Abstract

We propose a compact highly-efficient CMOS-compatible polarization splitter and rotator (PSR) with a wide bandwidth covering the whole O-band. It benefits from the different confinement capability of TE and TM modes in bend structure. This bend structure helps shorten the PSR and maintain high efficiency, achieving the bending, polarization splitting, rotating of light beam at the same time. Numerical simulations utilizing Lumerical 3-D FDTD solutions demonstrate that the present PSR has a high TM-TE conversion efficiency of −0.11 dB and high TE-TE conversion efficiency of −0.09 dB at 1310 nm, while the extinction ratio is 27.36 dB and 30.61 dB respectively.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. Dai, L. Liu, S. Gao, D.-X. Xu, and S. He, “Polarization management for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 303–328 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  3. Z. Su, E. Timurdogan, E. S. Hosseini, J. Sun, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, “Four-port integrated polarizing beam splitter,” Opt. Lett. 39(4), 965–968 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. Wang, M. Qi, Y. Xuan, H. Huang, Y. Li, M. Li, X. Chen, Q. Jia, Z. Sheng, A. Wu, W. Li, X. Wang, S. Zou, and F. Gan, “Proposal for fabrication-tolerant SOI polarization splitter-rotator based on cascaded MMI couplers and an assisted bi-level taper,” Opt. Express 22(23), 27869–27879 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, R. Shi, Y. Liu, Q. Fang, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-Efficiency Low-Crosstalk 1310-nm Polarization Splitter and Rotator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(9), 925–928 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Wang, B. Niu, Z. Sheng, A. Wu, W. Li, X. Wang, S. Zou, M. Qi, and F. Gan, “Novel ultra-broadband polarization splitter-rotator based on mode-evolution tapers and a mode-sorting asymmetric Y-junction,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13565–13571 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. W. Yuan, K. Kojima, B. Wang, T. Koike-Akino, K. Parsons, S. Nishikawa, and E. Yagyu, “Mode-evolution-based polarization rotator-splitter design via simple fabrication process,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10163–10169 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Xiong, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D. X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and W. N. Ye, “Polarization splitter and rotator with subwavelength grating for enhanced fabrication tolerance,” Opt. Lett. 39(24), 6931–6934 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. J. Wang, B. Niu, Z. Sheng, A. Wu, X. Wang, S. Zou, M. Qi, and F. Gan, “Design of a SiO₂ top-cladding and compact polarization splitter-rotator based on a rib directional coupler,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4137–4143 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Ding, L. Liu, C. Peucheret, and H. Ou, “Fabrication tolerant polarization splitter and rotator based on a tapered directional coupler,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20021–20027 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. L. Liu, Y. Ding, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Silicon-on-insulator polarization splitting and rotating device for polarization diversity circuits,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12646–12651 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. W. D. Sacher, Y. Huang, L. Ding, T. Barwicz, J. C. Mikkelsen, B. J. F. Taylor, G.-Q. Lo, and J. K. S. Poon, “Polarization rotator-splitters and controllers in a Si3N4-on-SOI integrated photonics platform,” Opt. Express 22(9), 11167–11174 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. W. D. Sacher, T. Barwicz, B. J. F. Taylor, and J. K. S. Poon, “Polarization rotator-splitters in standard active silicon photonics platforms,” Opt. Express 22(4), 3777–3786 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. Y. Huang, J. Song, X. Luo, T.-Y. Liow, and G.-Q. Lo, “CMOS compatible monolithic multi-layer Si₃N₄₋ on-SOI platform for low-loss high performance silicon photonics dense integration,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21859–21865 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. M. T. Liu and H. C. Lim, “Transmission of O-band wavelength-division-multiplexed heralded photons over a noise-corrupted optical fiber channel,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30358–30369 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. M. T. Liu and H. C. Lim, “Efficient heralding of O-band passively spatial-multiplexed photons for noise-tolerant quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express 22(19), 23261–23275 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1217 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. D. Dai, Z. Wang, and J. E. Bowers, “Ultrashort broadband polarization beam splitter based on an asymmetrical directional coupler,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2590–2592 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. D. Dai and J. E. Bowers, “Novel ultra-short and ultra-broadband polarization beam splitter based on a bent directional coupler,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18614–18620 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (11)

