Abstract

This paper presents a novel and simple fiber monitoring system based on multi-wavelength transmission-reflection analysis for long-reach time and wavelength division multiplexing passive optical networks. For the first time, the full localization functionality of long-reach passive optical networks is possible with the proposed monitoring scheme, including supporting fault detection, identification, and localization in both feeder and distribution fiber segments. By measuring the transmitted and reflected/backscattered optical powers launched by an unmodulated continuous-wave optical source, the proposed solution is able to supervise the network with good spatial accuracy, a high detection speed and a low impact on data traffic. Both the theoretical analysis and experimental validation show that the proposed scheme is capable of providing an accurate fault monitoring functionality for long-reach time and wavelength division multiplexing passive optical networks.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

2015 (1)

H. Fathallah and M. Esmail, “Performance evaluation of special optical coding techniques appropriate for physical layer monitoring of access and metro optical networks,” Photonic Netw. Commun. 30(2), 223–233 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

2013 (3)

P. Urban, G. V. Llosera, E. Medeiros, and S. Dahlfort, “Fiber plant manager: An OTDR- and OTM-Based PON monitoring system,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(2), S9–S15 (2013).

Y. Luo, X. Zhou, F. Effenberger, X. Yan, G. Peng, Y. Qian, and Y. Ma, “Time- and Wavelength-Division Multiplexed Passive Optical Network (TWDM-PON) for next-generation PON stage 2 (NG-PON2),” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 587–593 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. A. Esmail and H. Fathallah, “Physical layer monitoring techniques for TDM-passive optical networks: a survey,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 15(2), 943–958 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

C. M. Machuca, J. Chen, and L. Wosinska, “Efficient protection in TDM PONs,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(8), 110–117 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Wong, “Next-generation broadband access networks and technologies,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(4), 597–608 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

K. Fouli, L. Chen, and M. Maier, “Time-, wavelength-, and code-domain optical reflection monitoring for next-generation access-metro networks,” Comput. Commun. 34(8), 1011–1021 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

H. Song, B. W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: a survey of research challenges, demonstrations, and bandwidth assignment mechanisms,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 12(1), 112–123 (2010).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

V. V. Spirin, F. J. Mendieta, S. V. Miridonov, M. G. Shlyagin, A. A. Chtcherbakov, and P. L. Swart, “Localization of a loss-inducing perturbation with variable accuracy along a test fiber using transmission-reflection analysis,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 569–571 (2004).
[Crossref]

Achouche, M.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), S24–S32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cen, M.

Chen, J.

M. Cen, J. Chen, V. Moeyaert, P. Mégret, and M. Wuilpart, “Multi-wavelength Transmission-Reflection Analysis for fiber monitoring,” Opt. Express 22(25), 31248–31262 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), S24–S32 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. M. Machuca, J. Chen, and L. Wosinska, “Efficient protection in TDM PONs,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(8), 110–117 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Cen, J. Chen, P. Mégret, V. Moeyaert, and M. Wuilpart, “Advanced fault monitoring scheme for ring based long-reach optical access networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. (submitted).

Chen, L.

K. Fouli, L. Chen, and M. Maier, “Time-, wavelength-, and code-domain optical reflection monitoring for next-generation access-metro networks,” Comput. Commun. 34(8), 1011–1021 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chtcherbakov, A. A.

V. V. Spirin, F. J. Mendieta, S. V. Miridonov, M. G. Shlyagin, A. A. Chtcherbakov, and P. L. Swart, “Localization of a loss-inducing perturbation with variable accuracy along a test fiber using transmission-reflection analysis,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 569–571 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dahlfort, S.

P. Urban, G. V. Llosera, E. Medeiros, and S. Dahlfort, “Fiber plant manager: An OTDR- and OTM-Based PON monitoring system,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(2), S9–S15 (2013).

Doran, N.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), S24–S32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Effenberger, F.

Esmail, M.

H. Fathallah and M. Esmail, “Performance evaluation of special optical coding techniques appropriate for physical layer monitoring of access and metro optical networks,” Photonic Netw. Commun. 30(2), 223–233 (2015).
[Crossref]

Esmail, M. A.

