Abstract

We propose a see-through multi-projection three-dimensional (3D) display using a transparent anisotropic diffuser. By immersing a metal-coated anisotropic diffuser into index matching oil which has the same refractive index of anisotropic diffuser, a transparent anisotropic diffuser is implemented. The reflectance of the transparent anisotropic diffuser is analyzed with the transfer matrix. Two multi-projection methods are proposed based on reflection type integral imaging and multi-view method. Especially, the reflection type multi-view-based system is realized with a curved anisotropic diffuser. High resolution see-through 3D display can be realized with the proposed methods. They can be used in various applications with the two multi-projection methods. In order to show the augmented reality features, real objects and virtual 3D images are presented at the same time in the experimental setup.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (3)

2014 (3)

2013 (2)

J.-H. Lee, J. Park, D. Nam, S. Y. Choi, D.-S. Park, and C. Y. Kim, “Optimal projector configuration design for 300-Mpixel multi-projection 3D display,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26820–26835 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Nakamura, K. Tanaka, and Y. Takaki, “Increase in depth of field of eyes using reduced-view super multi-view displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(2), 022501 (2013).

2012 (1)

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Layered 3D: tomographic image synthesis for attenuation-based light field and high dynamic range displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(4), 95 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Lanman, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Polarization fields: dynamic light field display using multi-layer LCDs,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(6), 186 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Takaki, Y. Urano, S. Kashiwada, H. Ando, and K. Nakamura, “Super multi-view windshield display for long-distance image information presentation,” Opt. Express 19(2), 704–716 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hong, Y. Kim, H.-J. Choi, J. Hahn, J.-H. Park, H. Kim, S.-W. Min, N. Chen, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional display technologies of recent interest: principles, status, and issues [Invited],” Appl. Opt. 50(34), H87–H115 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2009 (4)

2008 (1)

2005 (3)

J.-Y. Son and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional imaging methods Based on multiview images,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 125–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Computer 38(8), 31–36 (2005).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(2), L71–L74 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, S. Jung, S. W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging system using a curved lens array,” Opt. Express 12(3), 421–429 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Jones, M. Lang, G. Fyffe, X. Yu, J. Busch, I. McDowall, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Achieving eye contact in a one-to-many 3D video teleconferencing system,” ACM Trans. Graph. 28(3), 64 (2004).

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

Z. Zhang, “A flexible new technique for camera calibration,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 22(11), 1330–1334 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

Ando, H.

Bolas, M.

A. Jones, K. Nagano, J. Liu, J. Busch, X. Yu, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Interpolating vertical parallax for an autostereoscopic three-dimensional projector array,” J. Electron. Imaging 23(1), 011005 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Jones, M. Lang, G. Fyffe, X. Yu, J. Busch, I. McDowall, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Achieving eye contact in a one-to-many 3D video teleconferencing system,” ACM Trans. Graph. 28(3), 64 (2004).

J. Jurik, A. Jones, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Prototyping a light field display involving direct observation of a video projector array,” in Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (2011), 15–20.
[Crossref]

Busch, J.

A. Jones, K. Nagano, J. Liu, J. Busch, X. Yu, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Interpolating vertical parallax for an autostereoscopic three-dimensional projector array,” J. Electron. Imaging 23(1), 011005 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Jones, M. Lang, G. Fyffe, X. Yu, J. Busch, I. McDowall, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Achieving eye contact in a one-to-many 3D video teleconferencing system,” ACM Trans. Graph. 28(3), 64 (2004).

Chen, N.

Choi, H.

Choi, H.-J.

Choi, S. Y.

Debevec, P.

A. Jones, K. Nagano, J. Liu, J. Busch, X. Yu, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Interpolating vertical parallax for an autostereoscopic three-dimensional projector array,” J. Electron. Imaging 23(1), 011005 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Jones, M. Lang, G. Fyffe, X. Yu, J. Busch, I. McDowall, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Achieving eye contact in a one-to-many 3D video teleconferencing system,” ACM Trans. Graph. 28(3), 64 (2004).

J. Jurik, A. Jones, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Prototyping a light field display involving direct observation of a video projector array,” in Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (2011), 15–20.
[Crossref]

Djurišic, A. B.

Dodgson, N. A.

N. A. Dodgson, “Autostereoscopic 3D displays,” Computer 38(8), 31–36 (2005).
[Crossref]

N. A. Dodgson, J. R. Moore, and S. R. Lang, “Multi-view autostereoscopic 3D display,” in International Broadcasting Convention (IEEE, 1999), 2, 497–502.

Elazar, J. M.

Fortuin, M.

M. Lambooij, W. Ijsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual discomfort and visual fatigue of stereoscopic displays: a review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fyffe, G.

A. Jones, M. Lang, G. Fyffe, X. Yu, J. Busch, I. McDowall, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Achieving eye contact in a one-to-many 3D video teleconferencing system,” ACM Trans. Graph. 28(3), 64 (2004).

Hahn, J.

