Abstract

We describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of a one-dimensional silicon photonic crystal cavity in which a central slot is used to enhance the overlap between highly localized optical and mechanical modes. The optical mode has an extremely small mode volume of 0.017(λvac/n)3, and an optomechanical vacuum coupling rate of 310 kHz is measured for a mechanical mode at 2.69 GHz. With optical quality factors up to 1.2 × 105, fabricated devices are in the resolved-sideband regime. The electric field has its maximum at the slot wall and couples to the in-plane breathing motion of the slot. The optomechanical coupling is thus dominated by the moving-boundary effect, which we simulate to be six times greater than the photoelastic effect, in contrast to most structures, where the photoelastic effect is often the primary coupling mechanism.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (4)

R. Leijssen and E. Verhagen, “Strong optomechanical interactions in a sliced photonic crystal nanobeam,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15974 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Grutter, M. Davanço, and K. Srinivasan, “Si3N4 nanobeam optomechanical crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 21(4), 61–71 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Li, S. A. Tadesse, Q. Liu, and M. Li, “Nanophotonic cavity optomechanics with propagating acoustic waves at frequencies up to 12 GHz,” Optica 2(9), 826–831 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. E. Grutter, M. I. Davanço, and K. Srinivasan, “Slot-mode optomechanical crystals: a versatile platform for multimode optomechanics,” Optica 2(11), 994–1001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (8)

K. C. Balram, M. Davanço, J. Y. Lim, J. D. Song, and K. Srinivasan, “Moving boundary and photoelastic coupling in GaAs optomechanical resonators,” Optica 1(6), 414–420 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Bagci, A. Simonsen, S. Schmid, L. G. Villanueva, E. Zeuthen, J. Appel, J. M. Taylor, A. Sørensen, K. Usami, A. Schliesser, and E. S. Polzik, “Optical detection of radio waves through a nanomechanical transducer,” Nature 507(7490), 81–85 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. W. Andrews, R. W. Peterson, T. P. Purdy, K. Cicak, R. W. Simmonds, C. A. Regal, and K. W. Lehnert, “Bidirectional and efficient conversion between microwave and optical light,” Nat. Phys. 10(4), 321–326 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, “Cavity optomechanics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86(4), 1391–1452 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Gomis-Bresco, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Oudich, S. El-Jallal, A. Griol, D. Puerto, E. Chavez, Y. Pennec, B. Djafari-Rouhani, F. Alzina, A. Martínez, and C. M. Torres, “A one-dimensional optomechanical crystal with a complete phononic band gap,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4452 (2014).
[PubMed]

M. Davanço, S. Ates, Y. Liu, and K. Srinivasan, “Si3N4 optomechanical crystals in the resolved-sideband regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(4), 041101 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Wu, A. C. Hryciw, C. Healey, D. P. Lake, H. Jayakumar, M. R. Freeman, J. P. Davis, and P. E. Barclay, “Dissipative and dispersive optomechanics in a nanocavity torque sensor,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021052 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, S. Meenehan, J. Chan, S. Gröblacher, and O. Painter, “Two-dimensional phononic-photonic band gap optomechanical crystal cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(15), 153603 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

J. Bochmann, A. Vainsencher, D. D. Awschalom, and A. N. Cleland, “Nanomechanical coupling between microwave and optical photons,” Nat. Phys. 9(11), 712–716 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Seidler, K. Lister, U. Drechsler, J. Hofrichter, and T. Stöferle, “Slotted photonic crystal nanobeam cavity with an ultrahigh quality factor-to-mode volume ratio,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32468–32483 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

J. Zheng, Y. Li, M. Sirin Aras, A. Stein, K. L. Shepard, and C. Wei Wong, “Parametric optomechanical oscillations in two-dimensional slot-type high-Q photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(21), 211908 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Chan, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, S. Meenehan, and O. Painter, “Optimized optomechanical crystal cavity with acoustic radiation shield,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 081115 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. Mayer Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472(7341), 69–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478(7367), 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, “Wavelength-sized GaAs optomechanical resonators with gigahertz frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 113108 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. P. M. Alegre, A. Safavi-Naeini, M. Winger, and O. Painter, “Quasi-two-dimensional optomechanical crystals with a complete phononic bandgap,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5658–5669 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Winger, T. D. Blasius, T. P. Mayer Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, S. Meenehan, J. Cohen, S. Stobbe, and O. Painter, “A chip-scale integrated cavity-electro-optomechanics platform,” Opt. Express 19(25), 24905–24921 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