M. A. Esmail and H. Fathallah, “Physical layer monitoring techniques for TDM-passive optical networks: a survey,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 15(2), 943–958 (2013).
[Crossref]

Farjady, F.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), S24–S32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fathallah, H.

H. Fathallah and M. Esmail, “Performance evaluation of special optical coding techniques appropriate for physical layer monitoring of access and metro optical networks,” Photonic Netw. Commun. 30(2), 223–233 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. A. Esmail and H. Fathallah, “Physical layer monitoring techniques for TDM-passive optical networks: a survey,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 15(2), 943–958 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fouli, K.

K. Fouli, L. Chen, and M. Maier, “Time-, wavelength-, and code-domain optical reflection monitoring for next-generation access-metro networks,” Comput. Commun. 34(8), 1011–1021 (2011).
[Crossref]

Freude, W.

Grobe, K.

Hedrich, M.

Hehmann, J.

Hiba, B.

Kim, B. W.

H. Song, B. W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: a survey of research challenges, demonstrations, and bandwidth assignment mechanisms,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 12(1), 112–123 (2010).
[Crossref]

Koos, C.

Lau, A. P.

Lee, J. C.

Lee, S.

Lee, W.

Leuthold, J.

Li, J.

Li, Z.

Llosera, G. V.

P. Urban, G. V. Llosera, E. Medeiros, and S. Dahlfort, “Fiber plant manager: An OTDR- and OTM-Based PON monitoring system,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(2), S9–S15 (2013).

Lu, C.

Luo, Y.

Ma, Y.

Machuca, C. M.

C. M. Machuca, J. Chen, and L. Wosinska, “Efficient protection in TDM PONs,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(8), 110–117 (2012).
[Crossref]

Maier, M.

K. Fouli, L. Chen, and M. Maier, “Time-, wavelength-, and code-domain optical reflection monitoring for next-generation access-metro networks,” Comput. Commun. 34(8), 1011–1021 (2011).
[Crossref]

Medeiros, E.

P. Urban, G. V. Llosera, E. Medeiros, and S. Dahlfort, “Fiber plant manager: An OTDR- and OTM-Based PON monitoring system,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(2), S9–S15 (2013).

Mégret, P.

Mendieta, F. J.

V. V. Spirin, F. J. Mendieta, S. V. Miridonov, M. G. Shlyagin, A. A. Chtcherbakov, and P. L. Swart, “Localization of a loss-inducing perturbation with variable accuracy along a test fiber using transmission-reflection analysis,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 569–571 (2004).
[Crossref]

Miridonov, S. V.

V. V. Spirin, F. J. Mendieta, S. V. Miridonov, M. G. Shlyagin, A. A. Chtcherbakov, and P. L. Swart, “Localization of a loss-inducing perturbation with variable accuracy along a test fiber using transmission-reflection analysis,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 569–571 (2004).
[Crossref]

Moeyaert, V.

Montalvo, J.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), S24–S32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mukherjee, B.

H. Song, B. W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: a survey of research challenges, demonstrations, and bandwidth assignment mechanisms,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 12(1), 112–123 (2010).
[Crossref]

Myong, S. I.

Nesset, D.

O’Sullivan, B.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), S24–S32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ossieur, P.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), S24–S32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Parsons, N.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), S24–S32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Payne, D. B.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), S24–S32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Peng, G.

Pfeiffer, T.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), S24–S32 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Roeger, B. Hiba, J. Hehmann, M. Straub, H. Schmuck, M. Hedrich, T. Pfeiffer, C. Koos, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “In-service monitoring of PON access networks with powerline independent devices,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 6(11), 1018–1027 (2014).
[Crossref]

Qian, Y.

Qiu, X.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), S24–S32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Raack, C.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), S24–S32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Roberts, H.

Roeger, M.

Rohde, H.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), S24–S32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ruffini, M.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), S24–S32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schiano, M.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), S24–S32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schmuck, H.

Shlyagin, M. G.

V. V. Spirin, F. J. Mendieta, S. V. Miridonov, M. G. Shlyagin, A. A. Chtcherbakov, and P. L. Swart, “Localization of a loss-inducing perturbation with variable accuracy along a test fiber using transmission-reflection analysis,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 569–571 (2004).
[Crossref]

Smith, J.

