Abstract

While silicon photonic resonant cavities have been widely investigated for biosensing applications, enhancing their sensitivity and detection limit continues to be an area of active research. Here, we describe how to engineer the effective refractive index and mode profile of a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide using sub-wavelength gratings (SWG) and report on its observed performance as a biosensor. We designed a 30 μm diameter SWG ring resonator and fabricated it using Ebeam lithography. Its characterization resulted in a quality factor, Q, of 7 · 103, bulk sensitivity Sb = 490 nm/RIU, and system limit of detection sLoD = 2 · 10−6 RIU. Finally we employ a model biological sandwich assay to demonstrate its utility for biosensing applications.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (2)

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, and I. n. Molina-Fernández, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 25–49 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Donzella, A. Sherwali, J. Flueckiger, S. M. Grist, S. T. Fard, and L. Chrostowski, “Design and fabrication of soi micro-ring resonators based on sub-wavelength grating waveguides,” Opt. Express 23, 4791–4803 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (8)

V. Donzella, A. Sherwali, J. Flueckiger, S. TalebiFard, S. M. Grist, and L. Chrostowski, “Sub-wavelength grating components for integrated optics applications on soi chips,” Opt. Express 22, 21037–21050 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Flueckiger, R. Bojko, A. Liu, A. Reid, J. Pond, N. A. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Precise control of the coupling coefficient through destructive interference in silicon waveguide bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5519–5522 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, H. Yun, W. Shi, R. Bojko, N. A. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Focusing sub-wavelength grating couplers with low back reflections for rapid prototyping of silicon photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 22, 20652–20662 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, I. Glesk, and L. R. Chen, “Subwavelength grating filtering devices,” Opt. Express 22, 15335–15345 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gonzalo Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Pérez-Galacho, R. Halir, I. Molina-Fernández, D.-X. Xu, and J. H Schmid, “Evanescent field waveguide sensing with subwavelength grating structures in silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4442–4445 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-W. Hoste, S. Werquin, T. Claes, and P. Bienstman, “Conformational analysis of proteins with a dual polarisation silicon microring,” Opt. Express 22, 2807–2820 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Fard, V. Donzella, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, S. M. Grist, P. TalebiFard, Y. Wu, R. J. Bojko, E. Kwok, N. A. Jaeger, and et al., “Performance of ultra-thin soi-based resonators for sensing applications,” Opt. Express 22, 14166–14179 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dai and J. E. Bowers, “Silicon-based on-chip multiplexing technologies and devices for peta-bit optical interconnects,” Nanophotonics 3, 283–311 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

S. M. Grist, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, V. Donzella, W. Shi, S. TalebiFard, J. T. Kirk, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic micro-disk resonators for label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 21, 7994–8006 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophotonics 6, 821–828 (2013).
[PubMed]

J. T. Kirk, N. D. Brault, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, S. Jiang, and D. M. Ratner, “Zwitterionic polymer-modified silicon microring resonators for label-free biosensing in undiluted humanplasma,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 100–105 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

Y. Liu and H. Salemink, “Photonic crystal-based all-optical on-chip sensor,” Opt. Express 20, 19912–19920 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. McClellan, L. L. Domier, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free virus detection using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 31, 388–392 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

J. Arlett, E. Myers, and M. Roukes, “Comparative advantages of mechanical biosensors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 203–215 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Washburn, M. S. McClellan, and R. C. Bailey, “Sensitive on-chip detection of a protein biomarker in human serum and plasma over an extended dynamic range using silicon photonic microring resonators and sub-micron beads,” Lab Chip 11, 2042–2044 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Bojko, J. Li, L. He, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and Y. Aida, “Electron beam lithography writing strategies for low loss, high confinement silicon optical waveguides,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 29, 06F309 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (9)

