Abstract

Optical closure using radiative transfer simulations can be used to determine the consistency of in situ measurements of inherent optical properties (IOPs) and radiometry. Three scattering corrections are applied to in situ absorption and attenuation profile data for a range of coastal and oceanic waters, but are found to have only very limited impact on subsequent closure attempts for these stations. Best-fit regressions on log-transformed measured and modelled downwards irradiance, Ed, and upwards radiance, Lu, profiles have median slopes between 0.92 – 1.24, revealing a tendency to underestimate Ed and Lu with depth. This is only partly explained by non-inclusion of fluorescence emission from CDOM and chlorophyll in the simulations. There are several stations where multiple volume scattering function related data processing steps perform poorly which suggests the potential existence of unresolved features in the modelling of the angular distribution of scattered photons. General optical closure therefore remains problematic, even though there are many cases in the data set where the match between measured and modelled radiometric data is within 25% RMS%E. These results are significant for applications that rely on optical closure e.g. assimilating ocean colour data into coupled physical-ecosystem models.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

2015 (1)

M. Talaulikar, T. Suresh, E. Desa, and A. Inamdar, “Optical closure of apparent optical properties. coastal waters off goa,” J. Ind. Soc. Rem. Sens. 43(1), 163–171 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

L. G. Sokoletsky and F. Shen, ““Optical closure for remote-sensing reflectance based on accurate radiative transfer approximations: the case of Changjiang (Yangtze) River Estuary and its adjacent coastal area,” China,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 35(11-12), 4193–4224 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Mitchell, A. Cunningham, and D. McKee, “Remote sensing of shelf sea optical properties: evaluation of a quasi-analytical approach for the Irish Sea,” Remote Sens. Environ. 143, 142–153 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

A. A. Andrew, R. Del Vecchio, A. Subramaniam, and N. V. Blough, “Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean: Optical properties and their relation to CDOM structure and source,” Mar. Chem. 148, 33–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. McKee, J. Piskozub, R. Röttgers, and R. Reynolds, “Evaluation and Improvement of an Iterative Scattering Correction Scheme for in situ Absorption and Attenuation Measurements,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(7), 1527–1541 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Antoine, A. Morel, E. Leymarie, A. Houyou, B. Gentili, S. Victori, J.-P. Buis, N. Buis, S. Meunier, M. Canini, D. Crozel, B. Fougnie, and P. Henry, “Underwater radiance distributions measured with miniaturized multispectral radiance cameras,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(1), 74–95 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Röttgers, D. McKee, and S. B. Wozniak, “Evaluation of scatter corrections for AC-9 absorption measurements in coastal waters,” Methods Oceanography 7, 21–39 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. M. O’Donnell, S. W. Effler, C. M. Strait, F. Peng, and M. Perkins, “Remote sensing reflectance in the Great Lakes: In situ measurements, closure analyses and a forward model,” J. Great Lakes Res. 39, 137–150 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

C. Neil, A. Cunningham, and D. McKee, “Relationships between suspended mineral concentration and red-waveband reflectance in moderately turbid shelf seas,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(12), 3719–3730 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

P. D. Biber, C. L. Gallegos, and E. J. Kenworthy, “Calibration of bio-optical model in the North River, North Carolina: A tool to evaluate water quality impacts on seagrasses,” Estuaries Coasts 31, 177–191 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. L. Gallegos, R. J. Davies-Colley, and M. Gall, “Optical closure in lakes with contrasting extremes of reflectance,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(5), 2021–2034 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

G. Chang, A. Barnard, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Optical closure in a complex coastal environment: particle effects,” Appl. Opt. 46(31), 7679–7692 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fujii, E. Boss, and F. Chai, “The value of adding optics to ecosystem models: a case study,” Bio. Geo. Sci. 4(5), 817–835 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the ‘clearest natural’ waters,” Bio. Geo. Sci. 4, 1041–1058 (2007).

2006 (3)

T. D. Dickey, M. R. Lewis, and G. C. Chang, “Optical oceanography: recent advances and future directions using global remote sensing and in situ observations,” Rev. Geophys. 44(1), RG1001 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Tzortziou, J. R. Herman, C. L. Gallegos, P. J. Neale, A. Subramaniam, L. W. Harding, and Z. Ahmad, “Bio-optics of the Chesapeake Bay from measurements and radiative transfer closure,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 68(1-2), 348–362 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400-750 nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45(21), 5294–5309 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

2004 (1)

2003 (6)

G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, C. D. Mobley, E. Boss, and W. S. Pegau, “Toward closure of upwelling radiance in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 42(9), 1574–1582 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Bulgarelli, G. Zibordi, and J.-F. Berthon, “Measured and modeled radiometric quantities in coastal waters: toward a closure,” Appl. Opt. 42(27), 5365–5381 (2003).
[PubMed]

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, non-algal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C7), 3211 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. R. Morrison, “In situ determination of quantum yield of phytoplankton chlorophyll a fluorescence: A simple algorithm, observations, and a model,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48(2), 618–631 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. Eisner, M. S. Twardowski, T. J. Cowles, and M. J. Perry, “Resolving phytoplankton photoprotective: photosynthetic carotenoid ratios on fine scales using in situ spectral absorption measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48(2), 632–646 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Tassan and G. M. Ferrari, “Variability of light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 42(24), 4802–4810 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, D. A. Hansell, and M. Lorenzi-Kayser, “Global distribution and dynamics of colored dissolved and detrital organic materials,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(C12), 3228 (2002).
[Crossref]

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt. 41(27), 5755–5772 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. L. Denman and M. A. Peña, “The response of two coupled one-dimensional mixed layer/planktonic ecosystem models to climate change in the NE subarctic Pacific Ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. 49, 5739–5757 (2002).

