Abstract

Based on multiple quantum wells, we design a pumping-detection quantum cascade structure for the detection of terahertz (THz) radiation. In the structure, carriers are first pumped by a mid-infrared (MIR) laser to an excited state, to get enough energy space for the following fast longitudinal optical (LO) phonon extraction. Within the LO-phonon extraction stair, an absorption well is designed for THz detection. Due to the establishment of LO-phonon stair extractor, carriers transport between quantum wells in picosecond range and a high responsivity for THz absorption can be obtained. We also find that doping in both MIR active well and extractor region is significant for high-speed response of the THz detection. Our design is expected to extend the high-sensitive detection of a quantum cascade photodetector from middle wave of MIR to THz region.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. Gendron, C. Koeniguer, and V. Berger, “Quantum cascade photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2824–2826 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  2. B. F. Levine, K. K. Choi, C. G. Bethea, J. Walker, and R. J. Malik, “New 10 μ m infrared detector using intersubband absorption in resonant tunneling GaAlAs superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(16), 1092–1094 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Graf, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “InP-based quantum cascade detectors in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241118 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  4. D. Hofstetter, M. Graf, T. Aellen, J. Faist, L. Hvozdara, and S. Blaser, “23 GHz operation of a room temperature photovoltaic quantum cascade detector at 5.35 μ m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061119 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  5. F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, L. Ajili, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, D. Hofstetter, P. Krötz, and G. Sonnabend, “16.5 μ m quantum cascade detector using miniband transport,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231111 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  6. D. Hofstetter, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Midinfrared quantum cascade detector with a spectrally broad response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221106 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. Buffaz, M. Carras, L. Doyennette, A. Nedelcu, X. Marcadet, and V. Berger, “Quantum cascade detectors for very long wave infrared detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(17), 172101 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  8. F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, D. Hofstetter, C. Manz, Q. Yang, K. Köhler, and M. Graf, “InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum cascade detectors operating in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111115 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011112 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  10. F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, R. Thron, M. L. Pellaton, D. Hofstetter, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, “Short wavelength (4 μ m) quantum cascade detector based on strain compensated InGaAs/InAlAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121101 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  11. A. Vardi, N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. Schacham, and G. Bahir, “High-speed operation of GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detectors at λ ≈ 1. 55 μ m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 193509 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Sakr, P. Crozat, D. Gacemi, Y. Kotsar, A. Pesach, P. Quach, N. Isac, M. Tchernycheva, L. Vivien, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN waveguide quantum cascade photodetectors at λ ≈ 1.55 μ m with enhanced responsivity and ~40 GHz frequency bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011135 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  13. C. Koeniguer, G. Dubois, A. Gomez, and V. Berger, “Electronic transport in quantum cascade structures at equilibrium,” Phys. Rev. B 74(23), 235325 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Graf, G. Scalari, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, “Terahertz range quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 475–477 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  15. E. Lhuillier, I. Ribet-Mohamed, E. Rosencher, G. Patriarche, A. Buffaz, V. Berger, and M. Carras, “Interface roughness transport in terahertz quantum cascade detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061111 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  16. R. Ferreira and G. Bastard, “Evaluation of some scattering times for electrons in unbiased and biased single- and multiple-quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 40(2), 1074–1086 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  17. F. Capasso, “High-performance midinfrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49 (11), 111102 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  18. J.-L. Zhu, “Exact solutions for hydrogenic donor states in a spherically rectangular quantum well,” Phys. Rev. B 39(12), 8780–8783 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  19. P. Harrison, Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2009), Chap. 10
  20. P. Harrison, Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2009), Chap. 3.
  21. F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum Cascade Detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 45 (8) 1039–1052 (2009).
    [Crossref]

2013 (1)

S. Sakr, P. Crozat, D. Gacemi, Y. Kotsar, A. Pesach, P. Quach, N. Isac, M. Tchernycheva, L. Vivien, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN waveguide quantum cascade photodetectors at λ ≈ 1.55 μ m with enhanced responsivity and ~40 GHz frequency bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011135 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