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, S. Janz, G. C. Aers, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating periodic structures in silicon-on-insulator: a new type of microphotonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18, 20251–20262 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. B. Gylfason, C. F. Carlborg, A. Kazmierczak, F. Dortu, L. Vivien, C. A. Barrios, W. van der Wijngaart, and G. Stemme, “On-chip temperature compensation in an integrated slot-waveguide ring resonator refractive index sensor array,” Opt. Express 18, 3226–3237 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating crossings for silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 16146–16155 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Washburn, T. A. Martin, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Characterization of the evanescent field profile and bound mass sensitivity of a label-free silicon photonic microring resonator biosensing platform,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 26, 1283–1291 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. J. Qavi and R. C. Bailey, “Multiplexed detection and label-free quantitation of micrornas using arrays of silicon photonic microring resonators,” Angew. Chem. 122, 4712–4715 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Soltani, Q. Li, S. Yegnanarayanan, and A. Adibi, “Toward ultimate miniaturization of high q silicon traveling-wave microresonators,” Opt. Express 18, 19541–19557 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hochberg and T. Baehr-Jones, “Towards fabless silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 492–494 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Gardes, and D. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4, 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron 16, 654–661 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

K. De Vos, J. Girones, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Soi optical microring resonator with poly (ethylene glycol) polymer brush for label-free biosensor applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 2528–2533 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Prabhathan, V. Murukeshan, Z. Jing, and P. V. Ramana, “Compact soi nanowire refractive index sensor using phase shifted bragg grating,” Opt. Express 17, 15330–15341 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81, 9499–9506 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schachtb, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 1, 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

2007 (3)

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317, 783–787 (2007).
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2006 (2)

2005 (2)

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2004 (1)

J. Vörös, “The density and refractive index of adsorbing protein layers,” Biophys. J. 87, 553–561 (2004).
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2002 (1)

F. Höök, J. Vörös, M. Rodahl, R. Kurrat, P. Böni, J. Ramsden, M. Textor, N. Spencer, P. Tengvall, and J. Gold, “A comparative study of protein adsorption on titanium oxide surfaces using in situ ellipsometry, optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance/dissipation,” Colloids Surf., B 24, 155–170 (2002).
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2001 (1)

M. C. Coen, R. Lehmann, P. Gröning, M. Bielmann, C. Galli, and L. Schlapbach, “Adsorption and bioactivity of protein a on silicon surfaces studied by afm and xps,” J. ColloidInterface Sci. 233, 180–189 (2001).
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2000 (1)

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

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1994 (1)

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1992 (1)

1990 (1)

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1981 (1)

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1956 (1)

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Adibi, A.

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Aida, Y.

R. J. Bojko, J. Li, L. He, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and Y. Aida, “Electron beam lithography writing strategies for low loss, high confinement silicon optical waveguides,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol., B 29, 06F309 (2011).
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S. Rodriguez-Mozaz, M. J. Alda, M.-P. Marco, and D. Barceló, “Biosensors for environmental monitoring: A global perspective,” Talanta 65, 291–297 (2005).
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J. Arlett, E. Myers, and M. Roukes, “Comparative advantages of mechanical biosensors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 203–215 (2011).
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Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317, 783–787 (2007).
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J. T. Kirk, N. D. Brault, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, S. Jiang, and D. M. Ratner, “Zwitterionic polymer-modified silicon microring resonators for label-free biosensing in undiluted humanplasma,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 100–105 (2013).
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Baets, R.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Soi optical microring resonator with poly (ethylene glycol) polymer brush for label-free biosensor applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 2528–2533 (2009).
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T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schachtb, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 1, 197–204 (2009).
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K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator forsensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15, 7610–7615 (2007).
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M. S. McClellan, L. L. Domier, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free virus detection using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 31, 388–392 (2012).
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A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81, 9499–9506 (2009).
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Barceló, D.

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M. C. Coen, R. Lehmann, P. Gröning, M. Bielmann, C. Galli, and L. Schlapbach, “Adsorption and bioactivity of protein a on silicon surfaces studied by afm and xps,” J. ColloidInterface Sci. 233, 180–189 (2001).
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Bienstman, P.

