Abstract

Low stress W/Si multilayer mirrors are demanded in the hard X-ray telescopes to achieve the high angular resolution. To reduce the stress of the as-deposited multilayer and maintain a high reflectivity, two groups of low-temperature annealing experiments were performed on the periodic multilayers with a d-spacing of ~3.8 nm. The temperature-dependent experiments show that the 150 °C annealing can slightly increase the reflectivity while the stress reduced only by 24%. Higher temperature annealing induced a larger reduction of the stress and the multilayer reached an almost zero stress state at 250 °C. The stress relaxation was accompanied by a small drop of reflectivity of ≤5% and a period compaction of <0.02 nm. The time-dependent experiments indicate that most of the stress changes occurred within the first 10 minutes while a prolonged annealing is not useful. The X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy were further used to study the microstructure changes of the multilayers. It is found that the W/Si multilayer exhibits an amorphous structure before and after annealing, while an enhanced diffusion and intermixing is the main reason for the stress relaxation and structure changes.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Thermal and stress studies of normal incidence Mo/B4C multilayers for a 6.7 nm wavelength

Miriam Barthelmess and Saša Bajt
Appl. Opt. 50(11) 1610-1619 (2011)

Nitridated Ru/B4C multilayer mirrors with improved interface structure, zero stress, and enhanced hard X-ray reflectance

Qiushi Huang, Yang Liu, Yang Yang, Runze Qi, Yufei Feng, Igor V. Kozhevnikov, Wenbin Li, Zhong Zhang, Hui Jiang, Ling Zhang, Aiguo Li, Jie Wang, and Zhanshan Wang
Opt. Express 26(17) 21803-21812 (2018)

Nitridated Pd/B4C multilayer mirrors for soft X-ray region: internal structure and aging effects

Yiwen Wang, Qiushi Huang, Qiang Yi, Igor V. Kozhevnikov, Runze Qi, Mingwu Wen, Philippe Jonnard, Jinshuai Zhang, Angelo Giglia, Zhong Zhang, and Zhanshan Wang
Opt. Express 25(7) 7749-7760 (2017)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Y. Dong, “The X-ray Timing and Polarization Satellite - 1, 2, 3: Uncovering the mysteries of black holes and extreme physics in the universe,” Proc. SPIE 9144, 91443O (2014).
  2. B. Z. Mu, H. Y. Liu, H. J. Jin, X. J. Yang, F. F. Wang, W. B. Li, H. Chen, and Z. S. Wang, “Optimization of geometrical design of nested conical Wolter-I X-ray telescope,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(10), 103401 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. J. Hailey, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, N. F. Brejnholt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. A. Decker, M. Doll, J. Gum, J. E. Koglin, C. P. Jensen, L. Hale, K. Mori, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “The nuclear spectroscopic telescope array (NuSTAR): optics overview and current status,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 77320T (2010).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. H. Modi, S. K. Rai, M. Idir, F. Schaefers, and G. S. Lodha, “NbC/Si multilayer mirror for next generation EUV light sources,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15114–15120 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. P. N. Rao, S. K. Rai, M. Nayak, and G. S. Lodha, “Stability and normal incidence reflectivity of W/B4C multilayer mirror near the boron K absorption edge,” Appl. Opt. 52(25), 6126–6130 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. H. Lee, K. Y. Woo, K. H. Kim, H. D. Kim, and T. G. Kim, “ITO/Ag/ITO multilayer-based transparent conductive electrodes for ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Lett. 38(23), 5055–5058 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. Najar, H. Omi, and T. Tawara, “Effect of structure and composition on optical properties of Er-Sc silicates prepared from multi-nanolayer films,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7021–7030 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. D. L. Windt, “Stress, microstructure, and stability of Mo/Si, W/Si, and Mo/C multilayer films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18(3), 980–991 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  9. V. Dupuis, M. F. Ravet, C. Tête, M. Piecuch, and B. Vidal, “Characteristics and thermal behavior of W/Si multilayers with well-defined interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(7), 3348–3355 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. M. Molarius, S. Franssila, G. Drozdy, and J. Saarilahti, “Tungsten silicide formation from sequentially sputtered tungsten and silicon films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 53, 383–390 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. Brunel, S. Enzo, M. Jergel, S. Luby, E. Majkova, and I. Vavra, “Structural characterization and thermal stability of W/Si multilayers,” J. Mater. Res. 8(10), 2600–2607 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. B. Kortright and E. Ziegler, “Stability of tungsten/carbon and tungsten/silicon multilayer x-ray mirrors under thermal annealing and x-radiation exposure,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(1), 168–174 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  13. C. Montcalm, “Reduction of residual stress in extreme ultraviolet Mo/Si multilayer mirrors with postdeposition thermal treatments,” Opt. Eng. 40(3), 469–477 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Barthelmess and S. Bajt, “Thermal and stress studies of normal incidence Mo/B4C multilayers for a 6.7 nm wavelength,” Appl. Opt. 50(11), 1610–1619 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Y. Platonov, D. M. Broadway, B. DeGroot, P. H. Mao, F. A. Harrison, G. Gutman, and J. Rodriguez, “X-ray reflectivity and mechanical stress in W/Si multilayers deposited on thin substrates of glass, epoxy-replicated aluminum foil, and Si wafer,” Proc. SPIE 3133, 469–475 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  16. K. D. Joensen, P. Voutov, A. Szentgyorgyi, J. Roll, P. Gorenstein, P. Høghøj, and F. E. Christensen, “Design of grazing-incidence multilayer supermirrors for hard-x-ray reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 34(34), 7935–7944 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. L. B. Freund and S. Suresh, Thin film materials-stress, defect formation and surface evolution (Cambridge University, 2003)
  18. J. F. Shackelford, W. Alexander, and J. S. Park, CRC materials science and engineering handbook (CRC, 1994).
  19. MEMSnet [DB/OL].MNX, http://www. Memsnet. org/material/ .
  20. O. B. Loopstra, E. R. van Snek, T. H. de Keijser, and E. H. Mittemeijer, “Model for stress and volume changes of a thin film on a substrate upon annealing: Application to amorphous Mo/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 44(24), 13519–13533 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. E. N. Zubarev, “Reactive diffusion in multilayer metal/silicon nanostructures,” Phys. Uspekhi 54(5), 473–498 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  22. D. L. Voronov, E. N. Zubarev, V. V. Kondratenko, A. V. Penkov, Y. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, I. A. Artioukov, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. A. Uspenskii, and J. F. Seely, “Thermoresistive multilayer mirrors with antidiffusion barriers for work at the wavelengths 40–50 nm,” 8th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, Aspen, U.S.A., AIP Conf. Proc. 641, 575–582 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  23. S. L. Nyabero, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, E. Zoethout, G. von Blanckenhagen, J. Bosgra, R. A. Loch, and F. Bijkerk, “Interlayer growth in Mo/B4C multilayered structures upon thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(14), 144310 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