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41(6), 1035–1050 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

J. A. Yoder, J. K. Moore, and R. N. Swift, “Putting together the big picture: remote-sensing observations of ocean color,” Oceanography 14(4), 33–40 (2001).
[Crossref]

E. Boss and W. S. Pegau, “Relationship of light scattering at an angle in the backward direction to the backscattering coefficient,” Appl. Opt. 40(30), 5503–5507 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Kahru, and B. G. Mitchell, “Estimation of particulate organic carbon in the ocean from satellite remote sensing,” Science 285(5425), 239–242 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Micro-scale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an AC-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16(6), 691–707 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

M. J. Behrenfeld and P. G. Falkowski, “Photosynthetic rates derived from satellite-based chlorophyll concentrations,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42(1), 1–20 (1997).
[Crossref]

W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity,” Appl. Opt. 36(24), 6035–6046 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

G. R. Fournier and J. L. Forand, “Analytic phase function for ocean water,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 194–201 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. M. Moore, “The scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 44–55 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

1989 (1)

K. J. Voss, “Use of the radiance distribution to measure the optical absorption coefficient in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34(8), 1614–1622 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ahmad, Z.

M. Tzortziou, J. R. Herman, C. L. Gallegos, P. J. Neale, A. Subramaniam, L. W. Harding, and Z. Ahmad, “Bio-optics of the Chesapeake Bay from measurements and radiative transfer closure,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 68(1-2), 348–362 (2006).
[Crossref]

Andrew, A. A.

A. A. Andrew, R. Del Vecchio, A. Subramaniam, and N. V. Blough, “Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean: Optical properties and their relation to CDOM structure and source,” Mar. Chem. 148, 33–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

Antoine, D.

D. Antoine, A. Morel, E. Leymarie, A. Houyou, B. Gentili, S. Victori, J.-P. Buis, N. Buis, S. Meunier, M. Canini, D. Crozel, B. Fougnie, and P. Henry, “Underwater radiance distributions measured with miniaturized multispectral radiance cameras,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(1), 74–95 (2013).
[Crossref]

Arnone, R. A.

Babin, M.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, non-algal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C7), 3211 (2003).
[Crossref]

Barnard, A.

Barnard, A. H.

Behrenfeld, M.

Behrenfeld, M. J.

M. J. Behrenfeld and P. G. Falkowski, “Photosynthetic rates derived from satellite-based chlorophyll concentrations,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42(1), 1–20 (1997).
[Crossref]

Berseneva, G. A.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110(C11), C11020 (2005).
[Crossref]

Berthon, J.-F.

Biber, P. D.

P. D. Biber, C. L. Gallegos, and E. J. Kenworthy, “Calibration of bio-optical model in the North River, North Carolina: A tool to evaluate water quality impacts on seagrasses,” Estuaries Coasts 31, 177–191 (2008).
[Crossref]

Blough, N. V.

A. A. Andrew, R. Del Vecchio, A. Subramaniam, and N. V. Blough, “Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean: Optical properties and their relation to CDOM structure and source,” Mar. Chem. 148, 33–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boss, E.

Bricaud, A.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, non-algal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C7), 3211 (2003).
[Crossref]

Buis, J.-P.

D. Antoine, A. Morel, E. Leymarie, A. Houyou, B. Gentili, S. Victori, J.-P. Buis, N. Buis, S. Meunier, M. Canini, D. Crozel, B. Fougnie, and P. Henry, “Underwater radiance distributions measured with miniaturized multispectral radiance cameras,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(1), 74–95 (2013).
[Crossref]

Buis, N.

D. Antoine, A. Morel, E. Leymarie, A. Houyou, B. Gentili, S. Victori, J.-P. Buis, N. Buis, S. Meunier, M. Canini, D. Crozel, B. Fougnie, and P. Henry, “Underwater radiance distributions measured with miniaturized multispectral radiance cameras,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(1), 74–95 (2013).
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Canini, M.

D. Antoine, A. Morel, E. Leymarie, A. Houyou, B. Gentili, S. Victori, J.-P. Buis, N. Buis, S. Meunier, M. Canini, D. Crozel, B. Fougnie, and P. Henry, “Underwater radiance distributions measured with miniaturized multispectral radiance cameras,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(1), 74–95 (2013).
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Chai, F.

M. Fujii, E. Boss, and F. Chai, “The value of adding optics to ecosystem models: a case study,” Bio. Geo. Sci. 4(5), 817–835 (2007).
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Chami, M.

T. Harmel, M. Hieronymi, W. Slade, R. Röttgers, F. Roullier, and M. Chami, “Laboratory experiments for inter-comparison of three volume scattering meters to measure angular scattering properties of hydrosols,” Opt. Express 24(2), A234–A256 (2016).
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M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110(C11), C11020 (2005).
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Chang, G.

Chang, G. C.

T. D. Dickey, M. R. Lewis, and G. C. Chang, “Optical oceanography: recent advances and future directions using global remote sensing and in situ observations,” Rev. Geophys. 44(1), RG1001 (2006).
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G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, C. D. Mobley, E. Boss, and W. S. Pegau, “Toward closure of upwelling radiance in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 42(9), 1574–1582 (2003).
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M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110(C11), C11020 (2005).
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M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the ‘clearest natural’ waters,” Bio. Geo. Sci. 4, 1041–1058 (2007).

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, non-algal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C7), 3211 (2003).
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Cowles, T. J.

L. Eisner, M. S. Twardowski, T. J. Cowles, and M. J. Perry, “Resolving phytoplankton photoprotective: photosynthetic carotenoid ratios on fine scales using in situ spectral absorption measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48(2), 632–646 (2003).
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Crozel, D.