E. Lhuillier, I. Ribet-Mohamed, E. Rosencher, G. Patriarche, A. Buffaz, V. Berger, and M. Carras, “Interface roughness transport in terahertz quantum cascade detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061111 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Capasso, “High-performance midinfrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49 (11), 111102 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Buffaz, M. Carras, L. Doyennette, A. Nedelcu, X. Marcadet, and V. Berger, “Quantum cascade detectors for very long wave infrared detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(17), 172101 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum Cascade Detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 45 (8) 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

D. Hofstetter, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Midinfrared quantum cascade detector with a spectrally broad response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221106 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011112 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, R. Thron, M. L. Pellaton, D. Hofstetter, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, “Short wavelength (4 μ m) quantum cascade detector based on strain compensated InGaAs/InAlAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121101 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Vardi, N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. Schacham, and G. Bahir, “High-speed operation of GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detectors at λ ≈ 1. 55 μ m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 193509 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, L. Ajili, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, D. Hofstetter, P. Krötz, and G. Sonnabend, “16.5 μ m quantum cascade detector using miniband transport,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231111 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, D. Hofstetter, C. Manz, Q. Yang, K. Köhler, and M. Graf, “InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum cascade detectors operating in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111115 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

M. Graf, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “InP-based quantum cascade detectors in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241118 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Hofstetter, M. Graf, T. Aellen, J. Faist, L. Hvozdara, and S. Blaser, “23 GHz operation of a room temperature photovoltaic quantum cascade detector at 5.35 μ m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061119 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Koeniguer, G. Dubois, A. Gomez, and V. Berger, “Electronic transport in quantum cascade structures at equilibrium,” Phys. Rev. B 74(23), 235325 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

M. Graf, G. Scalari, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, “Terahertz range quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 475–477 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. Gendron, C. Koeniguer, and V. Berger, “Quantum cascade photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2824–2826 (2004).
[Crossref]

1989 (2)

J.-L. Zhu, “Exact solutions for hydrogenic donor states in a spherically rectangular quantum well,” Phys. Rev. B 39(12), 8780–8783 (1989).
[Crossref]

R. Ferreira and G. Bastard, “Evaluation of some scattering times for electrons in unbiased and biased single- and multiple-quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 40(2), 1074–1086 (1989).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

B. F. Levine, K. K. Choi, C. G. Bethea, J. Walker, and R. J. Malik, “New 10 μ m infrared detector using intersubband absorption in resonant tunneling GaAlAs superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(16), 1092–1094 (1987).
[Crossref]

Aellen, T.

D. Hofstetter, M. Graf, T. Aellen, J. Faist, L. Hvozdara, and S. Blaser, “23 GHz operation of a room temperature photovoltaic quantum cascade detector at 5.35 μ m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061119 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ajili, L.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, L. Ajili, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, D. Hofstetter, P. Krötz, and G. Sonnabend, “16.5 μ m quantum cascade detector using miniband transport,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bahir, G.

S. Sakr, P. Crozat, D. Gacemi, Y. Kotsar, A. Pesach, P. Quach, N. Isac, M. Tchernycheva, L. Vivien, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN waveguide quantum cascade photodetectors at λ ≈ 1.55 μ m with enhanced responsivity and ~40 GHz frequency bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011135 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Vardi, N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. Schacham, and G. Bahir, “High-speed operation of GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detectors at λ ≈ 1. 55 μ m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 193509 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bastard, G.

R. Ferreira and G. Bastard, “Evaluation of some scattering times for electrons in unbiased and biased single- and multiple-quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 40(2), 1074–1086 (1989).
[Crossref]

Baumann, E.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum Cascade Detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 45 (8) 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, R. Thron, M. L. Pellaton, D. Hofstetter, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, “Short wavelength (4 μ m) quantum cascade detector based on strain compensated InGaAs/InAlAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121101 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Hofstetter, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Midinfrared quantum cascade detector with a spectrally broad response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221106 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, L. Ajili, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, D. Hofstetter, P. Krötz, and G. Sonnabend, “16.5 μ m quantum cascade detector using miniband transport,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231111 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, D. Hofstetter, C. Manz, Q. Yang, K. Köhler, and M. Graf, “InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum cascade detectors operating in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Beere, H.

