Abstract

We demonstrated a linearly-polarized picosecond thulium-doped all-fiber-integrated master-oscillator power-amplifier system, which yielded 240 W of average output power at 127 MHz repetition rate. The seed source is a passively mode-locked polarization-maintaining thulium-doped all-fiber oscillator with a nearly transform-limited pulse duration of 10 ps. In combination with a pre-chirp fiber having a positive group velocity dispersion and a three stage polarization-maintaining thulium-doped all-fiber amplifier, output pulse energies up to 1.89 µJ with 42 kW pulse peak power are obtained without the need of complex free-space stretcher or compressor setups. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest average output power ever reported for a picosecond all-fiber-integrated laser at 2 µm wavelength region.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2015 (5)

2014 (6)

2013 (5)

2012 (4)

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

2009 (3)

P. F. Moulton, G. A. Rines, E. V. Slobodtchikov, K. F. Wall, G. Frith, B. Samson, and A. L. G. Carter, “Tm-Doped Fiber Lasers: Fundamentals and Power Scaling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 85–92 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Wang, J. Geng, T. Luo, and S. Jiang, “Mode-locked 2 µm laser with highly thulium-doped silicate fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3616–3618 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kieu and F. W. Wise, “Soliton thulium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(3), 128–130 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2005 (1)

Abdel-Moneim, N.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 µm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Alam, S. U.

Babic, F.

X. Jiang, N. Y. Joly, M. A. Finger, F. Babic, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Travers, and P. S. J. Russell, “Deep-ultraviolet to mid-infrared supercontinuum generated in solid-core ZBLAN photonic crystal fiber,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 133–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bai, S.

Bang, O.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 µm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Becker, M.

Benson, T.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 µm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bradford, J. B.

Byer, R. L.

Carter, A. L. G.

P. F. Moulton, G. A. Rines, E. V. Slobodtchikov, K. F. Wall, G. Frith, B. Samson, and A. L. G. Carter, “Tm-Doped Fiber Lasers: Fundamentals and Power Scaling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 85–92 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cassinerio, M.

Cerullo, G.

Cheng, Z.

Chernov, A. I.

Clarkson, W. A.

Coluccelli, N.

Dianov, E. M.

Dupont, S.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 µm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Eken, K.

Engelbrecht, M.

Fermann, M.

Ferrari, A. C.

Finger, M. A.

X. Jiang, N. Y. Joly, M. A. Finger, F. Babic, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Travers, and P. S. J. Russell, “Deep-ultraviolet to mid-infrared supercontinuum generated in solid-core ZBLAN photonic crystal fiber,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 133–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

Frith, G.

P. F. Moulton, G. A. Rines, E. V. Slobodtchikov, K. F. Wall, G. Frith, B. Samson, and A. L. G. Carter, “Tm-Doped Fiber Lasers: Fundamentals and Power Scaling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 85–92 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fuchs, F.

Furniss, D.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 µm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gaida, C.

Galzerano, G.

Gebhardt, M.

Geng, J.

Hädrich, S.

Hartl, I.

Hasan, T.

Haxsen, F.

Heidt, A. M.

Hou, Y.

Huang, H.

Ibsen, M.

Ilday, F. Ö.

Imeshev, G.

Jansen, F.

Jauregui, C.

Jiang, J.

Jiang, S.

Jiang, X.

X. Jiang, N. Y. Joly, M. A. Finger, F. Babic, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Travers, and P. S. J. Russell, “Deep-ultraviolet to mid-infrared supercontinuum generated in solid-core ZBLAN photonic crystal fiber,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 133–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

Johnson, E. G.

Joly, N. Y.

X. Jiang, N. Y. Joly, M. A. Finger, F. Babic, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Travers, and P. S. J. Russell, “Deep-ultraviolet to mid-infrared supercontinuum generated in solid-core ZBLAN photonic crystal fiber,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 133–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kadwani, P.

Kelleher, E. J. R.

Kelly, B.

Kienel, M.

Kieu, K.

K. Kieu and F. W. Wise, “Soliton thulium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(3), 128–130 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. W.

Klenke, A.

Konov, V. I.

Kracht, D.

Kubat, I.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 µm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kumar, V.

Leindecker, N.

Li, H.

Li, Z.

Limpert, J.

Liu, J.

Liu, K.

Lobach, A. S.

Luo, T.

Marandi, A.

Marangoni, M.

Møller, U.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 µm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Morgner, U.

Moulton, P. F.

P. F. Moulton, G. A. Rines, E. V. Slobodtchikov, K. F. Wall, G. Frith, B. Samson, and A. L. G. Carter, “Tm-Doped Fiber Lasers: Fundamentals and Power Scaling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 85–92 (2009).
[Crossref]

Müller, M.

Neumann, J.

Obraztsova, E. D.

Öktem, B.

Ozgören, K.

Pearson, L.

Petersen, C. R.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 µm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phelan, R.

Popa, D.

Popov, S. V.

Poutous, M. K.

Pung, A.

Ramsay, J.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 µm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

Richardson, M.

Rines, G. A.