D. Antoine, A. Morel, E. Leymarie, A. Houyou, B. Gentili, S. Victori, J.-P. Buis, N. Buis, S. Meunier, M. Canini, D. Crozel, B. Fougnie, and P. Henry, “Underwater radiance distributions measured with miniaturized multispectral radiance cameras,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(1), 74–95 (2013).
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C. Mitchell, A. Cunningham, and D. McKee, “Remote sensing of shelf sea optical properties: evaluation of a quasi-analytical approach for the Irish Sea,” Remote Sens. Environ. 143, 142–153 (2014).
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C. Neil, A. Cunningham, and D. McKee, “Relationships between suspended mineral concentration and red-waveband reflectance in moderately turbid shelf seas,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(12), 3719–3730 (2011).
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D. McKee and A. Cunningham, “Evidence for wavelength dependence of the scattering phase function and its implication for modeling radiance transfer in shelf seas,” Appl. Opt. 44(1), 126–135 (2005).
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Davies-Colley, R. J.

C. L. Gallegos, R. J. Davies-Colley, and M. Gall, “Optical closure in lakes with contrasting extremes of reflectance,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(5), 2021–2034 (2008).
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K. L. Denman and M. A. Peña, “The response of two coupled one-dimensional mixed layer/planktonic ecosystem models to climate change in the NE subarctic Pacific Ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. 49, 5739–5757 (2002).

Desa, E.

M. Talaulikar, T. Suresh, E. Desa, and A. Inamdar, “Optical closure of apparent optical properties. coastal waters off goa,” J. Ind. Soc. Rem. Sens. 43(1), 163–171 (2015).
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T. D. Dickey, M. R. Lewis, and G. C. Chang, “Optical oceanography: recent advances and future directions using global remote sensing and in situ observations,” Rev. Geophys. 44(1), RG1001 (2006).
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G. C. Chang, T. D. Dickey, C. D. Mobley, E. Boss, and W. S. Pegau, “Toward closure of upwelling radiance in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 42(9), 1574–1582 (2003).
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Donaghay, P. L.

Effler, S. W.

D. M. O’Donnell, S. W. Effler, C. M. Strait, F. Peng, and M. Perkins, “Remote sensing reflectance in the Great Lakes: In situ measurements, closure analyses and a forward model,” J. Great Lakes Res. 39, 137–150 (2013).
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Eisner, L.

L. Eisner, M. S. Twardowski, T. J. Cowles, and M. J. Perry, “Resolving phytoplankton photoprotective: photosynthetic carotenoid ratios on fine scales using in situ spectral absorption measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48(2), 632–646 (2003).
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K. Voss, H. Gordon, M. Lewis, S. McLean, M. Twardowski, C. Johnson, M. Yarbrough, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, and C. Trees, “Radiometry and uncertainties from SORTIE (Spectral Ocean Radiance Transfer Investigation and Experiment),” in NASA Carbon Cycle and Ecosystem Joint Science Workshop (2008).

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M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, non-algal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C7), 3211 (2003).
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Flora, S.

K. Voss, H. Gordon, M. Lewis, S. McLean, M. Twardowski, C. Johnson, M. Yarbrough, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, and C. Trees, “Radiometry and uncertainties from SORTIE (Spectral Ocean Radiance Transfer Investigation and Experiment),” in NASA Carbon Cycle and Ecosystem Joint Science Workshop (2008).

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D. Antoine, A. Morel, E. Leymarie, A. Houyou, B. Gentili, S. Victori, J.-P. Buis, N. Buis, S. Meunier, M. Canini, D. Crozel, B. Fougnie, and P. Henry, “Underwater radiance distributions measured with miniaturized multispectral radiance cameras,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(1), 74–95 (2013).
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G. R. Fournier and J. L. Forand, “Analytic phase function for ocean water,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 194–201 (1994).
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M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the ‘clearest natural’ waters,” Bio. Geo. Sci. 4, 1041–1058 (2007).

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, “Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 44(9), 1667–1680 (2005).
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Fujii, M.

M. Fujii, E. Boss, and F. Chai, “The value of adding optics to ecosystem models: a case study,” Bio. Geo. Sci. 4(5), 817–835 (2007).
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Gall, M.

C. L. Gallegos, R. J. Davies-Colley, and M. Gall, “Optical closure in lakes with contrasting extremes of reflectance,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(5), 2021–2034 (2008).
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Gallegos, C. L.

C. L. Gallegos, R. J. Davies-Colley, and M. Gall, “Optical closure in lakes with contrasting extremes of reflectance,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(5), 2021–2034 (2008).
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P. D. Biber, C. L. Gallegos, and E. J. Kenworthy, “Calibration of bio-optical model in the North River, North Carolina: A tool to evaluate water quality impacts on seagrasses,” Estuaries Coasts 31, 177–191 (2008).
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M. Tzortziou, J. R. Herman, C. L. Gallegos, P. J. Neale, A. Subramaniam, L. W. Harding, and Z. Ahmad, “Bio-optics of the Chesapeake Bay from measurements and radiative transfer closure,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 68(1-2), 348–362 (2006).
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Gentili, B.

D. Antoine, A. Morel, E. Leymarie, A. Houyou, B. Gentili, S. Victori, J.-P. Buis, N. Buis, S. Meunier, M. Canini, D. Crozel, B. Fougnie, and P. Henry, “Underwater radiance distributions measured with miniaturized multispectral radiance cameras,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(1), 74–95 (2013).
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K. Voss, H. Gordon, M. Lewis, S. McLean, M. Twardowski, C. Johnson, M. Yarbrough, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, and C. Trees, “Radiometry and uncertainties from SORTIE (Spectral Ocean Radiance Transfer Investigation and Experiment),” in NASA Carbon Cycle and Ecosystem Joint Science Workshop (2008).

Gordon, H. R.

Gray, D.

Hansell, D. A.

D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, D. A. Hansell, and M. Lorenzi-Kayser, “Global distribution and dynamics of colored dissolved and detrital organic materials,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(C12), 3228 (2002).
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M. Tzortziou, J. R. Herman, C. L. Gallegos, P. J. Neale, A. Subramaniam, L. W. Harding, and Z. Ahmad, “Bio-optics of the Chesapeake Bay from measurements and radiative transfer closure,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 68(1-2), 348–362 (2006).
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Harmel, T.

