Zhang, R. Lin, Q. Wan, Q. Zhang, A. Pan, and B. Zou, “Visible whispering gallery modes in ZnO microwires with varied cross sections,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(3), 033101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, R.

W. Liu, S. L. Gu, J. D. Ye, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, X. Zhou, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, Y. D. Zheng, Y. Hang, and C. L. Zhang, “Blue, yellow ZnO homostructural light-emitting diode realized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 092101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

G. Dai, Y. Zhang, R. Lin, Q. Wan, Q. Zhang, A. Pan, and B. Zou, “Visible whispering gallery modes in ZnO microwires with varied cross sections,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(3), 033101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Q. X.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, X. S.

J. H. Pan, H. Dou, Z. Xiong, C. Xu, J. Ma, and X. S. Zhao, “Porous photocatalysts for advanced water purifications,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(22), 4512–4528 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y. D.

W. Liu, S. L. Gu, J. D. Ye, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, X. Zhou, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, Y. D. Zheng, Y. Hang, and C. L. Zhang, “Blue, yellow ZnO homostructural light-emitting diode realized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 092101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X.

W. Liu, S. L. Gu, J. D. Ye, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, X. Zhou, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, Y. D. Zheng, Y. Hang, and C. L. Zhang, “Blue, yellow ZnO homostructural light-emitting diode realized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 092101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhu, G.

C. Xu, J. Dai, G. Zhu, G. Zhu, Y. Lin, J. Li, and Z. Shi, “Whispering-gallery mode lasing in ZnO microcavities,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 469–494 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Xu, J. Dai, G. Zhu, G. Zhu, Y. Lin, J. Li, and Z. Shi, “Whispering-gallery mode lasing in ZnO microcavities,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 469–494 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhu, S. M.

W. Liu, S. L. Gu, J. D. Ye, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, X. Zhou, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, Y. D. Zheng, Y. Hang, and C. L. Zhang, “Blue, yellow ZnO homostructural light-emitting diode realized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 092101 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Y. F.

Y. F. Zhu, D. H. Fan, and W. Z. Shen, “Template-free synthesis of zinc oxide hollow microspheres in aqueous solution at low temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(50), 18629–18635 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zimmermann, G.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zou, B.

G. Dai, Y. Zhang, R. Lin, Q. Wan, Q. Zhang, A. Pan, and B. Zou, “Visible whispering gallery modes in ZnO microwires with varied cross sections,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(3), 033101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zúñiga Pérez, J.

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

W. Liu, S. L. Gu, J. D. Ye, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, X. Zhou, R. Zhang, Y. Shi, Y. D. Zheng, Y. Hang, and C. L. Zhang, “Blue, yellow ZnO homostructural light-emitting diode realized by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 092101 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Könenkamp, R. C. Word, and C. Schlegel, “Vertical nanowire light emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 6004–6006 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. Okazaki, T. Shimogaki, K. Fusazaki, M. Higashihata, D. Nakamura, N. Koshizaki, and T. Okada, “Ultraviolet whispering-gallery-mode lasing in ZnO micro/nano sphere crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211105 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, J. Y. Park, K. H. Koh, and K. H. Park, “Identification of dispersion-dependent hexagonal cavity modes of an individual ZnO nanonail,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(26), 263102 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

G. Dai, Y. Zhang, R. Lin, Q. Wan, Q. Zhang, A. Pan, and B. Zou, “Visible whispering gallery modes in ZnO microwires with varied cross sections,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(3), 033101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. H. Ahn, Y. Y. Kim, D. C. Kim, S. K. Mohanta, and H. K. Cho, “A comparative analysis of deep level emission in ZnO layers deposited by various methods,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 013502 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. (1)

D. Nakamura, N. Tetsuyama, T. Shimogaki, Y. Sato, Y. Mizokami, M. Higashihata, and T. Okada, “Optical characterization of ZnO microspheres produced by laser ablation in air,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng. 10(2), 162–165 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

J. H. Pan, H. Dou, Z. Xiong, C. Xu, J. Ma, and X. S. Zhao, “Porous photocatalysts for advanced water purifications,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(22), 4512–4528 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

C. L. Kuo, T. J. Kuo, and M. H. Huang, “Hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO microspheres and hexagonal microrods with sheetlike and platelike nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(43), 20115–20121 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

Y. F. Zhu, D. H. Fan, and W. Z. Shen, “Template-free synthesis of zinc oxide hollow microspheres in aqueous solution at low temperature,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(50), 18629–18635 (2007).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (2)