Y. Dong, “The X-ray Timing and Polarization Satellite - 1, 2, 3: Uncovering the mysteries of black holes and extreme physics in the universe,” Proc. SPIE 9144, 91443O (2014).

2013 (3)

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

C. J. Hailey, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, N. F. Brejnholt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. A. Decker, M. Doll, J. Gum, J. E. Koglin, C. P. Jensen, L. Hale, K. Mori, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “The nuclear spectroscopic telescope array (NuSTAR): optics overview and current status,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 77320T (2010).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

D. L. Voronov, E. N. Zubarev, V. V. Kondratenko, A. V. Penkov, Y. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, I. A. Artioukov, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. A. Uspenskii, and J. F. Seely, “Thermoresistive multilayer mirrors with antidiffusion barriers for work at the wavelengths 40–50 nm,” 8th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, Aspen, U.S.A., AIP Conf. Proc. 641, 575–582 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

C. Montcalm, “Reduction of residual stress in extreme ultraviolet Mo/Si multilayer mirrors with postdeposition thermal treatments,” Opt. Eng. 40(3), 469–477 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

D. L. Windt, “Stress, microstructure, and stability of Mo/Si, W/Si, and Mo/C multilayer films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18(3), 980–991 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

Y. Y. Platonov, D. M. Broadway, B. DeGroot, P. H. Mao, F. A. Harrison, G. Gutman, and J. Rodriguez, “X-ray reflectivity and mechanical stress in W/Si multilayers deposited on thin substrates of glass, epoxy-replicated aluminum foil, and Si wafer,” Proc. SPIE 3133, 469–475 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

M. Brunel, S. Enzo, M. Jergel, S. Luby, E. Majkova, and I. Vavra, “Structural characterization and thermal stability of W/Si multilayers,” J. Mater. Res. 8(10), 2600–2607 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (3)

J. B. Kortright and E. Ziegler, “Stability of tungsten/carbon and tungsten/silicon multilayer x-ray mirrors under thermal annealing and x-radiation exposure,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(1), 168–174 (1991).
[Crossref]

O. B. Loopstra, E. R. van Snek, T. H. de Keijser, and E. H. Mittemeijer, “Model for stress and volume changes of a thin film on a substrate upon annealing: Application to amorphous Mo/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 44(24), 13519–13533 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Molarius, S. Franssila, G. Drozdy, and J. Saarilahti, “Tungsten silicide formation from sequentially sputtered tungsten and silicon films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 53, 383–390 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

V. Dupuis, M. F. Ravet, C. Tête, M. Piecuch, and B. Vidal, “Characteristics and thermal behavior of W/Si multilayers with well-defined interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(7), 3348–3355 (1990).
[Crossref]

An, H. J.