Henry, P.

D. Antoine, A. Morel, E. Leymarie, A. Houyou, B. Gentili, S. Victori, J.-P. Buis, N. Buis, S. Meunier, M. Canini, D. Crozel, B. Fougnie, and P. Henry, “Underwater radiance distributions measured with miniaturized multispectral radiance cameras,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(1), 74–95 (2013).
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M. Tzortziou, J. R. Herman, C. L. Gallegos, P. J. Neale, A. Subramaniam, L. W. Harding, and Z. Ahmad, “Bio-optics of the Chesapeake Bay from measurements and radiative transfer closure,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 68(1-2), 348–362 (2006).
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Hoepffner, N.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, non-algal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C7), 3211 (2003).
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D. Antoine, A. Morel, E. Leymarie, A. Houyou, B. Gentili, S. Victori, J.-P. Buis, N. Buis, S. Meunier, M. Canini, D. Crozel, B. Fougnie, and P. Henry, “Underwater radiance distributions measured with miniaturized multispectral radiance cameras,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(1), 74–95 (2013).
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Huot, Y.

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the ‘clearest natural’ waters,” Bio. Geo. Sci. 4, 1041–1058 (2007).

Inamdar, A.

M. Talaulikar, T. Suresh, E. Desa, and A. Inamdar, “Optical closure of apparent optical properties. coastal waters off goa,” J. Ind. Soc. Rem. Sens. 43(1), 163–171 (2015).
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Johnson, C.

K. Voss, H. Gordon, M. Lewis, S. McLean, M. Twardowski, C. Johnson, M. Yarbrough, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, and C. Trees, “Radiometry and uncertainties from SORTIE (Spectral Ocean Radiance Transfer Investigation and Experiment),” in NASA Carbon Cycle and Ecosystem Joint Science Workshop (2008).

Kahru, M.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Kahru, and B. G. Mitchell, “Estimation of particulate organic carbon in the ocean from satellite remote sensing,” Science 285(5425), 239–242 (1999).
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Kenworthy, E. J.

P. D. Biber, C. L. Gallegos, and E. J. Kenworthy, “Calibration of bio-optical model in the North River, North Carolina: A tool to evaluate water quality impacts on seagrasses,” Estuaries Coasts 31, 177–191 (2008).
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Khomenko, G. A.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110(C11), C11020 (2005).
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Kitchen, J. C.

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. M. Moore, “The scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 44–55 (1994).
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M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110(C11), C11020 (2005).
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Lee, M. E.-G.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110(C11), C11020 (2005).
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Lewis, M.

K. Voss, H. Gordon, M. Lewis, S. McLean, M. Twardowski, C. Johnson, M. Yarbrough, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, and C. Trees, “Radiometry and uncertainties from SORTIE (Spectral Ocean Radiance Transfer Investigation and Experiment),” in NASA Carbon Cycle and Ecosystem Joint Science Workshop (2008).

Lewis, M. R.

T. D. Dickey, M. R. Lewis, and G. C. Chang, “Optical oceanography: recent advances and future directions using global remote sensing and in situ observations,” Rev. Geophys. 44(1), RG1001 (2006).
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Leymarie, E.

D. Antoine, A. Morel, E. Leymarie, A. Houyou, B. Gentili, S. Victori, J.-P. Buis, N. Buis, S. Meunier, M. Canini, D. Crozel, B. Fougnie, and P. Henry, “Underwater radiance distributions measured with miniaturized multispectral radiance cameras,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(1), 74–95 (2013).
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Lorenzi-Kayser, M.

D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, D. A. Hansell, and M. Lorenzi-Kayser, “Global distribution and dynamics of colored dissolved and detrital organic materials,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(C12), 3228 (2002).
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Maritorena, S.

D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, D. A. Hansell, and M. Lorenzi-Kayser, “Global distribution and dynamics of colored dissolved and detrital organic materials,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(C12), 3228 (2002).
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Martynov, O. V.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110(C11), C11020 (2005).
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McKee, D.

C. Mitchell, A. Cunningham, and D. McKee, “Remote sensing of shelf sea optical properties: evaluation of a quasi-analytical approach for the Irish Sea,” Remote Sens. Environ. 143, 142–153 (2014).
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D. McKee, J. Piskozub, R. Röttgers, and R. Reynolds, “Evaluation and Improvement of an Iterative Scattering Correction Scheme for in situ Absorption and Attenuation Measurements,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(7), 1527–1541 (2013).
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R. Röttgers, D. McKee, and S. B. Wozniak, “Evaluation of scatter corrections for AC-9 absorption measurements in coastal waters,” Methods Oceanography 7, 21–39 (2013).
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C. Neil, A. Cunningham, and D. McKee, “Relationships between suspended mineral concentration and red-waveband reflectance in moderately turbid shelf seas,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(12), 3719–3730 (2011).
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D. McKee and A. Cunningham, “Evidence for wavelength dependence of the scattering phase function and its implication for modeling radiance transfer in shelf seas,” Appl. Opt. 44(1), 126–135 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLean, S.

K. Voss, H. Gordon, M. Lewis, S. McLean, M. Twardowski, C. Johnson, M. Yarbrough, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, and C. Trees, “Radiometry and uncertainties from SORTIE (Spectral Ocean Radiance Transfer Investigation and Experiment),” in NASA Carbon Cycle and Ecosystem Joint Science Workshop (2008).

Melville, W. K.

Meunier, S.

