Abstract

In this paper we address a significant limitation of silicon as an optical material, namely, the upper bound of its potential modulation frequency. This arises due to finite carrier mobility, which fundamentally limits the frequency response of all-silicon modulators to about 60 GHz. To overcome this limitation, another material must be integrated with silicon to provide increased operational bandwidths. Accordingly, this paper proposes and demonstrates the integration of a thin LiNbO3 device layer with silicon and a novel tuning process that matches the propagation velocities between the propagating radio-frequency (RF) and optical waves. The resulting lithium niobate on silicon (LiNOS) modulator is demonstrated to operate from DC to 110 GHz.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (4)

P. O. Weigel, M. Savanier, C. T. DeRose, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, A. L. Lentine, V. Stenger, and S. Mookherjea, “Lightwave Circuits in Lithium Niobate through Hybrid Waveguides with Silicon Photonics,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22301 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Jin, L. Xu, H. Zhang, and Y. Li, “LiNbO 3 Thin-Film Modulators Using Silicon Nitride Surface Ridge Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(7), 736–739 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Chang, Y. Li, N. Volet, L. Wang, J. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “Thin film wavelength converters for photonic integrated circuits,” Optica 3(5), 531 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. J. Mercante, D. L. K. Eng, M. Konkol, P. Yao, S. Shi, and D. W. Prather, “Thin LiNbO3 on insulator electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Lett. 41(5), 867–869 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

2014 (2)

2013 (2)

L. Chen, M. G. Wood, and R. M. Reano, “12.5 pm/V hybrid silicon and lithium niobate optical microring resonator with integrated electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27003–27010 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. K. Eng, S. T. Kozacik, I. V. Kosilkin, J. P. Wilson, D. D. Ross, S. Shi, L. Dalton, B. C. Olbricht, and D. W. Prather, “Simple Fabrication and Processing of an All-Polymer Electrooptic Modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 190–195 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 488–503 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Macario, P. Yao, S. Shi, A. Zablocki, C. Harrity, R. D. Martin, C. A. Schuetz, and D. W. Prather, “Full spectrum millimeter-wave modulation,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23623–23629 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

A. W. Topol, D. C. La Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and et al., “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 50(4.5), 491–506 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, Y. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(5), 826–835 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

I.-L. Gheorma, P. Savi, and R. M. Osgood., “Thin layer design of X-cut LiNbO 3 modulators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(12), 1618–1620 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335 (1997).
[Crossref]

Barkai, A.

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bernstein, K.

A. W. Topol, D. C. La Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and et al., “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 50(4.5), 491–506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

Chang, H.-H.

Chang, L.

Chang, Y.

M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, Y. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(5), 826–835 (2001).
[Crossref]

M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, Y. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(5), 826–835 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chen, A.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

Chen, L.

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chiles, J.

Cohen, R.

A. Barkai, A. Liu, D. Kim, R. Cohen, N. Elek, H.-H. Chang, B. H. Malik, R. Gabay, R. Jones, M. Paniccia, and N. Izhaky, “Double-Stage Taper for Coupling Between SOI Waveguides and Single-Mode Fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(24), 3860–3865 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dalton, L.

D. L. K. Eng, S. T. Kozacik, I. V. Kosilkin, J. P. Wilson, D. D. Ross, S. Shi, L. Dalton, B. C. Olbricht, and D. W. Prather, “Simple Fabrication and Processing of an All-Polymer Electrooptic Modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 190–195 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dalton, L. R.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335 (1997).
[Crossref]

Demir, V.

DeRose, C. T.

P. O. Weigel, M. Savanier, C. T. DeRose, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, A. L. Lentine, V. Stenger, and S. Mookherjea, “Lightwave Circuits in Lithium Niobate through Hybrid Waveguides with Silicon Photonics,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22301 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elek, N.

Emerson, N.

Eng, D. L. K.

A. J. Mercante, D. L. K. Eng, M. Konkol, P. Yao, S. Shi, and D. W. Prather, “Thin LiNbO3 on insulator electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Lett. 41(5), 867–869 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. K. Eng, S. T. Kozacik, I. V. Kosilkin, J. P. Wilson, D. D. Ross, S. Shi, L. Dalton, B. C. Olbricht, and D. W. Prather, “Simple Fabrication and Processing of an All-Polymer Electrooptic Modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 190–195 (2013).
[Crossref]

Erlig, H.