C. J. Hailey, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, N. F. Brejnholt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. A. Decker, M. Doll, J. Gum, J. E. Koglin, C. P. Jensen, L. Hale, K. Mori, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “The nuclear spectroscopic telescope array (NuSTAR): optics overview and current status,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 77320T (2010).
[Crossref]

Artioukov, I. A.

D. L. Voronov, E. N. Zubarev, V. V. Kondratenko, A. V. Penkov, Y. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, I. A. Artioukov, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. A. Uspenskii, and J. F. Seely, “Thermoresistive multilayer mirrors with antidiffusion barriers for work at the wavelengths 40–50 nm,” 8th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, Aspen, U.S.A., AIP Conf. Proc. 641, 575–582 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bajt, S.

Barthelmess, M.

Bijkerk, F.

S. L. Nyabero, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, E. Zoethout, G. von Blanckenhagen, J. Bosgra, R. A. Loch, and F. Bijkerk, “Interlayer growth in Mo/B4C multilayered structures upon thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(14), 144310 (2013).
[Crossref]

Blaedel, K. L.

C. J. Hailey, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, N. F. Brejnholt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. A. Decker, M. Doll, J. Gum, J. E. Koglin, C. P. Jensen, L. Hale, K. Mori, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “The nuclear spectroscopic telescope array (NuSTAR): optics overview and current status,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 77320T (2010).
[Crossref]

Bosgra, J.

S. L. Nyabero, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, E. Zoethout, G. von Blanckenhagen, J. Bosgra, R. A. Loch, and F. Bijkerk, “Interlayer growth in Mo/B4C multilayered structures upon thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(14), 144310 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brejnholt, N. F.

C. J. Hailey, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, N. F. Brejnholt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. A. Decker, M. Doll, J. Gum, J. E. Koglin, C. P. Jensen, L. Hale, K. Mori, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “The nuclear spectroscopic telescope array (NuSTAR): optics overview and current status,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 77320T (2010).
[Crossref]

Broadway, D. M.

Y. Y. Platonov, D. M. Broadway, B. DeGroot, P. H. Mao, F. A. Harrison, G. Gutman, and J. Rodriguez, “X-ray reflectivity and mechanical stress in W/Si multilayers deposited on thin substrates of glass, epoxy-replicated aluminum foil, and Si wafer,” Proc. SPIE 3133, 469–475 (1997).
[Crossref]

Brunel, M.

M. Brunel, S. Enzo, M. Jergel, S. Luby, E. Majkova, and I. Vavra, “Structural characterization and thermal stability of W/Si multilayers,” J. Mater. Res. 8(10), 2600–2607 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Christensen, F. E.

C. J. Hailey, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, N. F. Brejnholt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. A. Decker, M. Doll, J. Gum, J. E. Koglin, C. P. Jensen, L. Hale, K. Mori, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “The nuclear spectroscopic telescope array (NuSTAR): optics overview and current status,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 77320T (2010).
[Crossref]

K. D. Joensen, P. Voutov, A. Szentgyorgyi, J. Roll, P. Gorenstein, P. Høghøj, and F. E. Christensen, “Design of grazing-incidence multilayer supermirrors for hard-x-ray reflectors,” Appl. Opt. 34(34), 7935–7944 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Craig, W. W.

C. J. Hailey, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, N. F. Brejnholt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. A. Decker, M. Doll, J. Gum, J. E. Koglin, C. P. Jensen, L. Hale, K. Mori, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “The nuclear spectroscopic telescope array (NuSTAR): optics overview and current status,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 77320T (2010).
[Crossref]

de Keijser, T. H.

O. B. Loopstra, E. R. van Snek, T. H. de Keijser, and E. H. Mittemeijer, “Model for stress and volume changes of a thin film on a substrate upon annealing: Application to amorphous Mo/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 44(24), 13519–13533 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Decker, T. A.

C. J. Hailey, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, N. F. Brejnholt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. A. Decker, M. Doll, J. Gum, J. E. Koglin, C. P. Jensen, L. Hale, K. Mori, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “The nuclear spectroscopic telescope array (NuSTAR): optics overview and current status,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 77320T (2010).
[Crossref]

DeGroot, B.