M. Graf, G. Scalari, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, “Terahertz range quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 475–477 (2004).
[Crossref]

Beere, H. E.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum Cascade Detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 45 (8) 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

Berger, V.

E. Lhuillier, I. Ribet-Mohamed, E. Rosencher, G. Patriarche, A. Buffaz, V. Berger, and M. Carras, “Interface roughness transport in terahertz quantum cascade detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061111 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Buffaz, M. Carras, L. Doyennette, A. Nedelcu, X. Marcadet, and V. Berger, “Quantum cascade detectors for very long wave infrared detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(17), 172101 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Koeniguer, G. Dubois, A. Gomez, and V. Berger, “Electronic transport in quantum cascade structures at equilibrium,” Phys. Rev. B 74(23), 235325 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. Gendron, C. Koeniguer, and V. Berger, “Quantum cascade photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2824–2826 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bethea, C. G.

B. F. Levine, K. K. Choi, C. G. Bethea, J. Walker, and R. J. Malik, “New 10 μ m infrared detector using intersubband absorption in resonant tunneling GaAlAs superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(16), 1092–1094 (1987).
[Crossref]

Blaser, S.

D. Hofstetter, M. Graf, T. Aellen, J. Faist, L. Hvozdara, and S. Blaser, “23 GHz operation of a room temperature photovoltaic quantum cascade detector at 5.35 μ m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061119 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bougerol, C.

A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011112 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Vardi, N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. Schacham, and G. Bahir, “High-speed operation of GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detectors at λ ≈ 1. 55 μ m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 193509 (2008).
[Crossref]

Buffaz, A.

E. Lhuillier, I. Ribet-Mohamed, E. Rosencher, G. Patriarche, A. Buffaz, V. Berger, and M. Carras, “Interface roughness transport in terahertz quantum cascade detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061111 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Buffaz, M. Carras, L. Doyennette, A. Nedelcu, X. Marcadet, and V. Berger, “Quantum cascade detectors for very long wave infrared detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(17), 172101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

F. Capasso, “High-performance midinfrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49 (11), 111102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Carras, M.

E. Lhuillier, I. Ribet-Mohamed, E. Rosencher, G. Patriarche, A. Buffaz, V. Berger, and M. Carras, “Interface roughness transport in terahertz quantum cascade detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061111 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Buffaz, M. Carras, L. Doyennette, A. Nedelcu, X. Marcadet, and V. Berger, “Quantum cascade detectors for very long wave infrared detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(17), 172101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Choi, K. K.

B. F. Levine, K. K. Choi, C. G. Bethea, J. Walker, and R. J. Malik, “New 10 μ m infrared detector using intersubband absorption in resonant tunneling GaAlAs superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(16), 1092–1094 (1987).
[Crossref]

Colombelli, R.

A. Vardi, N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. Schacham, and G. Bahir, “High-speed operation of GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detectors at λ ≈ 1. 55 μ m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 193509 (2008).
[Crossref]

Crozat, P.

S. Sakr, P. Crozat, D. Gacemi, Y. Kotsar, A. Pesach, P. Quach, N. Isac, M. Tchernycheva, L. Vivien, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN waveguide quantum cascade photodetectors at λ ≈ 1.55 μ m with enhanced responsivity and ~40 GHz frequency bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011135 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Vardi, N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. Schacham, and G. Bahir, “High-speed operation of GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detectors at λ ≈ 1. 55 μ m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 193509 (2008).
[Crossref]

Davies, A. G.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum Cascade Detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 45 (8) 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

Davies, G.

M. Graf, G. Scalari, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, “Terahertz range quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 475–477 (2004).
[Crossref]

Doyennette, L.