P. T. Rakich, P. Davids, and Z. Wang, “Tailoring optical forces in waveguides through radiation pressure and electrostrictive forces,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14439–14453 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. Gorodetsky, A. Schliesser, G. Anetsberger, S. Deleglise, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Determination of the vacuum optomechanical coupling rate using frequency noise calibration,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23236–23246 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically induced transparency,” Science 330(6010), 1520–1523 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Favero and K. Karrai, “Optomechanics of deformable optical cavities,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 201–205 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462(7269), 78–82 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(14), 143901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Sauvan, G. Lecamp, P. Lalanne, and J. Hugonin, “Modal-reflectivity enhancement by geometry tuning in Photonic Crystal microcavities,” Opt. Express 13(1), 245–255 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wahlbrink, T. Mollenhauer, Y. M. Georgiev, W. Henschel, J. K. Efavi, H. D. B. Gottlob, M. C. Lemme, H. Kurz, J. Niehusmann, and P. Bolivar, “Highly selective etch process for silicon-on-insulator nano-devices,” Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 212–217 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, “Bloch-wave engineering for high-Q, small-V microcavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(11), 1430–1438 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. A. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Perturbation theory for Maxwell’s equations with shifting material boundaries,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(6), 066611 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

D. F. McGuigan, C. C. Lam, R. Q. Gram, A. W. Hoffman, D. H. Douglass, and H. W. Gutche, “Measurements of the mechanical Q of single-crystal silicon at low temperatures,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 30(5), 621–629 (1978).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

D. K. Biegelsen, “Frequency dependence of the photoelastic coefficients of silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 12(6), 2427–2431 (1975).
[Crossref]

Alegre, T. P. M.

J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478(7367), 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. P. M. Alegre, A. Safavi-Naeini, M. Winger, and O. Painter, “Quasi-two-dimensional optomechanical crystals with a complete phononic bandgap,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5658–5669 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Almeida, V. R.

Alzina, F.

J. Gomis-Bresco, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Oudich, S. El-Jallal, A. Griol, D. Puerto, E. Chavez, Y. Pennec, B. Djafari-Rouhani, F. Alzina, A. Martínez, and C. M. Torres, “A one-dimensional optomechanical crystal with a complete phononic band gap,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4452 (2014).
[PubMed]

Andrews, R. W.

R. W. Andrews, R. W. Peterson, T. P. Purdy, K. Cicak, R. W. Simmonds, C. A. Regal, and K. W. Lehnert, “Bidirectional and efficient conversion between microwave and optical light,” Nat. Phys. 10(4), 321–326 (2014).
[Crossref]

Anetsberger, G.

Appel, J.

T. Bagci, A. Simonsen, S. Schmid, L. G. Villanueva, E. Zeuthen, J. Appel, J. M. Taylor, A. Sørensen, K. Usami, A. Schliesser, and E. S. Polzik, “Optical detection of radio waves through a nanomechanical transducer,” Nature 507(7490), 81–85 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arcizet, O.

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically induced transparency,” Science 330(6010), 1520–1523 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aspelmeyer, M.

M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, “Cavity optomechanics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86(4), 1391–1452 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478(7367), 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ates, S.

M. Davanço, S. Ates, Y. Liu, and K. Srinivasan, “Si3N4 optomechanical crystals in the resolved-sideband regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(4), 041101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Awschalom, D. D.

J. Bochmann, A. Vainsencher, D. D. Awschalom, and A. N. Cleland, “Nanomechanical coupling between microwave and optical photons,” Nat. Phys. 9(11), 712–716 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bagci, T.

T. Bagci, A. Simonsen, S. Schmid, L. G. Villanueva, E. Zeuthen, J. Appel, J. M. Taylor, A. Sørensen, K. Usami, A. Schliesser, and E. S. Polzik, “Optical detection of radio waves through a nanomechanical transducer,” Nature 507(7490), 81–85 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baker, C.