Y. Y. Platonov, D. M. Broadway, B. DeGroot, P. H. Mao, F. A. Harrison, G. Gutman, and J. Rodriguez, “X-ray reflectivity and mechanical stress in W/Si multilayers deposited on thin substrates of glass, epoxy-replicated aluminum foil, and Si wafer,” Proc. SPIE 3133, 469–475 (1997).
[Crossref]

Doll, M.

C. J. Hailey, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, N. F. Brejnholt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. A. Decker, M. Doll, J. Gum, J. E. Koglin, C. P. Jensen, L. Hale, K. Mori, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “The nuclear spectroscopic telescope array (NuSTAR): optics overview and current status,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 77320T (2010).
[Crossref]

Dong, Y.

Y. Dong, “The X-ray Timing and Polarization Satellite - 1, 2, 3: Uncovering the mysteries of black holes and extreme physics in the universe,” Proc. SPIE 9144, 91443O (2014).

Drozdy, G.

J. M. Molarius, S. Franssila, G. Drozdy, and J. Saarilahti, “Tungsten silicide formation from sequentially sputtered tungsten and silicon films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 53, 383–390 (1991).
[Crossref]

Dupuis, V.

V. Dupuis, M. F. Ravet, C. Tête, M. Piecuch, and B. Vidal, “Characteristics and thermal behavior of W/Si multilayers with well-defined interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(7), 3348–3355 (1990).
[Crossref]

Enzo, S.

M. Brunel, S. Enzo, M. Jergel, S. Luby, E. Majkova, and I. Vavra, “Structural characterization and thermal stability of W/Si multilayers,” J. Mater. Res. 8(10), 2600–2607 (1993).
[Crossref]

Franssila, S.

J. M. Molarius, S. Franssila, G. Drozdy, and J. Saarilahti, “Tungsten silicide formation from sequentially sputtered tungsten and silicon films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 53, 383–390 (1991).
[Crossref]

Gorenstein, P.

Gum, J.

C. J. Hailey, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, N. F. Brejnholt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. A. Decker, M. Doll, J. Gum, J. E. Koglin, C. P. Jensen, L. Hale, K. Mori, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “The nuclear spectroscopic telescope array (NuSTAR): optics overview and current status,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 77320T (2010).
[Crossref]

Gutman, G.

Y. Y. Platonov, D. M. Broadway, B. DeGroot, P. H. Mao, F. A. Harrison, G. Gutman, and J. Rodriguez, “X-ray reflectivity and mechanical stress in W/Si multilayers deposited on thin substrates of glass, epoxy-replicated aluminum foil, and Si wafer,” Proc. SPIE 3133, 469–475 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hailey, C. J.

C. J. Hailey, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, N. F. Brejnholt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. A. Decker, M. Doll, J. Gum, J. E. Koglin, C. P. Jensen, L. Hale, K. Mori, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “The nuclear spectroscopic telescope array (NuSTAR): optics overview and current status,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 77320T (2010).
[Crossref]

Hale, L.

C. J. Hailey, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, N. F. Brejnholt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. A. Decker, M. Doll, J. Gum, J. E. Koglin, C. P. Jensen, L. Hale, K. Mori, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “The nuclear spectroscopic telescope array (NuSTAR): optics overview and current status,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 77320T (2010).
[Crossref]

Harrison, F. A.

Y. Y. Platonov, D. M. Broadway, B. DeGroot, P. H. Mao, F. A. Harrison, G. Gutman, and J. Rodriguez, “X-ray reflectivity and mechanical stress in W/Si multilayers deposited on thin substrates of glass, epoxy-replicated aluminum foil, and Si wafer,” Proc. SPIE 3133, 469–475 (1997).
[Crossref]

Høghøj, P.

Idir, M.

Jensen, C. P.

C. J. Hailey, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, N. F. Brejnholt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. A. Decker, M. Doll, J. Gum, J. E. Koglin, C. P. Jensen, L. Hale, K. Mori, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “The nuclear spectroscopic telescope array (NuSTAR): optics overview and current status,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 77320T (2010).
[Crossref]

Jergel, M.

M. Brunel, S. Enzo, M. Jergel, S. Luby, E. Majkova, and I. Vavra, “Structural characterization and thermal stability of W/Si multilayers,” J. Mater. Res. 8(10), 2600–2607 (1993).
[Crossref]

Jin, H. J.

Joensen, K. D.

Kim, H. D.

Kim, K. H.

Kim, T. G.

Koglin, J. E.