A. Buffaz, M. Carras, L. Doyennette, A. Nedelcu, X. Marcadet, and V. Berger, “Quantum cascade detectors for very long wave infrared detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(17), 172101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dubois, G.

C. Koeniguer, G. Dubois, A. Gomez, and V. Berger, “Electronic transport in quantum cascade structures at equilibrium,” Phys. Rev. B 74(23), 235325 (2006).
[Crossref]

Faist, J.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum Cascade Detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 45 (8) 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, R. Thron, M. L. Pellaton, D. Hofstetter, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, “Short wavelength (4 μ m) quantum cascade detector based on strain compensated InGaAs/InAlAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121101 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, L. Ajili, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, D. Hofstetter, P. Krötz, and G. Sonnabend, “16.5 μ m quantum cascade detector using miniband transport,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231111 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Hofstetter, M. Graf, T. Aellen, J. Faist, L. Hvozdara, and S. Blaser, “23 GHz operation of a room temperature photovoltaic quantum cascade detector at 5.35 μ m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061119 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Graf, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “InP-based quantum cascade detectors in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241118 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Graf, G. Scalari, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, “Terahertz range quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 475–477 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fedoryshyn, Y.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum Cascade Detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 45 (8) 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ferreira, R.

R. Ferreira and G. Bastard, “Evaluation of some scattering times for electrons in unbiased and biased single- and multiple-quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 40(2), 1074–1086 (1989).
[Crossref]

Fischer, M.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum Cascade Detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 45 (8) 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, R. Thron, M. L. Pellaton, D. Hofstetter, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, “Short wavelength (4 μ m) quantum cascade detector based on strain compensated InGaAs/InAlAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gacemi, D.

S. Sakr, P. Crozat, D. Gacemi, Y. Kotsar, A. Pesach, P. Quach, N. Isac, M. Tchernycheva, L. Vivien, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN waveguide quantum cascade photodetectors at λ ≈ 1.55 μ m with enhanced responsivity and ~40 GHz frequency bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gendron, L.

L. Gendron, C. Koeniguer, and V. Berger, “Quantum cascade photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2824–2826 (2004).
[Crossref]

Giorgetta, F. R.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum Cascade Detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 45 (8) 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Hofstetter, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Midinfrared quantum cascade detector with a spectrally broad response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221106 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, R. Thron, M. L. Pellaton, D. Hofstetter, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, “Short wavelength (4 μ m) quantum cascade detector based on strain compensated InGaAs/InAlAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121101 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, D. Hofstetter, C. Manz, Q. Yang, K. Köhler, and M. Graf, “InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum cascade detectors operating in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111115 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, L. Ajili, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, D. Hofstetter, P. Krötz, and G. Sonnabend, “16.5 μ m quantum cascade detector using miniband transport,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Giovannini, M.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, L. Ajili, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, D. Hofstetter, P. Krötz, and G. Sonnabend, “16.5 μ m quantum cascade detector using miniband transport,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231111 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Graf, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “InP-based quantum cascade detectors in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241118 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gomez, A.

C. Koeniguer, G. Dubois, A. Gomez, and V. Berger, “Electronic transport in quantum cascade structures at equilibrium,” Phys. Rev. B 74(23), 235325 (2006).
[Crossref]

Graf, M.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum Cascade Detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 45 (8) 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, L. Ajili, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, D. Hofstetter, P. Krötz, and G. Sonnabend, “16.5 μ m quantum cascade detector using miniband transport,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231111 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, D. Hofstetter, C. Manz, Q. Yang, K. Köhler, and M. Graf, “InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum cascade detectors operating in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111115 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Hofstetter, M. Graf, T. Aellen, J. Faist, L. Hvozdara, and S. Blaser, “23 GHz operation of a room temperature photovoltaic quantum cascade detector at 5.35 μ m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061119 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Graf, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “InP-based quantum cascade detectors in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241118 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Graf, G. Scalari, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, “Terahertz range quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 475–477 (2004).
[Crossref]

Guillot, F.