Z. Su, E. Timurdogan, E. S. Hosseini, J. Sun, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, “Four-port integrated polarizing beam splitter,” Opt. Lett. 39(4), 965–968 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. Qi, Y. Xuan, H. Huang, Y. Li, M. Li, X. Chen, Q. Jia, Z. Sheng, A. Wu, W. Li, X. Wang, S. Zou, and F. Gan, “Proposal for fabrication-tolerant SOI polarization splitter-rotator based on cascaded MMI couplers and an assisted bi-level taper,” Opt. Express 22(23), 27869–27879 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, R. Shi, Y. Liu, Q. Fang, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-Efficiency Low-Crosstalk 1310-nm Polarization Splitter and Rotator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(9), 925–928 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, B. Niu, Z. Sheng, A. Wu, W. Li, X. Wang, S. Zou, M. Qi, and F. Gan, “Novel ultra-broadband polarization splitter-rotator based on mode-evolution tapers and a mode-sorting asymmetric Y-junction,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13565–13571 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Xiong, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, D. X. Xu, J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, and W. N. Ye, “Polarization splitter and rotator with subwavelength grating for enhanced fabrication tolerance,” Opt. Lett. 39(24), 6931–6934 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, B. Niu, Z. Sheng, A. Wu, X. Wang, S. Zou, M. Qi, and F. Gan, “Design of a SiO₂ top-cladding and compact polarization splitter-rotator based on a rib directional coupler,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4137–4143 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Sacher, Y. Huang, L. Ding, T. Barwicz, J. C. Mikkelsen, B. J. F. Taylor, G.-Q. Lo, and J. K. S. Poon, “Polarization rotator-splitters and controllers in a Si3N4-on-SOI integrated photonics platform,” Opt. Express 22(9), 11167–11174 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Sacher, T. Barwicz, B. J. F. Taylor, and J. K. S. Poon, “Polarization rotator-splitters in standard active silicon photonics platforms,” Opt. Express 22(4), 3777–3786 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Liu and H. C. Lim, “Efficient heralding of O-band passively spatial-multiplexed photons for noise-tolerant quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express 22(19), 23261–23275 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. H. Frandsen, Y. Elesin, L. F. Frellsen, M. Mitrovic, Y. Ding, O. Sigmund, and K. Yvind, “Topology optimized mode conversion in a photonic crystal waveguide fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material,” Opt. Express 22(7), 8525–8532 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, J. Song, X. Luo, T.-Y. Liow, and G.-Q. Lo, “CMOS compatible monolithic multi-layer Si₃N₄₋ on-SOI platform for low-loss high performance silicon photonics dense integration,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21859–21865 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

2012 (3)

2011 (3)

2007 (1)

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[Crossref]

Baehr-Jones, T.

H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, R. Shi, Y. Liu, Q. Fang, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-Efficiency Low-Crosstalk 1310-nm Polarization Splitter and Rotator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(9), 925–928 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barwicz, T.

Bowers, J. E.

Cheben, P.

Chen, G.

Chen, L.

Chen, X.

Coolbaugh, D. D.

Dai, D.

Ding, L.

Ding, W.

Ding, Y.

Elesin, Y.

Fang, Q.

H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, R. Shi, Y. Liu, Q. Fang, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-Efficiency Low-Crosstalk 1310-nm Polarization Splitter and Rotator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(9), 925–928 (2014).
[Crossref]

Feng, R.

Frandsen, L. H.

Frellsen, L. F.

Gabrielli, L. H.

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gan, F.

Gao, S.

D. Dai, L. Liu, S. Gao, D.-X. Xu, and S. He, “Polarization management for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 303–328 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guan, H.