C. J. Hailey, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, N. F. Brejnholt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. A. Decker, M. Doll, J. Gum, J. E. Koglin, C. P. Jensen, L. Hale, K. Mori, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “The nuclear spectroscopic telescope array (NuSTAR): optics overview and current status,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 77320T (2010).
[Crossref]

Kondratenko, V. V.

D. L. Voronov, E. N. Zubarev, V. V. Kondratenko, A. V. Penkov, Y. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, I. A. Artioukov, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. A. Uspenskii, and J. F. Seely, “Thermoresistive multilayer mirrors with antidiffusion barriers for work at the wavelengths 40–50 nm,” 8th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, Aspen, U.S.A., AIP Conf. Proc. 641, 575–582 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kortright, J. B.

J. B. Kortright and E. Ziegler, “Stability of tungsten/carbon and tungsten/silicon multilayer x-ray mirrors under thermal annealing and x-radiation exposure,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(1), 168–174 (1991).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. H.

Li, W. B.

Liu, H. Y.

Loch, R. A.

S. L. Nyabero, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, E. Zoethout, G. von Blanckenhagen, J. Bosgra, R. A. Loch, and F. Bijkerk, “Interlayer growth in Mo/B4C multilayered structures upon thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(14), 144310 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lodha, G. S.

Loopstra, O. B.

O. B. Loopstra, E. R. van Snek, T. H. de Keijser, and E. H. Mittemeijer, “Model for stress and volume changes of a thin film on a substrate upon annealing: Application to amorphous Mo/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 44(24), 13519–13533 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luby, S.

M. Brunel, S. Enzo, M. Jergel, S. Luby, E. Majkova, and I. Vavra, “Structural characterization and thermal stability of W/Si multilayers,” J. Mater. Res. 8(10), 2600–2607 (1993).
[Crossref]

Majkova, E.

M. Brunel, S. Enzo, M. Jergel, S. Luby, E. Majkova, and I. Vavra, “Structural characterization and thermal stability of W/Si multilayers,” J. Mater. Res. 8(10), 2600–2607 (1993).
[Crossref]

Mao, P. H.

Y. Y. Platonov, D. M. Broadway, B. DeGroot, P. H. Mao, F. A. Harrison, G. Gutman, and J. Rodriguez, “X-ray reflectivity and mechanical stress in W/Si multilayers deposited on thin substrates of glass, epoxy-replicated aluminum foil, and Si wafer,” Proc. SPIE 3133, 469–475 (1997).
[Crossref]

Mittemeijer, E. H.

O. B. Loopstra, E. R. van Snek, T. H. de Keijser, and E. H. Mittemeijer, “Model for stress and volume changes of a thin film on a substrate upon annealing: Application to amorphous Mo/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 44(24), 13519–13533 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Modi, M. H.

Molarius, J. M.

J. M. Molarius, S. Franssila, G. Drozdy, and J. Saarilahti, “Tungsten silicide formation from sequentially sputtered tungsten and silicon films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 53, 383–390 (1991).
[Crossref]

Montcalm, C.

C. Montcalm, “Reduction of residual stress in extreme ultraviolet Mo/Si multilayer mirrors with postdeposition thermal treatments,” Opt. Eng. 40(3), 469–477 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mori, K.

C. J. Hailey, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, N. F. Brejnholt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. A. Decker, M. Doll, J. Gum, J. E. Koglin, C. P. Jensen, L. Hale, K. Mori, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “The nuclear spectroscopic telescope array (NuSTAR): optics overview and current status,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 77320T (2010).
[Crossref]

Mu, B. Z.

Najar, A.

Nayak, M.

Nyabero, S. L.

S. L. Nyabero, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, E. Zoethout, G. von Blanckenhagen, J. Bosgra, R. A. Loch, and F. Bijkerk, “Interlayer growth in Mo/B4C multilayered structures upon thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(14), 144310 (2013).
[Crossref]

Omi, H.

Penkov, A. V.

D. L. Voronov, E. N. Zubarev, V. V. Kondratenko, A. V. Penkov, Y. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, I. A. Artioukov, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. A. Uspenskii, and J. F. Seely, “Thermoresistive multilayer mirrors with antidiffusion barriers for work at the wavelengths 40–50 nm,” 8th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, Aspen, U.S.A., AIP Conf. Proc. 641, 575–582 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pershin, Y. P.

D. L. Voronov, E. N. Zubarev, V. V. Kondratenko, A. V. Penkov, Y. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, I. A. Artioukov, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. A. Uspenskii, and J. F. Seely, “Thermoresistive multilayer mirrors with antidiffusion barriers for work at the wavelengths 40–50 nm,” 8th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, Aspen, U.S.A., AIP Conf. Proc. 641, 575–582 (2002).
[Crossref]

Piecuch, M.