A. Vardi, N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. Schacham, and G. Bahir, “High-speed operation of GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detectors at λ ≈ 1. 55 μ m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 193509 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Harrison, P.

P. Harrison, Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2009), Chap. 10

P. Harrison, Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2009), Chap. 3.

Hofstetter, D.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum Cascade Detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 45 (8) 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, R. Thron, M. L. Pellaton, D. Hofstetter, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, “Short wavelength (4 μ m) quantum cascade detector based on strain compensated InGaAs/InAlAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121101 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. Hofstetter, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Midinfrared quantum cascade detector with a spectrally broad response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221106 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, L. Ajili, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, D. Hofstetter, P. Krötz, and G. Sonnabend, “16.5 μ m quantum cascade detector using miniband transport,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231111 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, D. Hofstetter, C. Manz, Q. Yang, K. Köhler, and M. Graf, “InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum cascade detectors operating in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111115 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Graf, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “InP-based quantum cascade detectors in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241118 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Hofstetter, M. Graf, T. Aellen, J. Faist, L. Hvozdara, and S. Blaser, “23 GHz operation of a room temperature photovoltaic quantum cascade detector at 5.35 μ m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061119 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Graf, G. Scalari, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, “Terahertz range quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 475–477 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hoyler, N.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, L. Ajili, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, D. Hofstetter, P. Krötz, and G. Sonnabend, “16.5 μ m quantum cascade detector using miniband transport,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231111 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Graf, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “InP-based quantum cascade detectors in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241118 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hvozdara, L.

D. Hofstetter, M. Graf, T. Aellen, J. Faist, L. Hvozdara, and S. Blaser, “23 GHz operation of a room temperature photovoltaic quantum cascade detector at 5.35 μ m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061119 (2006).
[Crossref]

Isac, N.

S. Sakr, P. Crozat, D. Gacemi, Y. Kotsar, A. Pesach, P. Quach, N. Isac, M. Tchernycheva, L. Vivien, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN waveguide quantum cascade photodetectors at λ ≈ 1.55 μ m with enhanced responsivity and ~40 GHz frequency bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jäckel, H.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum Cascade Detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 45 (8) 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

Julien, F. H.

S. Sakr, P. Crozat, D. Gacemi, Y. Kotsar, A. Pesach, P. Quach, N. Isac, M. Tchernycheva, L. Vivien, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN waveguide quantum cascade photodetectors at λ ≈ 1.55 μ m with enhanced responsivity and ~40 GHz frequency bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011135 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Vardi, N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. Schacham, and G. Bahir, “High-speed operation of GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detectors at λ ≈ 1. 55 μ m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 193509 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kheirodin, N.

A. Vardi, N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. Schacham, and G. Bahir, “High-speed operation of GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detectors at λ ≈ 1. 55 μ m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 193509 (2008).
[Crossref]

Koeniguer, C.

C. Koeniguer, G. Dubois, A. Gomez, and V. Berger, “Electronic transport in quantum cascade structures at equilibrium,” Phys. Rev. B 74(23), 235325 (2006).
[Crossref]

L. Gendron, C. Koeniguer, and V. Berger, “Quantum cascade photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2824–2826 (2004).
[Crossref]

Köhler, K.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum Cascade Detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 45 (8) 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Hofstetter, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Midinfrared quantum cascade detector with a spectrally broad response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221106 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, D. Hofstetter, C. Manz, Q. Yang, K. Köhler, and M. Graf, “InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum cascade detectors operating in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kotsar, Y.

S. Sakr, P. Crozat, D. Gacemi, Y. Kotsar, A. Pesach, P. Quach, N. Isac, M. Tchernycheva, L. Vivien, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN waveguide quantum cascade photodetectors at λ ≈ 1.55 μ m with enhanced responsivity and ~40 GHz frequency bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Krötz, P.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, L. Ajili, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, D. Hofstetter, P. Krötz, and G. Sonnabend, “16.5 μ m quantum cascade detector using miniband transport,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Levine, B. F.