D. Antoine, A. Morel, E. Leymarie, A. Houyou, B. Gentili, S. Victori, J.-P. Buis, N. Buis, S. Meunier, M. Canini, D. Crozel, B. Fougnie, and P. Henry, “Underwater radiance distributions measured with miniaturized multispectral radiance cameras,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(1), 74–95 (2013).
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Mitchell, B. G.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Kahru, and B. G. Mitchell, “Estimation of particulate organic carbon in the ocean from satellite remote sensing,” Science 285(5425), 239–242 (1999).
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Mitchell, C.

C. Mitchell, A. Cunningham, and D. McKee, “Remote sensing of shelf sea optical properties: evaluation of a quasi-analytical approach for the Irish Sea,” Remote Sens. Environ. 143, 142–153 (2014).
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Moore, C. M.

Moore, J. K.

J. A. Yoder, J. K. Moore, and R. N. Swift, “Putting together the big picture: remote-sensing observations of ocean color,” Oceanography 14(4), 33–40 (2001).
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D. Antoine, A. Morel, E. Leymarie, A. Houyou, B. Gentili, S. Victori, J.-P. Buis, N. Buis, S. Meunier, M. Canini, D. Crozel, B. Fougnie, and P. Henry, “Underwater radiance distributions measured with miniaturized multispectral radiance cameras,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(1), 74–95 (2013).
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M. Tzortziou, J. R. Herman, C. L. Gallegos, P. J. Neale, A. Subramaniam, L. W. Harding, and Z. Ahmad, “Bio-optics of the Chesapeake Bay from measurements and radiative transfer closure,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 68(1-2), 348–362 (2006).
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Neil, C.

C. Neil, A. Cunningham, and D. McKee, “Relationships between suspended mineral concentration and red-waveband reflectance in moderately turbid shelf seas,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(12), 3719–3730 (2011).
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Nelson, N. B.

D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, D. A. Hansell, and M. Lorenzi-Kayser, “Global distribution and dynamics of colored dissolved and detrital organic materials,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(C12), 3228 (2002).
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O’Donnell, D. M.

D. M. O’Donnell, S. W. Effler, C. M. Strait, F. Peng, and M. Perkins, “Remote sensing reflectance in the Great Lakes: In situ measurements, closure analyses and a forward model,” J. Great Lakes Res. 39, 137–150 (2013).
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Obolensky, G.

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, non-algal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C7), 3211 (2003).
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Pegau, W. S.

Peña, M. A.

K. L. Denman and M. A. Peña, “The response of two coupled one-dimensional mixed layer/planktonic ecosystem models to climate change in the NE subarctic Pacific Ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. 49, 5739–5757 (2002).

Peng, F.

D. M. O’Donnell, S. W. Effler, C. M. Strait, F. Peng, and M. Perkins, “Remote sensing reflectance in the Great Lakes: In situ measurements, closure analyses and a forward model,” J. Great Lakes Res. 39, 137–150 (2013).
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Perkins, M.

D. M. O’Donnell, S. W. Effler, C. M. Strait, F. Peng, and M. Perkins, “Remote sensing reflectance in the Great Lakes: In situ measurements, closure analyses and a forward model,” J. Great Lakes Res. 39, 137–150 (2013).
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Perry, M. J.

L. Eisner, M. S. Twardowski, T. J. Cowles, and M. J. Perry, “Resolving phytoplankton photoprotective: photosynthetic carotenoid ratios on fine scales using in situ spectral absorption measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48(2), 632–646 (2003).
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Piskozub, J.

D. McKee, J. Piskozub, R. Röttgers, and R. Reynolds, “Evaluation and Improvement of an Iterative Scattering Correction Scheme for in situ Absorption and Attenuation Measurements,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(7), 1527–1541 (2013).
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J. Piskozub, D. Stramski, E. Terrill, and W. K. Melville, “Influence of forward and multiple light scatter on the measurement of beam attenuation in highly scattering marine environments,” Appl. Opt. 43(24), 4723–4731 (2004).
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Reynolds, R.

D. McKee, J. Piskozub, R. Röttgers, and R. Reynolds, “Evaluation and Improvement of an Iterative Scattering Correction Scheme for in situ Absorption and Attenuation Measurements,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(7), 1527–1541 (2013).
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Reynolds, R. A.

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Kahru, and B. G. Mitchell, “Estimation of particulate organic carbon in the ocean from satellite remote sensing,” Science 285(5425), 239–242 (1999).
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Rhoades, B.

Röttgers, R.

T. Harmel, M. Hieronymi, W. Slade, R. Röttgers, F. Roullier, and M. Chami, “Laboratory experiments for inter-comparison of three volume scattering meters to measure angular scattering properties of hydrosols,” Opt. Express 24(2), A234–A256 (2016).
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D. McKee, J. Piskozub, R. Röttgers, and R. Reynolds, “Evaluation and Improvement of an Iterative Scattering Correction Scheme for in situ Absorption and Attenuation Measurements,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(7), 1527–1541 (2013).
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R. Röttgers, D. McKee, and S. B. Wozniak, “Evaluation of scatter corrections for AC-9 absorption measurements in coastal waters,” Methods Oceanography 7, 21–39 (2013).
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R. Röttgers, W. Schönfeld, P.-R. Kipp, and R. Doerffer, “Practical test of a point-source integrating cavity absorption meter: the performance of different collector assemblies,” Appl. Opt. 44(26), 5549–5560 (2005).
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Schönfeld, W.

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Shybanov, E. B.

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110(C11), C11020 (2005).
[Crossref]

Siegel, D. A.

D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, D. A. Hansell, and M. Lorenzi-Kayser, “Global distribution and dynamics of colored dissolved and detrital organic materials,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(C12), 3228 (2002).
[Crossref]

Slade, W.

Slade, W. H.

Sokoletsky, L. G.

L. G. Sokoletsky and F. Shen, ““Optical closure for remote-sensing reflectance based on accurate radiative transfer approximations: the case of Changjiang (Yangtze) River Estuary and its adjacent coastal area,” China,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 35(11-12), 4193–4224 (2014).
[Crossref]

Strait, C. M.