J.-W. Hoste, S. Werquin, T. Claes, and P. Bienstman, “Conformational analysis of proteins with a dual polarisation silicon microring,” Opt. Express 22, 2807–2820 (2014).
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T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schachtb, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 1, 197–204 (2009).
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K. De Vos, J. Girones, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Soi optical microring resonator with poly (ethylene glycol) polymer brush for label-free biosensor applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 2528–2533 (2009).
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K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator forsensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15, 7610–7615 (2007).
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F. Höök, J. Vörös, M. Rodahl, R. Kurrat, P. Böni, J. Ramsden, M. Textor, N. Spencer, P. Tengvall, and J. Gold, “A comparative study of protein adsorption on titanium oxide surfaces using in situ ellipsometry, optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance/dissipation,” Colloids Surf., B 24, 155–170 (2002).
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J. P. Dowling and C. M. Bowden, “Anomalous index of refraction in photonic bandgap materials,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 345–351 (1994).
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Bowers, J. E.

D. Dai and J. E. Bowers, “Silicon-based on-chip multiplexing technologies and devices for peta-bit optical interconnects,” Nanophotonics 3, 283–311 (2014).
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Brault, N. D.

J. T. Kirk, N. D. Brault, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, S. Jiang, and D. M. Ratner, “Zwitterionic polymer-modified silicon microring resonators for label-free biosensing in undiluted humanplasma,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 100–105 (2013).
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Carlborg, C. F.

Casquel, R.

Cheben, P.

R. Halir, P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, D.-X. Xu, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, and I. n. Molina-Fernández, “Waveguide sub-wavelength structures: a review of principles and applications,” Laser Photon. Rev. 9, 25–49 (2015).
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J. Gonzalo Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, A. Ortega-Moñux, C. Alonso-Ramos, D. Pérez-Galacho, R. Halir, I. Molina-Fernández, D.-X. Xu, and J. H Schmid, “Evanescent field waveguide sensing with subwavelength grating structures in silicon-on-insulator,” Opt. Lett. 39, 4442–4445 (2014).
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P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating crossings for silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 16146–16155 (2010).
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P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, S. Janz, G. C. Aers, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating periodic structures in silicon-on-insulator: a new type of microphotonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18, 20251–20262 (2010).
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P. Cheben, D. X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, “Subwavelength waveguide grating for mode conversion and light coupling in integrated optics,” Opt. Express 14, 4695–4702 (2006).
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P. Cheben, P. Bock, J. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, R. Ma, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, and B. Lamontagne, “Subwavelength and diffractive waveguide structures and their applications in nanophotonics and sensing,” Proc. SPIE OPTO, (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2011), pp. 794111.
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A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Waldron, J. Lapointe, T. Mischki, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Schmid, and P. Cheben, “Sensitive label-free biomolecular detection using thin silicon waveguides,” Adv. Opt. Technol.2008 (2008).

Chen, L. R.

Cheung, K. C.

S. M. Grist, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, V. Donzella, W. Shi, S. TalebiFard, J. T. Kirk, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic micro-disk resonators for label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 21, 7994–8006 (2013).
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X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophotonics 6, 821–828 (2013).
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J. Flueckiger, S. M. Grist, G. Bisra, L. Chrostowski, and K. C. Cheung, “Cascaded silicon-on-insulator microring resonators for the detection of biomolecules in pdms microfluidic channels,” Proc. SPIE MOEMS-MEMS, (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2011), pp. 79290I.
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Chrostowski, L.