L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, “Wavelength-sized GaAs optomechanical resonators with gigahertz frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 113108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Balram, K. C.

Barclay, P. E.

M. Wu, A. C. Hryciw, C. Healey, D. P. Lake, H. Jayakumar, M. R. Freeman, J. P. Davis, and P. E. Barclay, “Dissipative and dispersive optomechanics in a nanocavity torque sensor,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021052 (2014).
[Crossref]

Barrios, C. A.

Bermel, P.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Biegelsen, D. K.

D. K. Biegelsen, “Frequency dependence of the photoelastic coefficients of silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 12(6), 2427–2431 (1975).
[Crossref]

Blasius, T. D.

Bochmann, J.

J. Bochmann, A. Vainsencher, D. D. Awschalom, and A. N. Cleland, “Nanomechanical coupling between microwave and optical photons,” Nat. Phys. 9(11), 712–716 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bolivar, P.

T. Wahlbrink, T. Mollenhauer, Y. M. Georgiev, W. Henschel, J. K. Efavi, H. D. B. Gottlob, M. C. Lemme, H. Kurz, J. Niehusmann, and P. Bolivar, “Highly selective etch process for silicon-on-insulator nano-devices,” Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 212–217 (2005).
[Crossref]

Camacho, R.

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Camacho, R. M.

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J. Gomis-Bresco, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Oudich, S. El-Jallal, A. Griol, D. Puerto, E. Chavez, Y. Pennec, B. Djafari-Rouhani, F. Alzina, A. Martínez, and C. M. Torres, “A one-dimensional optomechanical crystal with a complete phononic band gap,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4452 (2014).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. Gomis-Bresco, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Oudich, S. El-Jallal, A. Griol, D. Puerto, E. Chavez, Y. Pennec, B. Djafari-Rouhani, F. Alzina, A. Martínez, and C. M. Torres, “A one-dimensional optomechanical crystal with a complete phononic band gap,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4452 (2014).
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K. Grutter, M. Davanço, and K. Srinivasan, “Si3N4 nanobeam optomechanical crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 21(4), 61–71 (2015).
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M. Wu, A. C. Hryciw, C. Healey, D. P. Lake, H. Jayakumar, M. R. Freeman, J. P. Davis, and P. E. Barclay, “Dissipative and dispersive optomechanics in a nanocavity torque sensor,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021052 (2014).
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A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, S. Meenehan, J. Chan, S. Gröblacher, and O. Painter, “Two-dimensional phononic-photonic band gap optomechanical crystal cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(15), 153603 (2014).
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J. Chan, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, S. Meenehan, and O. Painter, “Optimized optomechanical crystal cavity with acoustic radiation shield,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 081115 (2012).
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A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. Mayer Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472(7341), 69–73 (2011).
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J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478(7367), 89–92 (2011).
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D. F. McGuigan, C. C. Lam, R. Q. Gram, A. W. Hoffman, D. H. Douglass, and H. W. Gutche, “Measurements of the mechanical Q of single-crystal silicon at low temperatures,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 30(5), 621–629 (1978).
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Hryciw, A. C.

M. Wu, A. C. Hryciw, C. Healey, D. P. Lake, H. Jayakumar, M. R. Freeman, J. P. Davis, and P. E. Barclay, “Dissipative and dispersive optomechanics in a nanocavity torque sensor,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021052 (2014).
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S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. A. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Perturbation theory for Maxwell’s equations with shifting material boundaries,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(6), 066611 (2002).
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I. Favero and K. Karrai, “Optomechanics of deformable optical cavities,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 201–205 (2009).
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S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically induced transparency,” Science 330(6010), 1520–1523 (2010).
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J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478(7367), 89–92 (2011).
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T. Wahlbrink, T. Mollenhauer, Y. M. Georgiev, W. Henschel, J. K. Efavi, H. D. B. Gottlob, M. C. Lemme, H. Kurz, J. Niehusmann, and P. Bolivar, “Highly selective etch process for silicon-on-insulator nano-devices,” Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 212–217 (2005).
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M. Wu, A. C. Hryciw, C. Healey, D. P. Lake, H. Jayakumar, M. R. Freeman, J. P. Davis, and P. E. Barclay, “Dissipative and dispersive optomechanics in a nanocavity torque sensor,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021052 (2014).
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P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, “Bloch-wave engineering for high-Q, small-V microcavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(11), 1430–1438 (2003).
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D. F. McGuigan, C. C. Lam, R. Q. Gram, A. W. Hoffman, D. H. Douglass, and H. W. Gutche, “Measurements of the mechanical Q of single-crystal silicon at low temperatures,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 30(5), 621–629 (1978).
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Lehnert, K. W.