V. Dupuis, M. F. Ravet, C. Tête, M. Piecuch, and B. Vidal, “Characteristics and thermal behavior of W/Si multilayers with well-defined interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(7), 3348–3355 (1990).
[Crossref]

Pivovaroff, M. J.

C. J. Hailey, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, N. F. Brejnholt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. A. Decker, M. Doll, J. Gum, J. E. Koglin, C. P. Jensen, L. Hale, K. Mori, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “The nuclear spectroscopic telescope array (NuSTAR): optics overview and current status,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 77320T (2010).
[Crossref]

Platonov, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Platonov, D. M. Broadway, B. DeGroot, P. H. Mao, F. A. Harrison, G. Gutman, and J. Rodriguez, “X-ray reflectivity and mechanical stress in W/Si multilayers deposited on thin substrates of glass, epoxy-replicated aluminum foil, and Si wafer,” Proc. SPIE 3133, 469–475 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ponomarenko, A. G.

D. L. Voronov, E. N. Zubarev, V. V. Kondratenko, A. V. Penkov, Y. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, I. A. Artioukov, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. A. Uspenskii, and J. F. Seely, “Thermoresistive multilayer mirrors with antidiffusion barriers for work at the wavelengths 40–50 nm,” 8th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, Aspen, U.S.A., AIP Conf. Proc. 641, 575–582 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rai, S. K.

Rao, P. N.

Ravet, M. F.

V. Dupuis, M. F. Ravet, C. Tête, M. Piecuch, and B. Vidal, “Characteristics and thermal behavior of W/Si multilayers with well-defined interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(7), 3348–3355 (1990).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, J.

Y. Y. Platonov, D. M. Broadway, B. DeGroot, P. H. Mao, F. A. Harrison, G. Gutman, and J. Rodriguez, “X-ray reflectivity and mechanical stress in W/Si multilayers deposited on thin substrates of glass, epoxy-replicated aluminum foil, and Si wafer,” Proc. SPIE 3133, 469–475 (1997).
[Crossref]

Roll, J.

Saarilahti, J.

J. M. Molarius, S. Franssila, G. Drozdy, and J. Saarilahti, “Tungsten silicide formation from sequentially sputtered tungsten and silicon films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 53, 383–390 (1991).
[Crossref]

Schaefers, F.

Seely, J. F.

D. L. Voronov, E. N. Zubarev, V. V. Kondratenko, A. V. Penkov, Y. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, I. A. Artioukov, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. A. Uspenskii, and J. F. Seely, “Thermoresistive multilayer mirrors with antidiffusion barriers for work at the wavelengths 40–50 nm,” 8th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, Aspen, U.S.A., AIP Conf. Proc. 641, 575–582 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sharpe, M.

C. J. Hailey, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, N. F. Brejnholt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. A. Decker, M. Doll, J. Gum, J. E. Koglin, C. P. Jensen, L. Hale, K. Mori, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “The nuclear spectroscopic telescope array (NuSTAR): optics overview and current status,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 77320T (2010).
[Crossref]

Stern, M.

C. J. Hailey, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, N. F. Brejnholt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. A. Decker, M. Doll, J. Gum, J. E. Koglin, C. P. Jensen, L. Hale, K. Mori, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “The nuclear spectroscopic telescope array (NuSTAR): optics overview and current status,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 77320T (2010).
[Crossref]

Szentgyorgyi, A.

Tajiri, G.

C. J. Hailey, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, N. F. Brejnholt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. A. Decker, M. Doll, J. Gum, J. E. Koglin, C. P. Jensen, L. Hale, K. Mori, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “The nuclear spectroscopic telescope array (NuSTAR): optics overview and current status,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 77320T (2010).
[Crossref]

Tawara, T.

Tête, C.

V. Dupuis, M. F. Ravet, C. Tête, M. Piecuch, and B. Vidal, “Characteristics and thermal behavior of W/Si multilayers with well-defined interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(7), 3348–3355 (1990).
[Crossref]

Uspenskii, Y. A.

D. L. Voronov, E. N. Zubarev, V. V. Kondratenko, A. V. Penkov, Y. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, I. A. Artioukov, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. A. Uspenskii, and J. F. Seely, “Thermoresistive multilayer mirrors with antidiffusion barriers for work at the wavelengths 40–50 nm,” 8th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, Aspen, U.S.A., AIP Conf. Proc. 641, 575–582 (2002).
[Crossref]

van de Kruijs, R. W. E.