M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, Y. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(5), 826–835 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fathpour, S.

Fetterman, H. R.

M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, Y. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(5), 826–835 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335 (1997).
[Crossref]

Frank, D. J.

A. W. Topol, D. C. La Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and et al., “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 50(4.5), 491–506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gabay, R.

Gardes, F.

Gheorma, I.-L.

I.-L. Gheorma, P. Savi, and R. M. Osgood., “Thin layer design of X-cut LiNbO 3 modulators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(12), 1618–1620 (2000).
[Crossref]

Guarini, K. W.

A. W. Topol, D. C. La Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and et al., “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 50(4.5), 491–506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Günter, P.

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 488–503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Harrity, C.

Herrera, O. D.

Himmelhuber, R.

Hu, H.

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 488–503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Izhaky, N.

A. Barkai, A. Liu, D. Kim, R. Cohen, N. Elek, H.-H. Chang, B. H. Malik, R. Gabay, R. Jones, M. Paniccia, and N. Izhaky, “Double-Stage Taper for Coupling Between SOI Waveguides and Single-Mode Fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(24), 3860–3865 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

Jin, S.

S. Jin, L. Xu, H. Zhang, and Y. Li, “LiNbO 3 Thin-Film Modulators Using Silicon Nitride Surface Ridge Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(7), 736–739 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jones, R.

Kim, D.

Kim, K.-J.

Konkol, M.

Kosilkin, I. V.

D. L. K. Eng, S. T. Kozacik, I. V. Kosilkin, J. P. Wilson, D. D. Ross, S. Shi, L. Dalton, B. C. Olbricht, and D. W. Prather, “Simple Fabrication and Processing of an All-Polymer Electrooptic Modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 190–195 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kozacik, S. T.

D. L. K. Eng, S. T. Kozacik, I. V. Kosilkin, J. P. Wilson, D. D. Ross, S. Shi, L. Dalton, B. C. Olbricht, and D. W. Prather, “Simple Fabrication and Processing of an All-Polymer Electrooptic Modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 190–195 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kumar, A.

A. W. Topol, D. C. La Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and et al., “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 50(4.5), 491–506 (2006).
[Crossref]

La Tulipe, D. C.

A. W. Topol, D. C. La Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and et al., “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 50(4.5), 491–506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lentine, A. L.

P. O. Weigel, M. Savanier, C. T. DeRose, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, A. L. Lentine, V. Stenger, and S. Mookherjea, “Lightwave Circuits in Lithium Niobate through Hybrid Waveguides with Silicon Photonics,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22301 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.

Li, Y.

L. Chang, Y. Li, N. Volet, L. Wang, J. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “Thin film wavelength converters for photonic integrated circuits,” Optica 3(5), 531 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Jin, L. Xu, H. Zhang, and Y. Li, “LiNbO 3 Thin-Film Modulators Using Silicon Nitride Surface Ridge Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(7), 736–739 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liao, L.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, A.

A. Barkai, A. Liu, D. Kim, R. Cohen, N. Elek, H.-H. Chang, B. H. Malik, R. Gabay, R. Jones, M. Paniccia, and N. Izhaky, “Double-Stage Taper for Coupling Between SOI Waveguides and Single-Mode Fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(24), 3860–3865 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Luo, J.

Macario, J.

Malik, B. H.

Malinowski, M.

Martin, R. D.

Mercante, A. J.

Mookherjea, S.

P. O. Weigel, M. Savanier, C. T. DeRose, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, A. L. Lentine, V. Stenger, and S. Mookherjea, “Lightwave Circuits in Lithium Niobate through Hybrid Waveguides with Silicon Photonics,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22301 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagy, J.

Nelson, R. L.

Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Norwood, R. A.

Novak, S.

Oh, M.-C.

M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, Y. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(5), 826–835 (2001).
[Crossref]

Olbricht, B. C.