Song, H.

H. Song, B. W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: a survey of research challenges, demonstrations, and bandwidth assignment mechanisms,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 12(1), 112–123 (2010).
[Crossref]

Spirin, V. V.

V. V. Spirin, F. J. Mendieta, S. V. Miridonov, M. G. Shlyagin, A. A. Chtcherbakov, and P. L. Swart, “Localization of a loss-inducing perturbation with variable accuracy along a test fiber using transmission-reflection analysis,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 569–571 (2004).
[Crossref]

Straub, M.

Swart, P. L.

V. V. Spirin, F. J. Mendieta, S. V. Miridonov, M. G. Shlyagin, A. A. Chtcherbakov, and P. L. Swart, “Localization of a loss-inducing perturbation with variable accuracy along a test fiber using transmission-reflection analysis,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 569–571 (2004).
[Crossref]

Talli, G.

Townsend, P.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), S24–S32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Townsend, P. D.

Urban, P.

P. Urban, G. V. Llosera, E. Medeiros, and S. Dahlfort, “Fiber plant manager: An OTDR- and OTM-Based PON monitoring system,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(2), S9–S15 (2013).

Valvo, M.

Wessaly, R.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), S24–S32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wey, J. S.

Wong, E.

Wosinska, L.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), S24–S32 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. M. Machuca, J. Chen, and L. Wosinska, “Efficient protection in TDM PONs,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(8), 110–117 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wuilpart, M.

Yan, X.

Yin, X.

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), S24–S32 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, C.

Zhang, X.

Zhou, X.

Comput. Commun. (1)

K. Fouli, L. Chen, and M. Maier, “Time-, wavelength-, and code-domain optical reflection monitoring for next-generation access-metro networks,” Comput. Commun. 34(8), 1011–1021 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. (2)

M. A. Esmail and H. Fathallah, “Physical layer monitoring techniques for TDM-passive optical networks: a survey,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 15(2), 943–958 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Song, B. W. Kim, and B. Mukherjee, “Long-reach optical access networks: a survey of research challenges, demonstrations, and bandwidth assignment mechanisms,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tutor. 12(1), 112–123 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (3)

C. M. Machuca, J. Chen, and L. Wosinska, “Efficient protection in TDM PONs,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 50(8), 110–117 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Ruffini, L. Wosinska, M. Achouche, J. Chen, N. Doran, F. Farjady, J. Montalvo, P. Ossieur, B. O’Sullivan, N. Parsons, T. Pfeiffer, X. Qiu, C. Raack, H. Rohde, M. Schiano, P. Townsend, R. Wessaly, X. Yin, and D. B. Payne, “DISCUS: An end-to-end solution for ubiquitous broadband optical access,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 52(2), S24–S32 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Urban, G. V. Llosera, E. Medeiros, and S. Dahlfort, “Fiber plant manager: An OTDR- and OTM-Based PON monitoring system,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 51(2), S9–S15 (2013).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

V. V. Spirin, F. J. Mendieta, S. V. Miridonov, M. G. Shlyagin, A. A. Chtcherbakov, and P. L. Swart, “Localization of a loss-inducing perturbation with variable accuracy along a test fiber using transmission-reflection analysis,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16(2), 569–571 (2004).
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M. Cen, J. Chen, P. Mégret, V. Moeyaert, and M. Wuilpart, “Fast and simple fault monitoring for long-reach passive optical networks,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communications (IEEE, 2014), paper P.7.15.
[Crossref]

M. Cen, J. Chen, V. Moeyaert, P. Mégret, and M. Wuilpart, “Efficient monitoring for ring-based long-reach passive optical networks,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th4H.4.
[Crossref]