R. W. Andrews, R. W. Peterson, T. P. Purdy, K. Cicak, R. W. Simmonds, C. A. Regal, and K. W. Lehnert, “Bidirectional and efficient conversion between microwave and optical light,” Nat. Phys. 10(4), 321–326 (2014).
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L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, “Wavelength-sized GaAs optomechanical resonators with gigahertz frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 113108 (2011).
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T. Wahlbrink, T. Mollenhauer, Y. M. Georgiev, W. Henschel, J. K. Efavi, H. D. B. Gottlob, M. C. Lemme, H. Kurz, J. Niehusmann, and P. Bolivar, “Highly selective etch process for silicon-on-insulator nano-devices,” Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 212–217 (2005).
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L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, “Wavelength-sized GaAs optomechanical resonators with gigahertz frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 113108 (2011).
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J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(14), 143901 (2005).
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J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(14), 143901 (2005).
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M. Aspelmeyer, T. J. Kippenberg, and F. Marquardt, “Cavity optomechanics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 86(4), 1391–1452 (2014).
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J. Gomis-Bresco, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Oudich, S. El-Jallal, A. Griol, D. Puerto, E. Chavez, Y. Pennec, B. Djafari-Rouhani, F. Alzina, A. Martínez, and C. M. Torres, “A one-dimensional optomechanical crystal with a complete phononic band gap,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4452 (2014).
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A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, S. Meenehan, J. Chan, S. Gröblacher, and O. Painter, “Two-dimensional phononic-photonic band gap optomechanical crystal cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(15), 153603 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chan, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, S. Meenehan, and O. Painter, “Optimized optomechanical crystal cavity with acoustic radiation shield,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 081115 (2012).
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M. Winger, T. D. Blasius, T. P. Mayer Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, S. Meenehan, J. Cohen, S. Stobbe, and O. Painter, “A chip-scale integrated cavity-electro-optomechanics platform,” Opt. Express 19(25), 24905–24921 (2011).
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J. Gomis-Bresco, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Oudich, S. El-Jallal, A. Griol, D. Puerto, E. Chavez, Y. Pennec, B. Djafari-Rouhani, F. Alzina, A. Martínez, and C. M. Torres, “A one-dimensional optomechanical crystal with a complete phononic band gap,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4452 (2014).
[PubMed]

Niehusmann, J.

T. Wahlbrink, T. Mollenhauer, Y. M. Georgiev, W. Henschel, J. K. Efavi, H. D. B. Gottlob, M. C. Lemme, H. Kurz, J. Niehusmann, and P. Bolivar, “Highly selective etch process for silicon-on-insulator nano-devices,” Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 212–217 (2005).
[Crossref]

Oskooi, A. F.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Oudich, M.

J. Gomis-Bresco, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Oudich, S. El-Jallal, A. Griol, D. Puerto, E. Chavez, Y. Pennec, B. Djafari-Rouhani, F. Alzina, A. Martínez, and C. M. Torres, “A one-dimensional optomechanical crystal with a complete phononic band gap,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4452 (2014).
[PubMed]

Painter, O.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, S. Meenehan, J. Chan, S. Gröblacher, and O. Painter, “Two-dimensional phononic-photonic band gap optomechanical crystal cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(15), 153603 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chan, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, S. Meenehan, and O. Painter, “Optimized optomechanical crystal cavity with acoustic radiation shield,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 081115 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. Mayer Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472(7341), 69–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Winger, T. D. Blasius, T. P. Mayer Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, S. Meenehan, J. Cohen, S. Stobbe, and O. Painter, “A chip-scale integrated cavity-electro-optomechanics platform,” Opt. Express 19(25), 24905–24921 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478(7367), 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. P. M. Alegre, A. Safavi-Naeini, M. Winger, and O. Painter, “Quasi-two-dimensional optomechanical crystals with a complete phononic bandgap,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5658–5669 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462(7269), 78–82 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pennec, Y.