D. M. O’Donnell, S. W. Effler, C. M. Strait, F. Peng, and M. Perkins, “Remote sensing reflectance in the Great Lakes: In situ measurements, closure analyses and a forward model,” J. Great Lakes Res. 39, 137–150 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stramski, D.

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the ‘clearest natural’ waters,” Bio. Geo. Sci. 4, 1041–1058 (2007).

J. Piskozub, D. Stramski, E. Terrill, and W. K. Melville, “Influence of forward and multiple light scatter on the measurement of beam attenuation in highly scattering marine environments,” Appl. Opt. 43(24), 4723–4731 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, non-algal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C7), 3211 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Kahru, and B. G. Mitchell, “Estimation of particulate organic carbon in the ocean from satellite remote sensing,” Science 285(5425), 239–242 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subramaniam, A.

A. A. Andrew, R. Del Vecchio, A. Subramaniam, and N. V. Blough, “Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean: Optical properties and their relation to CDOM structure and source,” Mar. Chem. 148, 33–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Tzortziou, J. R. Herman, C. L. Gallegos, P. J. Neale, A. Subramaniam, L. W. Harding, and Z. Ahmad, “Bio-optics of the Chesapeake Bay from measurements and radiative transfer closure,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 68(1-2), 348–362 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, J. M.

Sundman, L. K.

Suresh, T.

M. Talaulikar, T. Suresh, E. Desa, and A. Inamdar, “Optical closure of apparent optical properties. coastal waters off goa,” J. Ind. Soc. Rem. Sens. 43(1), 163–171 (2015).
[Crossref]

Swift, R. N.

J. A. Yoder, J. K. Moore, and R. N. Swift, “Putting together the big picture: remote-sensing observations of ocean color,” Oceanography 14(4), 33–40 (2001).
[Crossref]

Talaulikar, M.

M. Talaulikar, T. Suresh, E. Desa, and A. Inamdar, “Optical closure of apparent optical properties. coastal waters off goa,” J. Ind. Soc. Rem. Sens. 43(1), 163–171 (2015).
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Tassan, S.

Terrill, E.

Trees, C.

K. Voss, H. Gordon, M. Lewis, S. McLean, M. Twardowski, C. Johnson, M. Yarbrough, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, and C. Trees, “Radiometry and uncertainties from SORTIE (Spectral Ocean Radiance Transfer Investigation and Experiment),” in NASA Carbon Cycle and Ecosystem Joint Science Workshop (2008).

Twardowski, M.

K. Voss, H. Gordon, M. Lewis, S. McLean, M. Twardowski, C. Johnson, M. Yarbrough, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, and C. Trees, “Radiometry and uncertainties from SORTIE (Spectral Ocean Radiance Transfer Investigation and Experiment),” in NASA Carbon Cycle and Ecosystem Joint Science Workshop (2008).

Twardowski, M. S.

M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the ‘clearest natural’ waters,” Bio. Geo. Sci. 4, 1041–1058 (2007).

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400-750 nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45(21), 5294–5309 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, “Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 44(9), 1667–1680 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Eisner, M. S. Twardowski, T. J. Cowles, and M. J. Perry, “Resolving phytoplankton photoprotective: photosynthetic carotenoid ratios on fine scales using in situ spectral absorption measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48(2), 632–646 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Micro-scale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an AC-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16(6), 691–707 (1999).
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Tzortziou, M.

M. Tzortziou, J. R. Herman, C. L. Gallegos, P. J. Neale, A. Subramaniam, L. W. Harding, and Z. Ahmad, “Bio-optics of the Chesapeake Bay from measurements and radiative transfer closure,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 68(1-2), 348–362 (2006).
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D. Antoine, A. Morel, E. Leymarie, A. Houyou, B. Gentili, S. Victori, J.-P. Buis, N. Buis, S. Meunier, M. Canini, D. Crozel, B. Fougnie, and P. Henry, “Underwater radiance distributions measured with miniaturized multispectral radiance cameras,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(1), 74–95 (2013).
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Voss, K.

K. Voss, H. Gordon, M. Lewis, S. McLean, M. Twardowski, C. Johnson, M. Yarbrough, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, and C. Trees, “Radiometry and uncertainties from SORTIE (Spectral Ocean Radiance Transfer Investigation and Experiment),” in NASA Carbon Cycle and Ecosystem Joint Science Workshop (2008).

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K. J. Voss, “Use of the radiance distribution to measure the optical absorption coefficient in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34(8), 1614–1622 (1989).
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Wozniak, S. B.

R. Röttgers, D. McKee, and S. B. Wozniak, “Evaluation of scatter corrections for AC-9 absorption measurements in coastal waters,” Methods Oceanography 7, 21–39 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yarbrough, M.

K. Voss, H. Gordon, M. Lewis, S. McLean, M. Twardowski, C. Johnson, M. Yarbrough, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, and C. Trees, “Radiometry and uncertainties from SORTIE (Spectral Ocean Radiance Transfer Investigation and Experiment),” in NASA Carbon Cycle and Ecosystem Joint Science Workshop (2008).

Yoder, J. A.

J. A. Yoder, J. K. Moore, and R. N. Swift, “Putting together the big picture: remote-sensing observations of ocean color,” Oceanography 14(4), 33–40 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zaneveld, J. R.