P. F. Moulton, G. A. Rines, E. V. Slobodtchikov, K. F. Wall, G. Frith, B. Samson, and A. L. G. Carter, “Tm-Doped Fiber Lasers: Fundamentals and Power Scaling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 85–92 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rothhardt, M.

Rudy, C. W.

Ruehl, A.

Russell, P. S. J.

X. Jiang, N. Y. Joly, M. A. Finger, F. Babic, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Travers, and P. S. J. Russell, “Deep-ultraviolet to mid-infrared supercontinuum generated in solid-core ZBLAN photonic crystal fiber,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 133–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sahu, J.

Sahu, J. K.

Samson, B.

P. F. Moulton, G. A. Rines, E. V. Slobodtchikov, K. F. Wall, G. Frith, B. Samson, and A. L. G. Carter, “Tm-Doped Fiber Lasers: Fundamentals and Power Scaling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 85–92 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schunemann, P. G.

Seddon, A.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 µm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shah, A. S.

Shah, L.

Shardlow, P. C.

Shi, H.

Sims, R. A.

Slobodtchikov, E. V.

P. F. Moulton, G. A. Rines, E. V. Slobodtchikov, K. F. Wall, G. Frith, B. Samson, and A. L. G. Carter, “Tm-Doped Fiber Lasers: Fundamentals and Power Scaling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 85–92 (2009).
[Crossref]

Solodyankin, M. A.

Stutzki, F.

Sujecki, S.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 µm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z.

Tan, F.

Tang, Z.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 µm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tausenev, A. V.

Taylor, J. R.

Torrisi, F.

Travers, J. C.

X. Jiang, N. Y. Joly, M. A. Finger, F. Babic, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Travers, and P. S. J. Russell, “Deep-ultraviolet to mid-infrared supercontinuum generated in solid-core ZBLAN photonic crystal fiber,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 133–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tünnermann, A.

Vodopyanov, K. L.

Wall, K. F.

P. F. Moulton, G. A. Rines, E. V. Slobodtchikov, K. F. Wall, G. Frith, B. Samson, and A. L. G. Carter, “Tm-Doped Fiber Lasers: Fundamentals and Power Scaling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 85–92 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wan, P.

Wandt, D.

Wang, F.

Wang, P.

Wang, Q.

Wienke, A.

Willis, C. C. C.

Wise, F. W.

K. Kieu and F. W. Wise, “Soliton thulium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(3), 128–130 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, G. K. L.

X. Jiang, N. Y. Joly, M. A. Finger, F. Babic, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Travers, and P. S. J. Russell, “Deep-ultraviolet to mid-infrared supercontinuum generated in solid-core ZBLAN photonic crystal fiber,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 133–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

Yang, L. M.

Yilmaz, S.

Zeitner, U.

Zhang, M.

Zhang, Z.

Zhou, B.

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 µm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. F. Moulton, G. A. Rines, E. V. Slobodtchikov, K. F. Wall, G. Frith, B. Samson, and A. L. G. Carter, “Tm-Doped Fiber Lasers: Fundamentals and Power Scaling,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(1), 85–92 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Kieu and F. W. Wise, “Soliton thulium-doped fiber laser with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(3), 128–130 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

C. R. Petersen, U. Møller, I. Kubat, B. Zhou, S. Dupont, J. Ramsay, T. Benson, S. Sujecki, N. Abdel-Moneim, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, A. Seddon, and O. Bang, “Mid-infrared supercontinuum covering the 1.4-13.3 µm molecular fingerprint region using ultra-high NA chalcogenide step-index fiber,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 830–834 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, N. Y. Joly, M. A. Finger, F. Babic, G. K. L. Wong, J. C. Travers, and P. S. J. Russell, “Deep-ultraviolet to mid-infrared supercontinuum generated in solid-core ZBLAN photonic crystal fiber,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 133–139 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (10)

K. Liu, J. Liu, H. Shi, F. Tan, and P. Wang, “High power mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a single-mode ZBLAN fiber with up to 21.8 W average output power,” Opt. Express 22(20), 24384–24391 (2014).
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K. Ozgören, B. Öktem, S. Yilmaz, F. Ö. Ilday, and K. Eken, “83 W, 3.1 MHz, square-shaped, 1 ns-pulsed all-fiber-integrated laser for micromachining,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17647–17652 (2011).
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N. Leindecker, A. Marandi, R. L. Byer, K. L. Vodopyanov, J. Jiang, I. Hartl, M. Fermann, and P. G. Schunemann, “Octave-spanning ultrafast OPO with 2.6-6.1 µm instantaneous bandwidth pumped by femtosecond Tm-fiber laser,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7046–7053 (2012).
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L. Pearson, J. W. Kim, Z. Zhang, M. Ibsen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “High-power linearly-polarized single-frequency thulium-doped fiber master-oscillator power-amplifier,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1607–1612 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, H. Shi, K. Liu, Y. Hou, and P. Wang, “210 W single-frequency, single-polarization, thulium-doped all-fiber MOPA,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13572–13578 (2014).
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L. Shah, R. A. Sims, P. Kadwani, C. C. C. Willis, J. B. Bradford, A. Pung, M. K. Poutous, E. G. Johnson, and M. Richardson, “Integrated Tm:fiber MOPA with polarized output and narrow linewidth with 100 W average power,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20558–20563 (2012).
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P. Wan, L. M. Yang, and J. Liu, “High power 2 µm femtosecond fiber laser,” Opt. Express 21(18), 21374–21379 (2013).
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H. Li, J. Liu, Z. Cheng, J. Xu, F. Tan, and P. Wang, “Pulse-shaping mechanisms in passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 23(5), 6292–6303 (2015).
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M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20(22), 25077–25084 (2012).
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Opt. Lett. (14)