S. L. Nyabero, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, E. Zoethout, G. von Blanckenhagen, J. Bosgra, R. A. Loch, and F. Bijkerk, “Interlayer growth in Mo/B4C multilayered structures upon thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(14), 144310 (2013).
[Crossref]

van Snek, E. R.

O. B. Loopstra, E. R. van Snek, T. H. de Keijser, and E. H. Mittemeijer, “Model for stress and volume changes of a thin film on a substrate upon annealing: Application to amorphous Mo/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 44(24), 13519–13533 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vavra, I.

M. Brunel, S. Enzo, M. Jergel, S. Luby, E. Majkova, and I. Vavra, “Structural characterization and thermal stability of W/Si multilayers,” J. Mater. Res. 8(10), 2600–2607 (1993).
[Crossref]

Vidal, B.

V. Dupuis, M. F. Ravet, C. Tête, M. Piecuch, and B. Vidal, “Characteristics and thermal behavior of W/Si multilayers with well-defined interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(7), 3348–3355 (1990).
[Crossref]

Vinogradov, A. V.

D. L. Voronov, E. N. Zubarev, V. V. Kondratenko, A. V. Penkov, Y. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, I. A. Artioukov, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. A. Uspenskii, and J. F. Seely, “Thermoresistive multilayer mirrors with antidiffusion barriers for work at the wavelengths 40–50 nm,” 8th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, Aspen, U.S.A., AIP Conf. Proc. 641, 575–582 (2002).
[Crossref]

von Blanckenhagen, G.

S. L. Nyabero, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, E. Zoethout, G. von Blanckenhagen, J. Bosgra, R. A. Loch, and F. Bijkerk, “Interlayer growth in Mo/B4C multilayered structures upon thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(14), 144310 (2013).
[Crossref]

Voronov, D. L.

D. L. Voronov, E. N. Zubarev, V. V. Kondratenko, A. V. Penkov, Y. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, I. A. Artioukov, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. A. Uspenskii, and J. F. Seely, “Thermoresistive multilayer mirrors with antidiffusion barriers for work at the wavelengths 40–50 nm,” 8th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, Aspen, U.S.A., AIP Conf. Proc. 641, 575–582 (2002).
[Crossref]

Voutov, P.

Wang, F. F.

Wang, Z. S.

Windt, D. L.

D. L. Windt, “Stress, microstructure, and stability of Mo/Si, W/Si, and Mo/C multilayer films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18(3), 980–991 (2000).
[Crossref]

Woo, K. Y.

Yakshin, A. E.

S. L. Nyabero, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, E. Zoethout, G. von Blanckenhagen, J. Bosgra, R. A. Loch, and F. Bijkerk, “Interlayer growth in Mo/B4C multilayered structures upon thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(14), 144310 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, X. J.

Zhang, W. W.

C. J. Hailey, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, N. F. Brejnholt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. A. Decker, M. Doll, J. Gum, J. E. Koglin, C. P. Jensen, L. Hale, K. Mori, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “The nuclear spectroscopic telescope array (NuSTAR): optics overview and current status,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 77320T (2010).
[Crossref]

Ziegler, E.

J. B. Kortright and E. Ziegler, “Stability of tungsten/carbon and tungsten/silicon multilayer x-ray mirrors under thermal annealing and x-radiation exposure,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(1), 168–174 (1991).
[Crossref]

Zoethout, E.

S. L. Nyabero, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, E. Zoethout, G. von Blanckenhagen, J. Bosgra, R. A. Loch, and F. Bijkerk, “Interlayer growth in Mo/B4C multilayered structures upon thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(14), 144310 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zubarev, E. N.

E. N. Zubarev, “Reactive diffusion in multilayer metal/silicon nanostructures,” Phys. Uspekhi 54(5), 473–498 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. L. Voronov, E. N. Zubarev, V. V. Kondratenko, A. V. Penkov, Y. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, I. A. Artioukov, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. A. Uspenskii, and J. F. Seely, “Thermoresistive multilayer mirrors with antidiffusion barriers for work at the wavelengths 40–50 nm,” 8th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, Aspen, U.S.A., AIP Conf. Proc. 641, 575–582 (2002).
[Crossref]

8th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, Aspen, U.S.A., AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

D. L. Voronov, E. N. Zubarev, V. V. Kondratenko, A. V. Penkov, Y. P. Pershin, A. G. Ponomarenko, I. A. Artioukov, A. V. Vinogradov, Y. A. Uspenskii, and J. F. Seely, “Thermoresistive multilayer mirrors with antidiffusion barriers for work at the wavelengths 40–50 nm,” 8th International Conference on X-Ray Lasers, Aspen, U.S.A., AIP Conf. Proc. 641, 575–582 (2002).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