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400-750 nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45(21), 5294–5309 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Micro-scale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an AC-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16(6), 691–707 (1999).
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W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity,” Appl. Opt. 36(24), 6035–6046 (1997).
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J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. M. Moore, “The scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 44–55 (1994).
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Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (1)

C. R. McClain, “A decade of satellite ocean color observations,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 1(1), 19–42 (2009).
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Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, and R. A. Arnone, “Deriving inherent optical properties from water color: a multiband quasi-analytical algorithm for optically deep waters,” Appl. Opt. 41(27), 5755–5772 (2002).
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J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, J. R. V. Zaneveld, C. M. Moore, A. H. Barnard, P. L. Donaghay, and B. Rhoades, “Hyperspectral temperature and salt dependencies of absorption by water and heavy water in the 400-750 nm spectral range,” Appl. Opt. 45(21), 5294–5309 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Piskozub, D. Stramski, E. Terrill, and W. K. Melville, “Influence of forward and multiple light scatter on the measurement of beam attenuation in highly scattering marine environments,” Appl. Opt. 43(24), 4723–4731 (2004).
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C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, and E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41(6), 1035–1050 (2002).
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G. Chang, A. Barnard, and J. R. Zaneveld, “Optical closure in a complex coastal environment: particle effects,” Appl. Opt. 46(31), 7679–7692 (2007).
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B. Bulgarelli, G. Zibordi, and J.-F. Berthon, “Measured and modeled radiometric quantities in coastal waters: toward a closure,” Appl. Opt. 42(27), 5365–5381 (2003).
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W. S. Pegau, D. Gray, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Absorption and attenuation of visible and near-infrared light in water: dependence on temperature and salinity,” Appl. Opt. 36(24), 6035–6046 (1997).
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S. Tassan and G. M. Ferrari, “Variability of light absorption by aquatic particles in the near-infrared spectral region,” Appl. Opt. 42(24), 4802–4810 (2003).
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J. M. Sullivan, M. S. Twardowski, P. L. Donaghay, and S. A. Freeman, “Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters,” Appl. Opt. 44(9), 1667–1680 (2005).
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M. S. Twardowski, H. Claustre, S. A. Freeman, D. Stramski, and Y. Huot, “Optical backscattering properties of the ‘clearest natural’ waters,” Bio. Geo. Sci. 4, 1041–1058 (2007).

M. Fujii, E. Boss, and F. Chai, “The value of adding optics to ecosystem models: a case study,” Bio. Geo. Sci. 4(5), 817–835 (2007).
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K. L. Denman and M. A. Peña, “The response of two coupled one-dimensional mixed layer/planktonic ecosystem models to climate change in the NE subarctic Pacific Ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. 49, 5739–5757 (2002).

Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. (1)

M. Tzortziou, J. R. Herman, C. L. Gallegos, P. J. Neale, A. Subramaniam, L. W. Harding, and Z. Ahmad, “Bio-optics of the Chesapeake Bay from measurements and radiative transfer closure,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 68(1-2), 348–362 (2006).
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Estuaries Coasts (1)

P. D. Biber, C. L. Gallegos, and E. J. Kenworthy, “Calibration of bio-optical model in the North River, North Carolina: A tool to evaluate water quality impacts on seagrasses,” Estuaries Coasts 31, 177–191 (2008).
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Int. J. Remote Sens. (1)

L. G. Sokoletsky and F. Shen, ““Optical closure for remote-sensing reflectance based on accurate radiative transfer approximations: the case of Changjiang (Yangtze) River Estuary and its adjacent coastal area,” China,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 35(11-12), 4193–4224 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (3)

D. Antoine, A. Morel, E. Leymarie, A. Houyou, B. Gentili, S. Victori, J.-P. Buis, N. Buis, S. Meunier, M. Canini, D. Crozel, B. Fougnie, and P. Henry, “Underwater radiance distributions measured with miniaturized multispectral radiance cameras,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(1), 74–95 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. S. Twardowski, J. M. Sullivan, P. L. Donaghay, and J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Micro-scale quantification of the absorption by dissolved and particulate material in coastal waters with an AC-9,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16(6), 691–707 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. McKee, J. Piskozub, R. Röttgers, and R. Reynolds, “Evaluation and Improvement of an Iterative Scattering Correction Scheme for in situ Absorption and Attenuation Measurements,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 30(7), 1527–1541 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (3)

M. Babin, D. Stramski, G. M. Ferrari, H. Claustre, A. Bricaud, G. Obolensky, and N. Hoepffner, “Variations in the light absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, non-algal particles, and dissolved organic matter in coastal waters around Europe,” J. Geophys. Res. 108(C7), 3211 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. A. Siegel, S. Maritorena, N. B. Nelson, D. A. Hansell, and M. Lorenzi-Kayser, “Global distribution and dynamics of colored dissolved and detrital organic materials,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(C12), 3228 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Chami, E. B. Shybanov, T. Y. Churilova, G. A. Khomenko, M. E.-G. Lee, O. V. Martynov, G. A. Berseneva, and G. K. Korotaev, “Optical properties of the particles in the Crimea coastal waters (Black Sea),” J. Geophys. Res. 110(C11), C11020 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Great Lakes Res. (1)

D. M. O’Donnell, S. W. Effler, C. M. Strait, F. Peng, and M. Perkins, “Remote sensing reflectance in the Great Lakes: In situ measurements, closure analyses and a forward model,” J. Great Lakes Res. 39, 137–150 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Ind. Soc. Rem. Sens. (1)

M. Talaulikar, T. Suresh, E. Desa, and A. Inamdar, “Optical closure of apparent optical properties. coastal waters off goa,” J. Ind. Soc. Rem. Sens. 43(1), 163–171 (2015).
[Crossref]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (5)

M. J. Behrenfeld and P. G. Falkowski, “Photosynthetic rates derived from satellite-based chlorophyll concentrations,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 42(1), 1–20 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. R. Morrison, “In situ determination of quantum yield of phytoplankton chlorophyll a fluorescence: A simple algorithm, observations, and a model,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48(2), 618–631 (2003).
[Crossref]

L. Eisner, M. S. Twardowski, T. J. Cowles, and M. J. Perry, “Resolving phytoplankton photoprotective: photosynthetic carotenoid ratios on fine scales using in situ spectral absorption measurements,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48(2), 632–646 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. J. Voss, “Use of the radiance distribution to measure the optical absorption coefficient in the ocean,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34(8), 1614–1622 (1989).
[Crossref]