B. F. Levine, K. K. Choi, C. G. Bethea, J. Walker, and R. J. Malik, “New 10 μ m infrared detector using intersubband absorption in resonant tunneling GaAlAs superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(16), 1092–1094 (1987).
[Crossref]

Lhuillier, E.

E. Lhuillier, I. Ribet-Mohamed, E. Rosencher, G. Patriarche, A. Buffaz, V. Berger, and M. Carras, “Interface roughness transport in terahertz quantum cascade detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Linfield, E.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum Cascade Detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 45 (8) 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Graf, G. Scalari, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, “Terahertz range quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 475–477 (2004).
[Crossref]

Machhadani, H.

A. Vardi, N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. Schacham, and G. Bahir, “High-speed operation of GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detectors at λ ≈ 1. 55 μ m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 193509 (2008).
[Crossref]

Malik, R. J.

B. F. Levine, K. K. Choi, C. G. Bethea, J. Walker, and R. J. Malik, “New 10 μ m infrared detector using intersubband absorption in resonant tunneling GaAlAs superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(16), 1092–1094 (1987).
[Crossref]

Manz, C.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum Cascade Detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 45 (8) 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Hofstetter, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Midinfrared quantum cascade detector with a spectrally broad response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221106 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, D. Hofstetter, C. Manz, Q. Yang, K. Köhler, and M. Graf, “InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum cascade detectors operating in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Marcadet, X.

A. Buffaz, M. Carras, L. Doyennette, A. Nedelcu, X. Marcadet, and V. Berger, “Quantum cascade detectors for very long wave infrared detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(17), 172101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Monroy, E.

S. Sakr, P. Crozat, D. Gacemi, Y. Kotsar, A. Pesach, P. Quach, N. Isac, M. Tchernycheva, L. Vivien, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN waveguide quantum cascade photodetectors at λ ≈ 1.55 μ m with enhanced responsivity and ~40 GHz frequency bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011135 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Vardi, N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. Schacham, and G. Bahir, “High-speed operation of GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detectors at λ ≈ 1. 55 μ m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 193509 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nedelcu, A.

A. Buffaz, M. Carras, L. Doyennette, A. Nedelcu, X. Marcadet, and V. Berger, “Quantum cascade detectors for very long wave infrared detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(17), 172101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nevou, L.

A. Vardi, N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. Schacham, and G. Bahir, “High-speed operation of GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detectors at λ ≈ 1. 55 μ m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 193509 (2008).
[Crossref]

Patriarche, G.

E. Lhuillier, I. Ribet-Mohamed, E. Rosencher, G. Patriarche, A. Buffaz, V. Berger, and M. Carras, “Interface roughness transport in terahertz quantum cascade detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pellaton, M. L.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, R. Thron, M. L. Pellaton, D. Hofstetter, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, “Short wavelength (4 μ m) quantum cascade detector based on strain compensated InGaAs/InAlAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pesach, A.

S. Sakr, P. Crozat, D. Gacemi, Y. Kotsar, A. Pesach, P. Quach, N. Isac, M. Tchernycheva, L. Vivien, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN waveguide quantum cascade photodetectors at λ ≈ 1.55 μ m with enhanced responsivity and ~40 GHz frequency bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Quach, P.

S. Sakr, P. Crozat, D. Gacemi, Y. Kotsar, A. Pesach, P. Quach, N. Isac, M. Tchernycheva, L. Vivien, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN waveguide quantum cascade photodetectors at λ ≈ 1.55 μ m with enhanced responsivity and ~40 GHz frequency bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ribet-Mohamed, I.

E. Lhuillier, I. Ribet-Mohamed, E. Rosencher, G. Patriarche, A. Buffaz, V. Berger, and M. Carras, “Interface roughness transport in terahertz quantum cascade detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ritchie, D.

M. Graf, G. Scalari, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, “Terahertz range quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 475–477 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ritchie, D. A.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum Cascade Detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 45 (8) 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rosencher, E.