D. L. K. Eng, S. T. Kozacik, I. V. Kosilkin, J. P. Wilson, D. D. Ross, S. Shi, L. Dalton, B. C. Olbricht, and D. W. Prather, “Simple Fabrication and Processing of an All-Polymer Electrooptic Modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 190–195 (2013).
[Crossref]

Osgood, R. M.

I.-L. Gheorma, P. Savi, and R. M. Osgood., “Thin layer design of X-cut LiNbO 3 modulators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(12), 1618–1620 (2000).
[Crossref]

Paniccia, M.

A. Barkai, A. Liu, D. Kim, R. Cohen, N. Elek, H.-H. Chang, B. H. Malik, R. Gabay, R. Jones, M. Paniccia, and N. Izhaky, “Double-Stage Taper for Coupling Between SOI Waveguides and Single-Mode Fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(24), 3860–3865 (2008).
[Crossref]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Patil, A.

Peters, J.

Peyghambarian, N.

Png, C.

Poberaj, G.

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 488–503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pomerene, A. T.

P. O. Weigel, M. Savanier, C. T. DeRose, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, A. L. Lentine, V. Stenger, and S. Mookherjea, “Lightwave Circuits in Lithium Niobate through Hybrid Waveguides with Silicon Photonics,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22301 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prather, D. W.

Rabiei, P.

Rao, A.

Reano, R. M.

Reed, G.

Richardson, K.

Ross, D. D.

D. L. K. Eng, S. T. Kozacik, I. V. Kosilkin, J. P. Wilson, D. D. Ross, S. Shi, L. Dalton, B. C. Olbricht, and D. W. Prather, “Simple Fabrication and Processing of an All-Polymer Electrooptic Modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 190–195 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rubin, D.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Savanier, M.

P. O. Weigel, M. Savanier, C. T. DeRose, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, A. L. Lentine, V. Stenger, and S. Mookherjea, “Lightwave Circuits in Lithium Niobate through Hybrid Waveguides with Silicon Photonics,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22301 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Savi, P.

I.-L. Gheorma, P. Savi, and R. M. Osgood., “Thin layer design of X-cut LiNbO 3 modulators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(12), 1618–1620 (2000).
[Crossref]

Schuetz, C. A.

Shi, L.

A. W. Topol, D. C. La Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and et al., “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 50(4.5), 491–506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shi, S.

Shi, Y.

Y. Shi, L. Yan, and A. E. Willner, “High-speed electrooptic modulator characterization using optical spectrum analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(10), 2358–2367 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335 (1997).
[Crossref]

Singco, G. U.

A. W. Topol, D. C. La Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and et al., “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 50(4.5), 491–506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sohler, W.

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 488–503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Starbuck, A. L.

P. O. Weigel, M. Savanier, C. T. DeRose, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, A. L. Lentine, V. Stenger, and S. Mookherjea, “Lightwave Circuits in Lithium Niobate through Hybrid Waveguides with Silicon Photonics,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22301 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steen, S. E.

A. W. Topol, D. C. La Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and et al., “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 50(4.5), 491–506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Steier, W. H.

M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, Y. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(5), 826–835 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335 (1997).
[Crossref]

Stenger, V.

P. O. Weigel, M. Savanier, C. T. DeRose, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, A. L. Lentine, V. Stenger, and S. Mookherjea, “Lightwave Circuits in Lithium Niobate through Hybrid Waveguides with Silicon Photonics,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22301 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Szep, A.

M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, Y. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(5), 826–835 (2001).
[Crossref]

Topol, A. W.

A. W. Topol, D. C. La Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and et al., “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 50(4.5), 491–506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tsap, B.

M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, Y. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(5), 826–835 (2001).
[Crossref]

Volet, N.

Voorakaranam, R.

Wang, L.

Wang, S.

Wang, W.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335 (1997).
[Crossref]

Weigel, P. O.

P. O. Weigel, M. Savanier, C. T. DeRose, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, A. L. Lentine, V. Stenger, and S. Mookherjea, “Lightwave Circuits in Lithium Niobate through Hybrid Waveguides with Silicon Photonics,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22301 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willner, A. E.

Wilson, J. P.

D. L. K. Eng, S. T. Kozacik, I. V. Kosilkin, J. P. Wilson, D. D. Ross, S. Shi, L. Dalton, B. C. Olbricht, and D. W. Prather, “Simple Fabrication and Processing of an All-Polymer Electrooptic Modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 190–195 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wood, M. G.