C. L. Gallegos, R. J. Davies-Colley, and M. Gall, “Optical closure in lakes with contrasting extremes of reflectance,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 53(5), 2021–2034 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mar. Chem. (1)

A. A. Andrew, R. Del Vecchio, A. Subramaniam, and N. V. Blough, “Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean: Optical properties and their relation to CDOM structure and source,” Mar. Chem. 148, 33–43 (2013).
[Crossref]

Methods Oceanography (1)

R. Röttgers, D. McKee, and S. B. Wozniak, “Evaluation of scatter corrections for AC-9 absorption measurements in coastal waters,” Methods Oceanography 7, 21–39 (2013).
[Crossref]

Oceanography (1)

J. A. Yoder, J. K. Moore, and R. N. Swift, “Putting together the big picture: remote-sensing observations of ocean color,” Oceanography 14(4), 33–40 (2001).
[Crossref]

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Proc. SPIE (2)

G. R. Fournier and J. L. Forand, “Analytic phase function for ocean water,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 194–201 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. R. V. Zaneveld, J. C. Kitchen, and C. M. Moore, “The scattering error correction of reflecting-tube absorption meters,” Proc. SPIE 2258, 44–55 (1994).
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Remote Sens. Environ. (2)

C. Neil, A. Cunningham, and D. McKee, “Relationships between suspended mineral concentration and red-waveband reflectance in moderately turbid shelf seas,” Remote Sens. Environ. 115(12), 3719–3730 (2011).
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C. Mitchell, A. Cunningham, and D. McKee, “Remote sensing of shelf sea optical properties: evaluation of a quasi-analytical approach for the Irish Sea,” Remote Sens. Environ. 143, 142–153 (2014).
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Science (1)

D. Stramski, R. A. Reynolds, M. Kahru, and B. G. Mitchell, “Estimation of particulate organic carbon in the ocean from satellite remote sensing,” Science 285(5425), 239–242 (1999).
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K. Voss, H. Gordon, M. Lewis, S. McLean, M. Twardowski, C. Johnson, M. Yarbrough, S. Flora, M. Feinholz, and C. Trees, “Radiometry and uncertainties from SORTIE (Spectral Ocean Radiance Transfer Investigation and Experiment),” in NASA Carbon Cycle and Ecosystem Joint Science Workshop (2008).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Station maps for (a) Ligurian Sea (LS), March 2009, and (b) West Coast of Scotland (WCS), June 2012.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Comparison of modelled and measured subsurface Ed values for all WCS stations as test of method to derive Es by extrapolation. Input AC-9 data has been corrected using the proportional correction.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 AC-9 absorption (a) and (b) and attenuation (c) and (d) spectra measured at two stations from the WCS cruise, showing the effects of three different AC-9 corrections: proportional, iterative and semi-empirical.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Modelled and measured Ed (a) and (b) and Lu (c) and (d) profiles measured at two stations, ST05 (clear water) and ST12 (sea loch water), from the WCS cruise. The RT model was populated with AC-9 data corrected with three different corrections: proportional, iterative and semi-empirical.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Agreement between modelled and measured Ed(λ,z) for data collected off the West Coast of Scotland (WCS – (a), (b) and (c)) and in the Ligurian Sea (LS – (d), (e) and (f)). Results are presented for three different wavelengths, 440 nm, 532 nm and 650 nm (from left to right). All IOP measurements used as input for the RT modelling were corrected using the proportional correction.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Correlation of modelled and measured data for PAR(z) for (a) the Ligurian Sea (LS) and (b) a data set measured off the West Coast of Scotland (WCS).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Agreement between modelled and measured Lu(λ,z) for data collected off the West Coast of Scotland (WCS – (a), (b) and (c)) and in the Ligurian Sea (LS – (d), (e) and (f)). Results are presented for three different wavelengths, 440 nm, 532 nm and 650 nm (from left to right). All IOP measurements used as input for the RT modelling were corrected using the proportional correction.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Agreement between modelled and in situ data for radiance reflectance, RL(λ) just beneath the surface for two data sets collected in the Ligurian Sea (a) and off the West Coast of Scotland (b). 412 nm was excluded from the analysis for the WCS data set.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Ranges of SPM, Chl concentrations and CDOM absorption at 440 nm for the two data sets (LS and WCS).

Tables Icon

Table 2 Minimum, maximum and median slopes obtained from linear regressions of modelled vs. measured depth profiles over all stations of the LS cruise in 2009, for each of the AC-9 scattering corrections. Slope values greater than one represent a tendency of modelled data to underestimate in situ value.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Minimum, maximum and median slopes obtained from linear regressions of modelled vs. measured depth profiles over all stations of the WCS cruise in 2012, for each of the AC-9 scattering corrections. Slope values greater than one represent a tendency of modelled data to underestimate in situ value.

Tables Icon

Table 4 RMS%E for modelled data for LS and WCS cruises. Comparison between different AC-9 scattering corrections.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

a ac9 ( λ )= a m ( λ ) a m ( 715 ) c m ( λ ) a m ( λ ) c m ( 715 ) a m ( 715 )
a ac9 ( λ )= a m ( λ )[ a m ( 715 ) a emp ( 715 ) ] ( 1/ e c ) c m ( λ ) a m ( λ ) ( 1/ e c ) c m ( 715 ) a emp ( 715 )
a emp ( 715 )=0.212 [ a m ( 715 ) ] 1.135
I ^ x ( z,λ )= I x ( z,λ ) E s ( t,λ ) E s ( t,λ )
E s,ext ( λ )= E s ( λ ) E s,ext ( 555 ) E s ( 555 )
RMS%E= 1 n 1 n ( x model x meas x meas ×100 ) 2

Metrics