H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, R. Shi, Y. Liu, Q. Fang, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-Efficiency Low-Crosstalk 1310-nm Polarization Splitter and Rotator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(9), 925–928 (2014).
[Crossref]

He, S.

D. Dai, L. Liu, S. Gao, D.-X. Xu, and S. He, “Polarization management for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 303–328 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hochberg, M.

H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, R. Shi, Y. Liu, Q. Fang, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-Efficiency Low-Crosstalk 1310-nm Polarization Splitter and Rotator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(9), 925–928 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hosseini, E. S.

Huang, H.

Huang, Y.

Hvam, J. M.

Ippen, E. P.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jia, Q.

Johnson, S. G.

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kärtner, F. X.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[Crossref]

Koike-Akino, T.

Kojima, K.

Leake, G.

Li, M.

Li, W.

Li, Y.

Lim, A. E.

H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, R. Shi, Y. Liu, Q. Fang, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-Efficiency Low-Crosstalk 1310-nm Polarization Splitter and Rotator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(9), 925–928 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lim, H. C.

Liow, T.-Y.

Lipson, M.

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, D.

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

Liu, M. T.

Liu, Y.

H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, R. Shi, Y. Liu, Q. Fang, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-Efficiency Low-Crosstalk 1310-nm Polarization Splitter and Rotator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(9), 925–928 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lo, G.

H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, R. Shi, Y. Liu, Q. Fang, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-Efficiency Low-Crosstalk 1310-nm Polarization Splitter and Rotator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(9), 925–928 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lo, G.-Q.

Luo, X.

Mikkelsen, J. C.

Mitrovic, M.

Nishikawa, S.

Niu, B.

Novack, A.

H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, R. Shi, Y. Liu, Q. Fang, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-Efficiency Low-Crosstalk 1310-nm Polarization Splitter and Rotator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(9), 925–928 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ou, H.

Parsons, K.

Peucheret, C.

Poon, J. K. S.

Popovic, M. A.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[Crossref]

Qi, M.

Rakich, P. T.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sacher, W. D.

Schmid, J. H.

Sheng, Z.

Shi, R.

H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, R. Shi, Y. Liu, Q. Fang, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-Efficiency Low-Crosstalk 1310-nm Polarization Splitter and Rotator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(9), 925–928 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sigmund, O.

Smith, H. I.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[Crossref]

Socci, L.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[Crossref]

Song, J.

Streshinsky, M.

H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, R. Shi, Y. Liu, Q. Fang, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-Efficiency Low-Crosstalk 1310-nm Polarization Splitter and Rotator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(9), 925–928 (2014).
[Crossref]

Su, Z.

Sun, F.

Sun, J.

Taylor, B. J. F.

Timurdogan, E.

Wang, B.

Wang, J.

Wang, X.

Wang, Z.

Wangüemert-Pérez, J. G.

Watts, M. R.

Z. Su, E. Timurdogan, E. S. Hosseini, J. Sun, G. Leake, D. D. Coolbaugh, and M. R. Watts, “Four-port integrated polarizing beam splitter,” Opt. Lett. 39(4), 965–968 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wu, A.

Xiong, Y.

Xu, D. X.

Xu, D.-X.

D. Dai, L. Liu, S. Gao, D.-X. Xu, and S. He, “Polarization management for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 303–328 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xuan, Y.

Yagyu, E.

Ye, W. N.

Yuan, W.

Yvind, K.

Zou, S.

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Guan, A. Novack, M. Streshinsky, R. Shi, Y. Liu, Q. Fang, A. E. Lim, G. Lo, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “High-Efficiency Low-Crosstalk 1310-nm Polarization Splitter and Rotator,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(9), 925–928 (2014).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (1)

D. Dai, L. Liu, S. Gao, D.-X. Xu, and S. He, “Polarization management for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(3), 303–328 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

L. H. Gabrielli, D. Liu, S. G. Johnson, and M. Lipson, “On-chip transformation optics for multimode waveguide bends,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1217 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (13)

