Abstract

We demonstrate an all-fiber Tm-doped soliton laser with high power by using a monolayer graphene saturable absorber (SA). Large area, uniform monolayer graphene was transferred to the surface of the side-polished fiber (SPF) to realize an in-line graphene SA that operates around 2 μm wavelength. To increase the nonlinear interaction with graphene, we applied an over-cladding onto the SPF, where enhanced optical absorption at monolayer graphene was observed. All-fiber Tm-doped mode-locked laser was built including our in-line graphene SA, which stably delivered the soliton pulses with 773 fs pulse duration. The measured 3-dB spectral bandwidth was 5.14 nm at the wavelength of 1910 nm. We obtained the maximum average output power of 115 mW at a repetition rate of 19.31 MHz. Corresponding pulse energy was estimated to be 6 nJ, which is the highest value among all-fiber Tm-doped soliton oscillators using carbon-material-based SAs.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (1)

2015 (3)

E. J. Lee, S. Y. Choi, H. Jeong, N. H. Park, W. Yim, M. H. Kim, J.-K. Park, S. Son, S. Bae, S. J. Kim, K. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Ahn, B. H. Hong, J.-Y. Park, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “Active control of all-fibre graphene devices with electrical gating,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6851 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. H. Park, H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, M. H. Kim, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “Monolayer graphene saturable absorbers with strongly enhanced evanescent-field interaction for ultrafast fiber laser mode-locking,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19806–19812 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Li, X. Yu, Z. Sun, Z. Yan, B. Sun, Y. Cheng, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, and Q. J. Wang, “High-power graphene mode-locked Tm/Ho co-doped fiber laser with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 5, 16624 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

2013 (3)

2012 (4)

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(12), 1937–1943 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. H. Im, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “All-fiber Er-doped dissipative soliton laser based on evanescent field interaction with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 18(21), 22141–22146 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

N. P. Barnes, B. M. Walsh, D. J. Reichle, and R. J. DeYong, “Tm:fiber lasers for remote sensing,” Opt. Mater. 31(7), 1061–1064 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Hanson, P. Poirier, D. Haddock, D. Kichura, and M. Lasher, “Laser propagation at 1.56 µm and 3.60 µm in maritime environments,” Appl. Opt. 48(21), 4149–4157 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Walsh, “Review of Tm and Ho materials; spectroscopy and lasers,” Laser Phys. 19(4), 855–866 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

M. A. Solodyankin, E. D. Obraztsova, A. S. Lobach, A. I. Chernov, A. V. Tausenev, V. I. Konov, and E. M. Dianov, “Mode-locked 1.93 µm thulium fiber laser with a carbon nanotube absorber,” Opt. Lett. 33(12), 1336–1338 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, T. Hasan, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Carbon nanotube polycarbonate composited for ultrafast lasers,” Adv. Mater. 20(21), 4040–4043 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Ultrafast fiber pulsed lasers incorporating,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10(1), 435–453 (2004).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. B. Grudinin and S. Gray, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in soliton fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(1), 144–154 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

R. Targ, B. C. Steakley, J. G. Hawley, L. L. Ames, P. Forney, D. Swanson, R. Stone, R. G. Otto, V. Zarifis, P. Brockman, R. S. Calloway, S. H. Klein, and P. A. Robinson, “Coherent lidar airborne wind sensor II: flight-test results at 2 and 10 νm,” Appl. Opt. 35(36), 7117–7127 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Bram, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Abramski, K.

Abramski, K. M.

Ahn, J.-H.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, K. J.

E. J. Lee, S. Y. Choi, H. Jeong, N. H. Park, W. Yim, M. H. Kim, J.-K. Park, S. Son, S. Bae, S. J. Kim, K. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Ahn, B. H. Hong, J.-Y. Park, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “Active control of all-fibre graphene devices with electrical gating,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6851 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, Y. H.

E. J. Lee, S. Y. Choi, H. Jeong, N. H. Park, W. Yim, M. H. Kim, J.-K. Park, S. Son, S. Bae, S. J. Kim, K. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Ahn, B. H. Hong, J.-Y. Park, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “Active control of all-fibre graphene devices with electrical gating,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6851 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ames, L. L.

Aus der Au, J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Bram, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bae, S.

E. J. Lee, S. Y. Choi, H. Jeong, N. H. Park, W. Yim, M. H. Kim, J.-K. Park, S. Son, S. Bae, S. J. Kim, K. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Ahn, B. H. Hong, J.-Y. Park, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “Active control of all-fibre graphene devices with electrical gating,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6851 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnes, N. P.

N. P. Barnes, B. M. Walsh, D. J. Reichle, and R. J. DeYong, “Tm:fiber lasers for remote sensing,” Opt. Mater. 31(7), 1061–1064 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bram, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Bram, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Brockman, P.

Byer, R. L.

Cajzl, J.

Calloway, R. S.

Cha, Y.-H.

Cheng, Y.

X. Li, X. Yu, Z. Sun, Z. Yan, B. Sun, Y. Cheng, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, and Q. J. Wang, “High-power graphene mode-locked Tm/Ho co-doped fiber laser with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 5, 16624 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chernov, A. I.

Cho, W. B.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(12), 1937–1943 (2010).
[Crossref]

Choi, J.-Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, S. Y.