A. M. Heidt, Z. Li, J. Sahu, P. C. Shardlow, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, M. Ibsen, R. Phelan, B. Kelly, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “100 kW peak power picosecond thulium-doped fiber amplifier system seeded by a gain-switched diode laser at 2 μm,” Opt. Lett. 38(10), 1615–1617 (2013).
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J. Liu, J. Xu, K. Liu, F. Tan, and P. Wang, “High average power picosecond pulse and supercontinuum generation from a thulium-doped, all-fiber amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 38(20), 4150–4153 (2013).
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M. Engelbrecht, F. Haxsen, A. Ruehl, D. Wandt, and D. Kracht, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber-oscillator with pulse energy of 4.3 nJ,” Opt. Lett. 33(7), 690–692 (2008).
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F. Haxsen, D. Wandt, U. Morgner, J. Neumann, and D. Kracht, “Pulse energy of 151 nJ from ultrafast thulium-doped chirped-pulse fiber amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2991–2993 (2010).
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R. A. Sims, P. Kadwani, A. S. Shah, and M. Richardson, “1 μJ, sub-500 fs chirped pulse amplification in a Tm-doped fiber system,” Opt. Lett. 38(2), 121–123 (2013).
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Q. Wang, J. Geng, T. Luo, and S. Jiang, “Mode-locked 2 µm laser with highly thulium-doped silicate fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3616–3618 (2009).
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F. Stutzki, C. Gaida, M. Gebhardt, F. Jansen, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Tm-based fiber-laser system with more than 200 MW peak power,” Opt. Lett. 40(1), 9–12 (2015).
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M. Gebhardt, C. Gaida, S. Hädrich, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Nonlinear compression of an ultrashort-pulse thulium-based fiber laser to sub-70 fs in Kagome photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 40(12), 2770–2773 (2015).
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M. A. Solodyankin, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, A. I. Chernov, A. V. Tausenev, V. I. Konov, and E. M. Dianov, “Mode-locked 1.93 µm thulium fiber laser with a carbon nanotube absorber,” Opt. Lett. 33(12), 1336–1338 (2008).
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F. Stutzki, C. Gaida, M. Gebhardt, F. Jansen, A. Wienke, U. Zeitner, F. Fuchs, C. Jauregui, D. Wandt, D. Kracht, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “152 W average power Tm-doped fiber CPA system,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4671–4674 (2014).
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F. Haxsen, D. Wandt, U. Morgner, J. Neumann, and D. Kracht, “Monotonically chirped pulse evolution in an ultrashort pulse thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(6), 1014–1016 (2012).
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N. Coluccelli, V. Kumar, M. Cassinerio, G. Galzerano, M. Marangoni, and G. Cerullo, “Er/Tm:fiber laser system for coherent Raman microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39(11), 3090–3093 (2014).
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C. W. Rudy, A. Marandi, K. L. Vodopyanov, and R. L. Byer, “Octave-spanning supercontinuum generation in in situ tapered As₂S₃ fiber pumped by a thulium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(15), 2865–2868 (2013).
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C. Gaida, M. Kienel, M. Müller, A. Klenke, M. Gebhardt, F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Coherent combination of two Tm-doped fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 40(10), 2301–2304 (2015).
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Other (1)

E. Honea, E. C. Honea, M. P. Savage-Leuchs, M. S. Bowers, T. Yilmaz, and R. D. Mead, “Pulsed blue laser source based on frequency quadrupling of a thulium fiber laser,” SPIE 8601: Fiber Lasers X: Technology, Systems, and Applications (2013).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic setup of the high-power linearly-polarized picosecond thulium-doped all-fiber MOPA. SESAM, semiconductor saturable absorber mirror; PM MFA, polarization-maintaining mode field adaptor.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Pulse train of the passively mode-locked PM thulium-doped fiber oscillator. (b) Output spectrum of the passively mode-locked PM thulium-doped fiber oscillator.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) RF spectrum of the passively mode-locked PM thulium-doped fiber oscillator. (b) Autocorrelation trace of the pulse of the first PM thulium-doped fiber preamplifier.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Pulse duration from a piece of 100 m pre-chirp UHNA fiber having a positive GVD. (b) Output spectrum from a piece of 100 m pre-chirp UHNA fiber having a positive GVD.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Average output power of the final PM thulium-doped all-fiber power amplifier with the increase of 793 nm incident pump power.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Pulse duration of the final PM fiber power amplifier. (b) Measured 10 dB spectral bandwidth of the final PM fiber power amplifier as a function of signal output power.

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