Haino, Y.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[Crossref]

Heidrich, W.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Layered 3D: tomographic image synthesis for attenuation-based light field and high dynamic range displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(4), 95 (2011).
[Crossref]

Heynderickx, I.

M. Lambooij, W. Ijsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual discomfort and visual fatigue of stereoscopic displays: a review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hirsch, M.

D. Lanman, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Polarization fields: dynamic light field display using multi-layer LCDs,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(6), 186 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hong, J.

Hong, J.-H.

Hong, J.-Y.

Hong, K.

Ijsselsteijn, W.

M. Lambooij, W. Ijsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual discomfort and visual fatigue of stereoscopic displays: a review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Inoue, N.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[Crossref]

Iwasawa, S.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[Crossref]

Jang, C.

Javidi, B.

J.-Y. Son and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional imaging methods Based on multiview images,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 125–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jeong, J.

Jeong, Y.

Jones, A.

A. Jones, K. Nagano, J. Liu, J. Busch, X. Yu, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Interpolating vertical parallax for an autostereoscopic three-dimensional projector array,” J. Electron. Imaging 23(1), 011005 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Jones, M. Lang, G. Fyffe, X. Yu, J. Busch, I. McDowall, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Achieving eye contact in a one-to-many 3D video teleconferencing system,” ACM Trans. Graph. 28(3), 64 (2004).

J. Jurik, A. Jones, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Prototyping a light field display involving direct observation of a video projector array,” in Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (2011), 15–20.
[Crossref]

Jung, S.

Jurik, J.

J. Jurik, A. Jones, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Prototyping a light field display involving direct observation of a video projector array,” in Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (2011), 15–20.
[Crossref]

Kashiwada, S.

Kawakita, M.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, C. Y.

Kim, H.

Kim, J.

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(2), L71–L74 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.

Lambooij, M.

M. Lambooij, W. Ijsselsteijn, M. Fortuin, and I. Heynderickx, “Visual discomfort and visual fatigue of stereoscopic displays: a review,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 53(3), 030201 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lang, M.

A. Jones, M. Lang, G. Fyffe, X. Yu, J. Busch, I. McDowall, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Achieving eye contact in a one-to-many 3D video teleconferencing system,” ACM Trans. Graph. 28(3), 64 (2004).

Lang, S. R.

N. A. Dodgson, J. R. Moore, and S. R. Lang, “Multi-view autostereoscopic 3D display,” in International Broadcasting Convention (IEEE, 1999), 2, 497–502.

Lanman, D.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Layered 3D: tomographic image synthesis for attenuation-based light field and high dynamic range displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(4), 95 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Lanman, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Polarization fields: dynamic light field display using multi-layer LCDs,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(6), 186 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.

J. Yeom, J. Jeong, C. Jang, G. Li, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional/two-dimensional convertible projection screen using see-through integral imaging based on holographic optical element,” Appl. Opt. 54(30), 8856–8862 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-K. Lee, S. G. Park, S. Moon, J.-Y. Hong, and B. Lee, “Compact multi-projection 3D display system with light-guide projection,” Opt. Express 23(22), 28945–28959 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Park, J.-Y. Hong, C.-K. Lee, M. Miranda, Y. Kim, and B. Lee, “Depth-expression characteristics of multi-projection 3D display systems [invited],” Appl. Opt. 53(27), G198–G208 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Hong, J. Yeom, C. Jang, G. Li, J. Hong, and B. Lee, “Two-dimensional and three-dimensional transparent screens based on lens-array holographic optical elements,” Opt. Express 22(12), 14363–14374 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hong, Y. Kim, H.-J. Choi, J. Hahn, J.-H. Park, H. Kim, S.-W. Min, N. Chen, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional display technologies of recent interest: principles, status, and issues [Invited],” Appl. Opt. 50(34), H87–H115 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hong, Y. Kim, S.-G. Park, J.-H. Hong, S.-W. Min, S.-D. Lee, and B. Lee, “3D/2D convertible projection-type integral imaging using concave half mirror array,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20628–20637 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent progress in three-dimensional information processing based on integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 48(34), H77–H94 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, K. Hong, and B. Lee, “Recent progress in three-dimensional information processing based on integral imaging,” Appl. Opt. 48(34), H77–H94 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Hahn, H. Kim, Y. Lim, G. Park, and B. Lee, “Wide viewing angle dynamic holographic stereogram with a curved array of spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 16(16), 12372–12386 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Min, J. Kim, and B. Lee, “New characteristic equation of three-dimensional integral imaging system and its applications,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(2), L71–L74 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Kim, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, S. Jung, S. W. Min, and B. Lee, “Viewing-angle-enhanced integral imaging system using a curved lens array,” Opt. Express 12(3), 421–429 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jeong, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, and B. Lee, “Reflection-type integral imaging scheme for displaying three-dimensional images,” Opt. Lett. 27(9), 704–706 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C.-K.

Lee, J.-H.

Lee, S.-D.

Li, G.

Lim, Y.