Y. Ding, L. Liu, C. Peucheret, and H. Ou, “Fabrication tolerant polarization splitter and rotator based on a tapered directional coupler,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20021–20027 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. H. Frandsen, Y. Elesin, L. F. Frellsen, M. Mitrovic, Y. Ding, O. Sigmund, and K. Yvind, “Topology optimized mode conversion in a photonic crystal waveguide fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material,” Opt. Express 22(7), 8525–8532 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Sacher, Y. Huang, L. Ding, T. Barwicz, J. C. Mikkelsen, B. J. F. Taylor, G.-Q. Lo, and J. K. S. Poon, “Polarization rotator-splitters and controllers in a Si3N4-on-SOI integrated photonics platform,” Opt. Express 22(9), 11167–11174 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Liu and H. C. Lim, “Efficient heralding of O-band passively spatial-multiplexed photons for noise-tolerant quantum key distribution,” Opt. Express 22(19), 23261–23275 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, Y. Ding, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Silicon-on-insulator polarization splitting and rotating device for polarization diversity circuits,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12646–12651 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dai and J. E. Bowers, “Novel ultra-short and ultra-broadband polarization beam splitter based on a bent directional coupler,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18614–18620 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Sacher, T. Barwicz, B. J. F. Taylor, and J. K. S. Poon, “Polarization rotator-splitters in standard active silicon photonics platforms,” Opt. Express 22(4), 3777–3786 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Liu and H. C. Lim, “Transmission of O-band wavelength-division-multiplexed heralded photons over a noise-corrupted optical fiber channel,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30358–30369 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, B. Niu, Z. Sheng, A. Wu, W. Li, X. Wang, S. Zou, M. Qi, and F. Gan, “Novel ultra-broadband polarization splitter-rotator based on mode-evolution tapers and a mode-sorting asymmetric Y-junction,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13565–13571 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Yuan, K. Kojima, B. Wang, T. Koike-Akino, K. Parsons, S. Nishikawa, and E. Yagyu, “Mode-evolution-based polarization rotator-splitter design via simple fabrication process,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10163–10169 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, B. Niu, Z. Sheng, A. Wu, X. Wang, S. Zou, M. Qi, and F. Gan, “Design of a SiO₂ top-cladding and compact polarization splitter-rotator based on a rib directional coupler,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4137–4143 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Huang, J. Song, X. Luo, T.-Y. Liow, and G.-Q. Lo, “CMOS compatible monolithic multi-layer Si₃N₄₋ on-SOI platform for low-loss high performance silicon photonics dense integration,” Opt. Express 22(18), 21859–21865 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, M. Qi, Y. Xuan, H. Huang, Y. Li, M. Li, X. Chen, Q. Jia, Z. Sheng, A. Wu, W. Li, X. Wang, S. Zou, and F. Gan, “Proposal for fabrication-tolerant SOI polarization splitter-rotator based on cascaded MMI couplers and an assisted bi-level taper,” Opt. Express 22(23), 27869–27879 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (4)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Top view and (b) three-dimensional view of the PSR based on the 90° bends. For clarity, the SiO2 cladding is not shown.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 OPLs of the TE and TM mode supported by the inner and outer bend.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The light propagation when TE mode is stimulated in the inner bend. (b) The light propagation when TM mode is stimulated in the inner bend. The light wavelength is 1310 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The TM mode at the input port of inner bend. (b) The hybrid mode at the middle of the bend, where the energy carried by TM mode is converting into TE-like mode in the outer bend. (c) Most energy is coupled into TE-like mode in the outer bend. (d) Converted TE mode at the cross output of the outer bend. The light wavelength is set to be 1310 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The mode conversion efficiency as a function of the wavelength in the cross output port (a) and through output port (b). The conversion efficiency below −40 dB is not shown.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The CE as a function of (a) through waveguide width W1, (b) rib width W2, (c) slab width W3, (d) height of slab H2, and (e) gap width Wg. The wavelength is set to be 1310 nm.

Equations (1)

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OPL= N 1 k 0 R 1 θ= N 2 k 0 R 2 θ

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