E. J. Lee, S. Y. Choi, H. Jeong, N. H. Park, W. Yim, M. H. Kim, J.-K. Park, S. Son, S. Bae, S. J. Kim, K. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Ahn, B. H. Hong, J.-Y. Park, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “Active control of all-fibre graphene devices with electrical gating,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6851 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. H. Park, H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, M. H. Kim, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “Monolayer graphene saturable absorbers with strongly enhanced evanescent-field interaction for ultrafast fiber laser mode-locking,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19806–19812 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, Y.-H. Cha, D.-Y. Jeong, and D.-I. Yeom, “All-fiber mode-locked laser oscillator with pulse energy of 34 nJ using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(19), 22667–22672 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “Pulse width shaping of passively mode-locked soliton fiber laser via polarization control in carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27011–27016 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Jun, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, B. Y. Kim, and D.-I. Yeom, “Toward higher-order passive harmonic mode-locking of a soliton fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1862–1864 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Jun, J. H. Im, S. H. Yoo, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, D. I. Yeom, and B. Y. Kim, “Low noise GHz passive harmonic mode-locking of soliton fiber laser using evanescent wave interaction with carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19775–19780 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Im, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “All-fiber Er-doped dissipative soliton laser based on evanescent field interaction with carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 18(21), 22141–22146 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(12), 1937–1943 (2010).
[Crossref]

DeYong, R. J.

N. P. Barnes, B. M. Walsh, D. J. Reichle, and R. J. DeYong, “Tm:fiber lasers for remote sensing,” Opt. Mater. 31(7), 1061–1064 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dianov, E. M.

Fermann, M.

Ferrari, A. C.

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20(22), 25077–25084 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, T. Hasan, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Carbon nanotube polycarbonate composited for ultrafast lasers,” Adv. Mater. 20(21), 4040–4043 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Bram, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Forney, P.

Gray, S.

Griebner, U.

W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(12), 1937–1943 (2010).
[Crossref]

Grudinin, A. B.

Haddock, D.

Hanson, F.

Hartl, I.

Hasan, T.

M. Zhang, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, D. Popa, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tm-doped fiber laser mode-locked by graphene-polymer composite,” Opt. Express 20(22), 25077–25084 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, T. Hasan, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Carbon nanotube polycarbonate composited for ultrafast lasers,” Adv. Mater. 20(21), 4040–4043 (2008).
[Crossref]

Haus, H. A.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hawley, J. G.

Hennrich, F.

V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, T. Hasan, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Carbon nanotube polycarbonate composited for ultrafast lasers,” Adv. Mater. 20(21), 4040–4043 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hong, B. H.

E. J. Lee, S. Y. Choi, H. Jeong, N. H. Park, W. Yim, M. H. Kim, J.-K. Park, S. Son, S. Bae, S. J. Kim, K. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Ahn, B. H. Hong, J.-Y. Park, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “Active control of all-fibre graphene devices with electrical gating,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6851 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J.-H. Ahn, P. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hönninger, C.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Bram, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Honzátko, P.

Im, J. H.

Ippen, E. P.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jablonski, M.

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “Pulse width shaping of passively mode-locked soliton fiber laser via polarization control in carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27011–27016 (2013).
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C. S. Jun, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, B. Y. Kim, and D.-I. Yeom, “Toward higher-order passive harmonic mode-locking of a soliton fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1862–1864 (2012).
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W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(12), 1937–1943 (2010).
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W. B. Cho, J. H. Yim, S. Y. Choi, S. Lee, A. Schmidt, G. Steinmeyer, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, D.-I. Yeom, K. Kim, and F. Rotermund, “Boosting the nonlinear optical response of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(12), 1937–1943 (2010).
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E. J. Lee, S. Y. Choi, H. Jeong, N. H. Park, W. Yim, M. H. Kim, J.-K. Park, S. Son, S. Bae, S. J. Kim, K. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Ahn, B. H. Hong, J.-Y. Park, F. Rotermund, and D.-I. Yeom, “Active control of all-fibre graphene devices with electrical gating,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6851 (2015).
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Yu, X.

X. Li, X. Yu, Z. Sun, Z. Yan, B. Sun, Y. Cheng, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, and Q. J. Wang, “High-power graphene mode-locked Tm/Ho co-doped fiber laser with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 5, 16624 (2015).
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X. Li, X. Yu, Z. Sun, Z. Yan, B. Sun, Y. Cheng, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, and Q. J. Wang, “High-power graphene mode-locked Tm/Ho co-doped fiber laser with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 5, 16624 (2015).
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Zhang, M.

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X. Li, X. Yu, Z. Sun, Z. Yan, B. Sun, Y. Cheng, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, and Q. J. Wang, “High-power graphene mode-locked Tm/Ho co-doped fiber laser with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 5, 16624 (2015).
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Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Linear transmission of monolayer graphene (inset: Raman spectreoscopy results of monolayer graphene and (b) schematic view of monolayer graphene SA with over-cladding structure (inset: cross-sectional image of SA)
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Configuration of the fabricated Tm-doped all-fiber soliton laser oscillator with monolayer graphene SA on the SPF
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Laser output characteristics of all-fiber Tm-doped soliton laser oscillator with our graphene SA. (a) Optical spectrum, (b) Pulse train, (c) Pulse duration measured by intensity auto-correlator, and (d) RF spectrum.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured laser output power of the Tm-doped soliton laser as a function of the applied pump power at 1560 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured laser output characteristics over 6 hours (a) Optical spectrum and (b) Pulse train

Equations (1)

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A 0 τ= | β 2,ave | γ ave

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