E. Lhuillier, I. Ribet-Mohamed, E. Rosencher, G. Patriarche, A. Buffaz, V. Berger, and M. Carras, “Interface roughness transport in terahertz quantum cascade detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061111 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sakr, S.

S. Sakr, P. Crozat, D. Gacemi, Y. Kotsar, A. Pesach, P. Quach, N. Isac, M. Tchernycheva, L. Vivien, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN waveguide quantum cascade photodetectors at λ ≈ 1.55 μ m with enhanced responsivity and ~40 GHz frequency bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011135 (2013).
[Crossref]

Scalari, G.

M. Graf, G. Scalari, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, “Terahertz range quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 475–477 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schacham, S.

A. Vardi, N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. Schacham, and G. Bahir, “High-speed operation of GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detectors at λ ≈ 1. 55 μ m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 193509 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schacham, S. E.

A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sonnabend, G.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, L. Ajili, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, D. Hofstetter, P. Krötz, and G. Sonnabend, “16.5 μ m quantum cascade detector using miniband transport,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231111 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tchernycheva, M.

S. Sakr, P. Crozat, D. Gacemi, Y. Kotsar, A. Pesach, P. Quach, N. Isac, M. Tchernycheva, L. Vivien, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN waveguide quantum cascade photodetectors at λ ≈ 1.55 μ m with enhanced responsivity and ~40 GHz frequency bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011135 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Vardi, N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. Schacham, and G. Bahir, “High-speed operation of GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detectors at λ ≈ 1. 55 μ m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 193509 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Thron, R.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, R. Thron, M. L. Pellaton, D. Hofstetter, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, “Short wavelength (4 μ m) quantum cascade detector based on strain compensated InGaAs/InAlAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121101 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vardi, A.

A. Vardi, N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. Schacham, and G. Bahir, “High-speed operation of GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detectors at λ ≈ 1. 55 μ m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 193509 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vivien, L.

S. Sakr, P. Crozat, D. Gacemi, Y. Kotsar, A. Pesach, P. Quach, N. Isac, M. Tchernycheva, L. Vivien, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN waveguide quantum cascade photodetectors at λ ≈ 1.55 μ m with enhanced responsivity and ~40 GHz frequency bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011135 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Vardi, N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. Schacham, and G. Bahir, “High-speed operation of GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detectors at λ ≈ 1. 55 μ m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 193509 (2008).
[Crossref]

Walker, J.

B. F. Levine, K. K. Choi, C. G. Bethea, J. Walker, and R. J. Malik, “New 10 μ m infrared detector using intersubband absorption in resonant tunneling GaAlAs superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(16), 1092–1094 (1987).
[Crossref]

Yang, Q.

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum Cascade Detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 45 (8) 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Hofstetter, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Midinfrared quantum cascade detector with a spectrally broad response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221106 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, D. Hofstetter, C. Manz, Q. Yang, K. Köhler, and M. Graf, “InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum cascade detectors operating in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.-L.

J.-L. Zhu, “Exact solutions for hydrogenic donor states in a spherically rectangular quantum well,” Phys. Rev. B 39(12), 8780–8783 (1989).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (14)

L. Gendron, C. Koeniguer, and V. Berger, “Quantum cascade photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2824–2826 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. F. Levine, K. K. Choi, C. G. Bethea, J. Walker, and R. J. Malik, “New 10 μ m infrared detector using intersubband absorption in resonant tunneling GaAlAs superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(16), 1092–1094 (1987).
[Crossref]