Xu, L.

S. Jin, L. Xu, H. Zhang, and Y. Li, “LiNbO 3 Thin-Film Modulators Using Silicon Nitride Surface Ridge Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(7), 736–739 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

Yan, L.

Yao, P.

Young, A. M.

A. W. Topol, D. C. La Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and et al., “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 50(4.5), 491–506 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zablocki, A.

Zhan, Q.

Zhang, C.

M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, Y. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(5), 826–835 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

S. Jin, L. Xu, H. Zhang, and Y. Li, “LiNbO 3 Thin-Film Modulators Using Silicon Nitride Surface Ridge Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(7), 736–739 (2016).
[Crossref]

M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, Y. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(5), 826–835 (2001).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335 (1997).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

IBM J. Res. Develop. (1)

A. W. Topol, D. C. La Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and et al., “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 50(4.5), 491–506 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

D. L. K. Eng, S. T. Kozacik, I. V. Kosilkin, J. P. Wilson, D. D. Ross, S. Shi, L. Dalton, B. C. Olbricht, and D. W. Prather, “Simple Fabrication and Processing of an All-Polymer Electrooptic Modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19(6), 190–195 (2013).
[Crossref]

M.-C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, Y. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, and H. R. Fetterman, “Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(5), 826–835 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

S. Jin, L. Xu, H. Zhang, and Y. Li, “LiNbO 3 Thin-Film Modulators Using Silicon Nitride Surface Ridge Waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 28(7), 736–739 (2016).
[Crossref]

I.-L. Gheorma, P. Savi, and R. M. Osgood., “Thin layer design of X-cut LiNbO 3 modulators,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12(12), 1618–1620 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

G. Poberaj, H. Hu, W. Sohler, and P. Günter, “Lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) for micro-photonic devices,” Laser Photonics Rev. 6(4), 488–503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (2)

Sci. Rep. (1)

P. O. Weigel, M. Savanier, C. T. DeRose, A. T. Pomerene, A. L. Starbuck, A. L. Lentine, V. Stenger, and S. Mookherjea, “Lightwave Circuits in Lithium Niobate through Hybrid Waveguides with Silicon Photonics,” Sci. Rep. 6, 22301 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

V. Stenger, J. Toney, A. Pollick, J. Busch, J. Scholl, P. Pontius, and S. Sriram, “Engineered thin film lithium niobate substrate for high gain-bandwidth electro-optic modulators,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2013), p. CW3O–3.

V. Stenger, J. Toney, A. Pollick, J. Busch, J. Scholl, P. Pontius, and S. Sriram, “Integrated RF photonic devices based on crystal ion sliced lithium niobate,” in L. P. Sadwick and C. M. O’Sullivan, eds. (2013), p. 86240I.

M. Mahmoud, S. Ghosh, and G. Piazza, “Lithium Niobate on Insulator (LNOI) Grating Couplers,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2015), p. SW4I–7.

M. H. Jabbar, D. Houzet, and O. Hammami, “3D multiprocessor with 3D NoC architecture based on Tezzaron technology,” in 3D Systems Integration Conference (3DIC),2011IEEE International (IEEE, 2012), pp. 1–5.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 SEM images of the fabricated device. (a) Tuned CPW structure, the dotted yellow lines are where the inverted ridge waveguide exists. (b) Cross sectional view of the inverted ridge waveguide. The thick polymer layer on the top surface in (b) is required to protect the device layer during end facet polishing and is not present in (a).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Fabrication and tuning LiNOS modulators. (a) Seed layers are deposited and photoresist is patterned; (b) 6 µm of Au is electroplated; (c) 600 nm Cr hardmask is sputtered; (d) resist and seed layers are stripped, (e, f) LiNbO3 is partially etched to reduce RF index and match it to the optical index.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Measured transmission S21 and reflection S11 parameters of a device before and after tuning etch. (b) Measured modulator half-wave voltage Vπ (values extracted from data shown in Fig. 4).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Optical spectra of a carrier modulated with RF up to 110 GHz in (a) untuned and (b) tuned device.

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