V. Donzella, A. Sherwali, J. Flueckiger, S. M. Grist, S. T. Fard, and L. Chrostowski, “Design and fabrication of soi micro-ring resonators based on sub-wavelength grating waveguides,” Opt. Express 23, 4791–4803 (2015).
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X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophotonics 6, 821–828 (2013).
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J. Flueckiger, S. M. Grist, G. Bisra, L. Chrostowski, and K. C. Cheung, “Cascaded silicon-on-insulator microring resonators for the detection of biomolecules in pdms microfluidic channels,” Proc. SPIE MOEMS-MEMS, (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2011), pp. 79290I.
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Y. Wang, W. Shi, X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, H. Yun, N. A. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Fully etched grating coupler with low back reflection,” in Proceedings Photonics North 2013, (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2013), pp. 89150U.
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Claes, T.

J.-W. Hoste, S. Werquin, T. Claes, and P. Bienstman, “Conformational analysis of proteins with a dual polarisation silicon microring,” Opt. Express 22, 2807–2820 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schachtb, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 1, 197–204 (2009).
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Coen, M. C.

M. C. Coen, R. Lehmann, P. Gröning, M. Bielmann, C. Galli, and L. Schlapbach, “Adsorption and bioactivity of protein a on silicon surfaces studied by afm and xps,” J. ColloidInterface Sci. 233, 180–189 (2001).
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Cunningham, J.

U. Levy, M. Abashin, K. Ikeda, A. Krishnamoorthy, J. Cunningham, and Y. Fainman, “Inhomogenous dielectric metamaterials with space-variant polarizability,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 243901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dahlem, M.

S. Yousuf, M. M. Shahin, H. Gevorgyan, B. Voort, A. Taha, C. Dimas, M. Dahlem, and A. Khilo, “Suspended microring resonator sensor using internal sub-wavelength grating,” in Proc. Advanced Photonics 2015, (Optical Society of America, 2015), p. SeS4C.4.
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Dai, D.

D. Dai and J. E. Bowers, “Silicon-based on-chip multiplexing technologies and devices for peta-bit optical interconnects,” Nanophotonics 3, 283–311 (2014).
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De Vos, K.

K. De Vos, J. Girones, S. Popelka, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Soi optical microring resonator with poly (ethylene glycol) polymer brush for label-free biosensor applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 2528–2533 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schachtb, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 1, 197–204 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator forsensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15, 7610–7615 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delâge, A.

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating crossings for silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 16146–16155 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, S. Janz, G. C. Aers, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating periodic structures in silicon-on-insulator: a new type of microphotonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18, 20251–20262 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Waldron, J. Lapointe, T. Mischki, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Schmid, and P. Cheben, “Sensitive label-free biomolecular detection using thin silicon waveguides,” Adv. Opt. Technol.2008 (2008).

P. Cheben, P. Bock, J. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, R. Ma, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, and B. Lamontagne, “Subwavelength and diffractive waveguide structures and their applications in nanophotonics and sensing,” Proc. SPIE OPTO, (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2011), pp. 794111.
[Crossref]

Densmore, A.

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating crossings for silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 16146–16155 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, S. Janz, G. C. Aers, D.-X. Xu, A. Densmore, and T. J. Hall, “Subwavelength grating periodic structures in silicon-on-insulator: a new type of microphotonic waveguide,” Opt. Express 18, 20251–20262 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, D. X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, “Subwavelength waveguide grating for mode conversion and light coupling in integrated optics,” Opt. Express 14, 4695–4702 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, P. Bock, J. Schmid, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, R. Ma, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, and B. Lamontagne, “Subwavelength and diffractive waveguide structures and their applications in nanophotonics and sensing,” Proc. SPIE OPTO, (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2011), pp. 794111.
[Crossref]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Waldron, J. Lapointe, T. Mischki, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Schmid, and P. Cheben, “Sensitive label-free biomolecular detection using thin silicon waveguides,” Adv. Opt. Technol.2008 (2008).

Dimas, C.