C. Xu, J. Dai, G. Zhu, G. Zhu, Y. Lin, J. Li, and Z. Shi, “Whispering-gallery mode lasing in ZnO microcavities,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(4), 469–494 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Chiasera, Y. Dumeige, P. Féron, M. Ferrari, Y. Jestin, G. N. Conti, S. Pelli, S. Soria, and G. C. Righini, “Spherical whispering-gallery mode microresonators,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(3), 457–482 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (1)

M. Willander, O. Nur, Q. X. Zhao, L. L. Yang, M. Lorenz, B. Q. Cao, J. Zúñiga Pérez, C. Czekalla, G. Zimmermann, M. Grundmann, A. Bakin, A. Behrends, M. Al-Suleiman, A. El-Shaer, A. Che Mofor, B. Postels, A. Waag, N. Boukos, A. Travlos, H. S. Kwack, J. Guinard, and D. Le Si Dang, “Zinc oxide nanorod based photonic devices: recent progress in growth, light emitting diodes and lasers,” Nanotechnology 20(33), 332001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

Z. Sun, T. Liao, Y. Dou, S. M. Hwang, M. S. Park, L. Jiang, J. H. Kim, and S. X. Dou, “Generalized self-assembly of scalable two-dimensional transition metal oxide nanosheets,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3813 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

T. Nobis and M. Grundmann, “Low-order optical whispering-gallery modes in hexagonal,” Phys. Rev. A 72(6), 063806 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Wiersig, “Hexagonal dielectric resonators and micro crystal lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 67(2), 023807 (2003).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Okamoto, Y. Minowa, and M. Ashida, “White light lasing of ZnO microspheres fabricated by laser ablation,” Proc. SPIE 8263, 82630K (2012).
[Crossref]

RSC Advances (1)

M. Wang, L. Jiang, E. J. Kim, and S. H. Hahn, “Electronic structure and optical properties of Zn(OH)2: LDA+U calculations and intense yellow luminescence,” RSC Advances 5(106), 87496–87503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

S. Okamoto, K. Inaba, T. Iida, H. Ishihara, S. Ichikawa, and M. Ashida, “Fabrication of single-crystalline microspheres with high sphericity from anisotropic materials,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5186 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Yan, Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. Yang, “Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers,” Science 292(5523), 1897–1899 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (7)

H. B. T. Ngo, P. C. H. Chien, Y. D. Chen, S. H. Wu, F. C. Hsiao, L. N. Nguyen, and Y. C. Chang, “ Whispering gallery mode biosensing – a detailed study on ZnO microspheres,” in the series IFMBE Proceedings Vol. 46, V. V. Toi, T. H. L. Phuong, ed. (Springer, 2015), pp. 21–24.

R. K. Chang and A. J. Campillo, Optical Processes in Microcavities (World Sciencetific, 1996), Ch. 5.

D. Nakamura, Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motoka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819–0395, Japan (personal communication, 2015).

M. Ashida, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1–3 Machikaneyana-cho, Toyobaka, Osaka 560 −8531, Japan (personal communication, 2015).

P. C. H. Chien, T. H. B. Ngo, Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, 11529, and Y. C. Chang are preparing a manuscript to be called “Theory of lineshape of WGM enhanced photoluminescence in ZnO microsphere with exciton-polariton effect”.

NIST X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Database, http://srdata.nist.gov/xps/Default.aspx .

S. Spillane, “Fiber-coupled ultra-high Q microresonators for nonlinear and quantum optics,” Ph.D. thesis, California Inst. of Technol. (2004).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 PL spectrum of 3.7μm ZnO MS before (up) and after (down) laser damage with SEM images shown in insets.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 XPS spectra of Zn 2p3/2 (a) and O 1s (b) in annealed ZnO MSs on silicon substrate.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) KR values extracted from WGM peak positions observed experimentally (with MRI correction for spherical MSs) as functions of mode number for our ZnO spherical cavities (solid squares) and hexagonal microcavities (open objects) taken from [26]. (b) Illustration of the failure of constructing UR for KR values extracted from WGM peak positions observed experimentally (with the use of a constant refractive index of 2.2) for our ZnO MSs. The data with MRI correction as shown in (a) (which satisfy the UR) are plotted again for comparison. Note that same cavity size was denoted by the same color, and the width a (twice the edge length R) of hexagonal cavities is related to the diameter d of a circle with the same enclosed area via a = 1.0996 d [27].

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Δn for different resonator diameters.

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