J. M. Molarius, S. Franssila, G. Drozdy, and J. Saarilahti, “Tungsten silicide formation from sequentially sputtered tungsten and silicon films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 53, 383–390 (1991).
[Crossref]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

V. Dupuis, M. F. Ravet, C. Tête, M. Piecuch, and B. Vidal, “Characteristics and thermal behavior of W/Si multilayers with well-defined interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 68(7), 3348–3355 (1990).
[Crossref]

S. L. Nyabero, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, A. E. Yakshin, E. Zoethout, G. von Blanckenhagen, J. Bosgra, R. A. Loch, and F. Bijkerk, “Interlayer growth in Mo/B4C multilayered structures upon thermal annealing,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(14), 144310 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. B. Kortright and E. Ziegler, “Stability of tungsten/carbon and tungsten/silicon multilayer x-ray mirrors under thermal annealing and x-radiation exposure,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(1), 168–174 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Res. (1)

M. Brunel, S. Enzo, M. Jergel, S. Luby, E. Majkova, and I. Vavra, “Structural characterization and thermal stability of W/Si multilayers,” J. Mater. Res. 8(10), 2600–2607 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

D. L. Windt, “Stress, microstructure, and stability of Mo/Si, W/Si, and Mo/C multilayer films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 18(3), 980–991 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. Montcalm, “Reduction of residual stress in extreme ultraviolet Mo/Si multilayer mirrors with postdeposition thermal treatments,” Opt. Eng. 40(3), 469–477 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

O. B. Loopstra, E. R. van Snek, T. H. de Keijser, and E. H. Mittemeijer, “Model for stress and volume changes of a thin film on a substrate upon annealing: Application to amorphous Mo/Si multilayers,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 44(24), 13519–13533 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Uspekhi (1)

E. N. Zubarev, “Reactive diffusion in multilayer metal/silicon nanostructures,” Phys. Uspekhi 54(5), 473–498 (2011).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (3)

Y. Dong, “The X-ray Timing and Polarization Satellite - 1, 2, 3: Uncovering the mysteries of black holes and extreme physics in the universe,” Proc. SPIE 9144, 91443O (2014).

Y. Y. Platonov, D. M. Broadway, B. DeGroot, P. H. Mao, F. A. Harrison, G. Gutman, and J. Rodriguez, “X-ray reflectivity and mechanical stress in W/Si multilayers deposited on thin substrates of glass, epoxy-replicated aluminum foil, and Si wafer,” Proc. SPIE 3133, 469–475 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. J. Hailey, H. J. An, K. L. Blaedel, N. F. Brejnholt, F. E. Christensen, W. W. Craig, T. A. Decker, M. Doll, J. Gum, J. E. Koglin, C. P. Jensen, L. Hale, K. Mori, M. J. Pivovaroff, M. Sharpe, M. Stern, G. Tajiri, and W. W. Zhang, “The nuclear spectroscopic telescope array (NuSTAR): optics overview and current status,” Proc. SPIE 7732, 77320T (2010).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

L. B. Freund and S. Suresh, Thin film materials-stress, defect formation and surface evolution (Cambridge University, 2003)

J. F. Shackelford, W. Alexander, and J. S. Park, CRC materials science and engineering handbook (CRC, 1994).

MEMSnet [DB/OL].MNX, http://www. Memsnet. org/material/ .

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity curves of the multilayers before and after annealing at 150 °C (a), 200 °C (b), and 250 °C (c).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Relative changes of the 1st order reflectivity (a) and period (b) of the multilayer after annealing at different temperatures for 1 h.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Stress reduction of the multilayers after annealing at different temperatures and after 11 months further storage.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity curves before and after annealing at 200 °C for 10 minutes (a), 3 hours (b) and 5 hours (c).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Relative changes of the 1st order reflectivity (a) and period (b) of the multilayer after annealing at 200 °C for different time.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Stress reduction of the multilayers after annealing at 200 °C for different time and after 11 months further storage
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Detector scans around the 1st Bragg peak of the as-deposited multilayer and the one annealed at 150 °C and 250 °C
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 TEM images and the SAED patterns of the as-deposited W/Si multilayer (a) (d), after 150 °C annealing for 1 h (b) (e), and after 250 °C annealing for 1 h (c) (f).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 EDX line scans of the W, Si and O elements along the depth position of the multilayer before and after annealing.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Overview of the relative change of the 1st order reflectance (with brackets) and the stress reduction (without brackets in the unit of MPa) of the W/Si multilayer under different annealing processes

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σ f = 1 6 ( 1 R p o s t 1 R p r e ) ( E s 1 V s ) t s 2 t f

Metrics