S. Yousuf, M. M. Shahin, H. Gevorgyan, B. Voort, A. Taha, C. Dimas, M. Dahlem, and A. Khilo, “Suspended microring resonator sensor using internal sub-wavelength grating,” in Proc. Advanced Photonics 2015, (Optical Society of America, 2015), p. SeS4C.4.
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A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81, 9499–9506 (2009).
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V. Donzella, A. Sherwali, J. Flueckiger, S. TalebiFard, S. M. Grist, and L. Chrostowski, “Sub-wavelength grating components for integrated optics applications on soi chips,” Opt. Express 22, 21037–21050 (2014).
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H. Sohlström, K. B. Gylfason, and D. Hill, “Real-time label-free biosensing with integrated planar waveguide ring resonators,” Proc. SPIE Photonics Europe, (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2010), pp. 77190B.
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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of SWG waveguide: w is the waveguide width and t the thickness; Λ is the SWG period and the length of the Si blocks is determined by the duty cycle η.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) Electric field magnitude distribution in the xz-plane defined by a cut at y = t/2 for a SWG waveguide with dimensions of w = 500 nm, Λ = 250 nm, η = 0.7, and t = 220 nm; b) Distribution of the z-component (Ez); c) Distribution of the x-component (Ex); d) Cross-section in the middle of Si block, and e) Cross-section in the middle of the gap.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) Effective and group index of SWG waveguide with geometry: w = 500 nm, Λ = 250 nm, and t = 220 nm; The blue dash-dotted lines indicate the substrate (nsub) and the Brillouin zone (nbz) limits. For a duty cycle η = 0.7 the equivalent effective index approximation is shown; b) zoomed in to show the refractive index range 1.4 to 2.4 (range of effective index).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effective index of SWG waveguide with geometry w = 500 nm and t = 220 nm for grating periods Λ = 250 nm (black), Λ = 300 nm (red), and Λ = 350 nm (green); The blue dash-dotted lines indicate the substrate (nsub) and the Brillouin zone (nbz) limits. If not indicated the duty cycle of the grating is η = 0.5.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of MODE Solutions and FDTD Solutions sensitivity simulations for a waveguide geometry: w = 500 nm, grating period Λ = 250 nm, waveguide thickness t = 220 nm, and duty cycle of η = 0.6 and η = 0.7 respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SEM image of SWG ring resonator fabricated by Ebeam lithography. Waveguide geometry: w = 500 nm, grating period Λ = 250 nm, waveguide thickness t = 220 nm, and duty cycle η = 0.7.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

a) Transmission spectrum for a ring with R = 30 μm, w = 500 nm, t = 220 nm, Λ = 250 nm, η = 70 %, and gaps of g = 300 nm and g = 400 nm respectively, exposed to DI water.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

a) Transmission peak for a ring with R = 30 μm, w = 500 nm, Λ = 250 nm, η = 70 %, t = 220 nm, and gap g = 400 nm exposed to different solutions of NaCl; b) reported peak wavelength shift.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Sensitvity results for a SWG ring with R = 30 μm, w = 500 nm, Λ = 250 nm, η = 60 %, and t = 220 nm

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Biosensing cartoon: Region A = anti-streptavidin (antiSA) (10 μg/mL), B = Bovine Serum Albumin (BAS) (20 μg/mL), C = streptavidin (SA) (20 μg/mL), and D = biotinylated-BSA (50 μg/mL). After each reagent the sensor is washed with PBS, indicated by the grey area mid-way through each region.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Biosensing experimental results: Region A = anti-streptavidin (antiSA) (10 μg/mL), B = Bovine Serum Albumin (BAS) (20 μg/mL), C = streptavidin (SA) (20 μg/mL), and D = biotinylated-BSA (50 μg/mL). After each reagent the sensor is washed with PBS, indicated by the grey area mid-way through each region.

Equations (4)

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E = E K ( x , y , z ) e i K z
Δ n = η Δ n
S b = Δ λ res Δ n clad = λ res n g ( n eff n clad )
S s = Δ λ res Δ t ad = λ res n g ( n eff t ad )

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