M. Graf, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “InP-based quantum cascade detectors in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241118 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Hofstetter, M. Graf, T. Aellen, J. Faist, L. Hvozdara, and S. Blaser, “23 GHz operation of a room temperature photovoltaic quantum cascade detector at 5.35 μ m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 061119 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, L. Ajili, N. Hoyler, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, D. Hofstetter, P. Krötz, and G. Sonnabend, “16.5 μ m quantum cascade detector using miniband transport,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(23), 231111 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Hofstetter, F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, Q. Yang, C. Manz, and K. Köhler, “Midinfrared quantum cascade detector with a spectrally broad response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(22), 221106 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Buffaz, M. Carras, L. Doyennette, A. Nedelcu, X. Marcadet, and V. Berger, “Quantum cascade detectors for very long wave infrared detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(17), 172101 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, D. Hofstetter, C. Manz, Q. Yang, K. Köhler, and M. Graf, “InGaAs/AlAsSb quantum cascade detectors operating in the near infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(11), 111115 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011112 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, R. Thron, M. L. Pellaton, D. Hofstetter, M. Fischer, and J. Faist, “Short wavelength (4 μ m) quantum cascade detector based on strain compensated InGaAs/InAlAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 121101 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Vardi, N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, M. Tchernycheva, R. Colombelli, F. H. Julien, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. Schacham, and G. Bahir, “High-speed operation of GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detectors at λ ≈ 1. 55 μ m,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 193509 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Sakr, P. Crozat, D. Gacemi, Y. Kotsar, A. Pesach, P. Quach, N. Isac, M. Tchernycheva, L. Vivien, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN waveguide quantum cascade photodetectors at λ ≈ 1.55 μ m with enhanced responsivity and ~40 GHz frequency bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011135 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Graf, G. Scalari, D. Hofstetter, J. Faist, H. Beere, E. Linfield, D. Ritchie, and G. Davies, “Terahertz range quantum well infrared photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(4), 475–477 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. Lhuillier, I. Ribet-Mohamed, E. Rosencher, G. Patriarche, A. Buffaz, V. Berger, and M. Carras, “Interface roughness transport in terahertz quantum cascade detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061111 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electon. (1)

F. R. Giorgetta, E. Baumann, M. Graf, Q. Yang, C. Manz, K. Köhler, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, E. Linfield, A. G. Davies, Y. Fedoryshyn, H. Jäckel, M. Fischer, J. Faist, and D. Hofstetter, “Quantum Cascade Detectors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electon. 45 (8) 1039–1052 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

F. Capasso, “High-performance midinfrared quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Eng. 49 (11), 111102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

J.-L. Zhu, “Exact solutions for hydrogenic donor states in a spherically rectangular quantum well,” Phys. Rev. B 39(12), 8780–8783 (1989).
[Crossref]

R. Ferreira and G. Bastard, “Evaluation of some scattering times for electrons in unbiased and biased single- and multiple-quantum-well structures,” Phys. Rev. B 40(2), 1074–1086 (1989).
[Crossref]

C. Koeniguer, G. Dubois, A. Gomez, and V. Berger, “Electronic transport in quantum cascade structures at equilibrium,” Phys. Rev. B 74(23), 235325 (2006).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

P. Harrison, Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2009), Chap. 10

P. Harrison, Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2009), Chap. 3.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Scheme of pumping-detection structure in one period of the active region of the MIR-pumped THz QCD. (b) Calculated conduction band profile of a THz QCD designed according to the above concept.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Responsivity spectrum of the THz QCD at the MIR field resonant with transition |1〉 ↔ |10〉.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The peak responsivity of the THz QCD versus I1 and I2. Inset: a four-level configuration modeling the dynamics of two optical processes correlated by LO-phonon scattering.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time evolution of the electronic density of the empty state. (a) Only QW A or QW D doped. (b) Both QW A and QW D doped. The field parameters are 1 = 222.5 meV, 2 = 16.1 meV, I1 = 42 W/cm2, I2 = 1.7 W/cm2.

Equations (5)

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H ( t ) = i = 1 11 ε i | i i | + l = 10 11 h ¯ Ω 1 l sin ( ω 1 t ) ( | 1 l | + | l 1 | ) + m = 3 4 n = 5 6 h ¯ Ω m n sin ( ω 2 t ) ( | m n | + | n m | ) ,
ρ / t = i [ H ( t ) , ρ ] / h ¯ + Λ ρ ,
R = J I 2 = e h v 2 η g ,
η = 1 e N Q W α N Q W α , for N Q W α 1
g = p e N Q W p c ,

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