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M. Cen, J. Chen, V. Moeyaert, P. Mégret, and M. Wuilpart, “A full monitoring scheme for long-reach TWDM PONs,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper AM2E.1.
[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of ring-and-spur LR-PON.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of 2λ -TRA technique [15].
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic diagram of the proposed full monitoring scheme (OS: optical switch, ONU: optical network unit, CO: central office, FF: feeder fiber, RN: remote node, DF: distribution fiber, SPL: splitter, SLD: super luminescent diode, AWG: arrayed waveguide grating), PBi is measured at the RN while PTi is measured at the ONU side.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Expected localization errors and STDs as a function of RL when a fiber break occurs in a distribution fiber.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 R1 and R2 for different RL values when an event is introduced at various locations along a 5km-long drop fiber.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Expected localization errors and STDs as a function of IL when a fiber bending occurs at the distributed fiber.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Expected localization errors and STDs under three different accuracy levels (0.1%, 5% and 50%) of powermeters as a function of IL when a reflective event occurs in a distribution fiber.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Expected localization errors and STDs under different accuracy levels of powermeters as a function of RL when a reflective event occurs in a distribution fiber. (a) IL = 5dB, (b) IL = 10dB, (c) IL = 15dB
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Expected localization errors and STDs under three different powermeter accuracy levels (0.1%, 5% and 50%) as a function of IL when a non-reflective event occurs in a distribution fiber.

Tables (6)

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Table 1 Comparison between the measured zp by OTDR and the 2λ-TRA solution.

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Table 2 Experimental results for connector mismatching.

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Table 3 Comparison between the measured zp by OTDR and the 1λ-TRA solution.

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Table 4 Parameters of different wavelengths.

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Table 5 Parameters of different wavelengths.

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Table 6 Comparison between OTDR and the proposed TRA based monitoring scheme for LR-PON.

Equations (9)

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P B0i = P 0i [ 10 ( DIR 10 ) + I i1 10 ( R L OS 10 ) + I i2 10 ( R L filter1 10 ) + I i3 10 ( R L filter2 10 ) + I i4 10 ( R L SPL 10 ) ] + I i5 P 0i [RA Y i ( L 1 )+RA Y i ( L 2 )+RA Y i ( L 3 )+RA Y i ( L 4 )] + I i5 P 0i [ 10 ( R L end1 10 ) T i 2 ( L 1 )+ 10 ( R L end2 10 ) T i 2 ( L 2 )+ 10 ( R L end3 10 ) T i 2 ( L 3 )+ 10 ( R L end4 10 ) T i 2 ( L 4 )]
RA Y i (x)= S i α si (1 e 2 a i x 2 a i )
I i1 = 10 ( I L cir_i1 10 ) 10 ( I L cir_i2 10 )
I i2 = 10 ( I L cir_i1 10 ) 10 ( I L cir_i2 10 ) 10 ( I L OSi 5 )
I i3 = 10 ( I L cir_i1 10 ) 10 ( I L cir_i2 10 ) 10 ( I L OSi 5 ) 10 ( I L filter1i 5 )
I i4 = 10 ( I L cir_i1 10 ) 10 ( I L cir_i2 10 ) 10 ( I L OSi 5 ) 10 ( I L filter1i 5 ) 10 ( I L filter2i 5 )
I i5 = 10 ( I L cir_i1 10 ) 10 ( I L cir_i2 10 ) 10 ( I L OSi 5 ) 10 ( I L filter1i 5 ) 10 ( I L filter2i 5 ) 10 ( I L SPLi 5 )
P Bi = P 0i [ 10 ( DIR 10 ) + I i1 10 ( R L OS 10 ) + I i2 10 ( R L filter1 10 ) + I i3 10 ( R L filter2 10 ) + I i4 10 ( R L SPL 10 ) + I i5 RA Y i ( z p )] + I i5 P 0i [ 10 ILi 5 ×[RA Y i ( L 1 )RA Y i ( z p )]]+ I i5 P 0i T i 2 ( z p )× 10 RL 10 + I i5 P 0i [RA Y i ( L 2 )+RA Y i ( L 3 )+RA Y i ( L 4 )] + I i5 P 0i 10 ILi 5 T i 2 ( L 1 )× 10 ( R L end1 10 ) + I i5 P 0i [ 10 ( R L end2 10 ) T i 2 ( L 2 )] + I i5 P 0i [ 10 ( R L end3 10 ) T i 2 ( L 3 )+ 10 ( R L end4 10 ) T i 2 ( L 4 )]
R i = P Bi P B0i

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