Liu, J.

A. Jones, K. Nagano, J. Liu, J. Busch, X. Yu, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Interpolating vertical parallax for an autostereoscopic three-dimensional projector array,” J. Electron. Imaging 23(1), 011005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Majewski, M. L.

McDowall, I.

A. Jones, M. Lang, G. Fyffe, X. Yu, J. Busch, I. McDowall, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Achieving eye contact in a one-to-many 3D video teleconferencing system,” ACM Trans. Graph. 28(3), 64 (2004).

Min, S. W.

Min, S.-W.

Miranda, M.

Moon, S.

Moore, J. R.

N. A. Dodgson, J. R. Moore, and S. R. Lang, “Multi-view autostereoscopic 3D display,” in International Broadcasting Convention (IEEE, 1999), 2, 497–502.

Nagano, K.

A. Jones, K. Nagano, J. Liu, J. Busch, X. Yu, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Interpolating vertical parallax for an autostereoscopic three-dimensional projector array,” J. Electron. Imaging 23(1), 011005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nago, N.

Nakamura, J.

J. Nakamura, K. Tanaka, and Y. Takaki, “Increase in depth of field of eyes using reduced-view super multi-view displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(2), 022501 (2013).

Nakamura, K.

Nam, D.

Okada, N.

Park, D.-S.

Park, G.

Park, J.

Park, J.-H.

Park, S. G.

Park, S.-G.

Rakic, A. D.

Raskar, R.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Layered 3D: tomographic image synthesis for attenuation-based light field and high dynamic range displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(4), 95 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Lanman, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Polarization fields: dynamic light field display using multi-layer LCDs,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(6), 186 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sakai, M.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[Crossref]

Sato, M.

M. Kawakita, S. Iwasawa, M. Sakai, Y. Haino, M. Sato, and N. Inoue, “3D image quality of 200-inch glasses-free 3D display system,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 82880B (2012).
[Crossref]

Son, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Son and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional imaging methods Based on multiview images,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 125–140 (2005).
[Crossref]

Takaki, Y.

Tanaka, K.

J. Nakamura, K. Tanaka, and Y. Takaki, “Increase in depth of field of eyes using reduced-view super multi-view displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 6(2), 022501 (2013).

Urano, Y.

Wetzstein, G.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Layered 3D: tomographic image synthesis for attenuation-based light field and high dynamic range displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(4), 95 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Lanman, G. Wetzstein, M. Hirsch, and R. Raskar, “Polarization fields: dynamic light field display using multi-layer LCDs,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(6), 186 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, Y.

Yeom, J.

Yu, X.

A. Jones, K. Nagano, J. Liu, J. Busch, X. Yu, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Interpolating vertical parallax for an autostereoscopic three-dimensional projector array,” J. Electron. Imaging 23(1), 011005 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Supplementary Material (3)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MP4 (14436 KB)      Photographs of 3D image generated by the InIm-based multi projection system using TAD
» Visualization 2: MP4 (12604 KB)      Photographs of 3D image generated by the InIm-based multi projection system using TAD
» Visualization 3: MP4 (7497 KB)      Parallax images of multi-view-based multi-projection system using TAD

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of multi-projection system: (a) transmittance type InIm-based system, (b) reflection type InIm-based system, and (c) transmittance type multi-view-based system.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of TAD: (a) structure of the TAD, (b) reflective property of TAD, and (c) transparent property of TAD.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Reflectance of TAD in the visible wavelength
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Principle of the multi-projection systems: (a) InIm-based multi-projection, (b) multi-view-based multi-projection.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic diagram of reflectance type multi-view-based multi-projection system.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Simulation with the LightTools 7.3: (a) the simulation structure, (b) the obtained view images.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 See-through multi-projection 3D display setup prototype: (a) projection module, (b) InIm-based multi-projection system, (c) multi-view-based multi-projection system, (d) checkerboard pattern without TAD, (e) checkerboard pattern with TAD.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Reflectance of the TAD: (a) the measurement setup, (b) reflectance of TAD.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The calibration process of the multi-projection system: (a) before calibration, (b) after calibration.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Parallax images of InIm-based multi-projection system using TAD.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Photographs of 3D image generated by the InIm-based multi projection system using TAD: (a) Rubik cube (Visualization 1) and (b) airplane (Visualization 2).
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 View images of multi-view-based multi-projection system using TAD.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 View images of multi-view-based multi-projection system with TAD (Visualization 3).

Tables (2)

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Table 1 The specification of the multi-view-based multi-projection system simulation

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Table 2 The specification of the implemented multi-projection systems

Equations (7)

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r m = A n o +B n o 2 CD n o A n o +B n o 2 +C+D n o ,
[ A B C D ]=[ cos( k m t m ) i n m sin( k m t m ) i n 1 sin( k m t m ) cos( k m t m ) ],
k m = 2π n m λ ,
d v = f d p d p f ,
f= R 2 ,
i v = S i ×( d v d p ),
d v = R d p 2 d p R .

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