J. Gomis-Bresco, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Oudich, S. El-Jallal, A. Griol, D. Puerto, E. Chavez, Y. Pennec, B. Djafari-Rouhani, F. Alzina, A. Martínez, and C. M. Torres, “A one-dimensional optomechanical crystal with a complete phononic band gap,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4452 (2014).
[PubMed]

Peterson, R. W.

R. W. Andrews, R. W. Peterson, T. P. Purdy, K. Cicak, R. W. Simmonds, C. A. Regal, and K. W. Lehnert, “Bidirectional and efficient conversion between microwave and optical light,” Nat. Phys. 10(4), 321–326 (2014).
[Crossref]

Polzik, E. S.

T. Bagci, A. Simonsen, S. Schmid, L. G. Villanueva, E. Zeuthen, J. Appel, J. M. Taylor, A. Sørensen, K. Usami, A. Schliesser, and E. S. Polzik, “Optical detection of radio waves through a nanomechanical transducer,” Nature 507(7490), 81–85 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puerto, D.

J. Gomis-Bresco, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Oudich, S. El-Jallal, A. Griol, D. Puerto, E. Chavez, Y. Pennec, B. Djafari-Rouhani, F. Alzina, A. Martínez, and C. M. Torres, “A one-dimensional optomechanical crystal with a complete phononic band gap,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4452 (2014).
[PubMed]

Purdy, T. P.

R. W. Andrews, R. W. Peterson, T. P. Purdy, K. Cicak, R. W. Simmonds, C. A. Regal, and K. W. Lehnert, “Bidirectional and efficient conversion between microwave and optical light,” Nat. Phys. 10(4), 321–326 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rakich, P. T.

Regal, C. A.

R. W. Andrews, R. W. Peterson, T. P. Purdy, K. Cicak, R. W. Simmonds, C. A. Regal, and K. W. Lehnert, “Bidirectional and efficient conversion between microwave and optical light,” Nat. Phys. 10(4), 321–326 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rivière, R.

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically induced transparency,” Science 330(6010), 1520–1523 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robinson, J. T.

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(14), 143901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roundy, D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Safavi-Naeini, A.

Safavi-Naeini, A. H.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, S. Meenehan, J. Chan, S. Gröblacher, and O. Painter, “Two-dimensional phononic-photonic band gap optomechanical crystal cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(15), 153603 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chan, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, S. Meenehan, and O. Painter, “Optimized optomechanical crystal cavity with acoustic radiation shield,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 081115 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. Mayer Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472(7341), 69–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478(7367), 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Winger, T. D. Blasius, T. P. Mayer Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, S. Meenehan, J. Cohen, S. Stobbe, and O. Painter, “A chip-scale integrated cavity-electro-optomechanics platform,” Opt. Express 19(25), 24905–24921 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sauvan, C.

Schliesser, A.

T. Bagci, A. Simonsen, S. Schmid, L. G. Villanueva, E. Zeuthen, J. Appel, J. M. Taylor, A. Sørensen, K. Usami, A. Schliesser, and E. S. Polzik, “Optical detection of radio waves through a nanomechanical transducer,” Nature 507(7490), 81–85 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. Gorodetsky, A. Schliesser, G. Anetsberger, S. Deleglise, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Determination of the vacuum optomechanical coupling rate using frequency noise calibration,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23236–23246 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically induced transparency,” Science 330(6010), 1520–1523 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmid, S.

T. Bagci, A. Simonsen, S. Schmid, L. G. Villanueva, E. Zeuthen, J. Appel, J. M. Taylor, A. Sørensen, K. Usami, A. Schliesser, and E. S. Polzik, “Optical detection of radio waves through a nanomechanical transducer,” Nature 507(7490), 81–85 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seidler, P.

Senellart, P.

L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, “Wavelength-sized GaAs optomechanical resonators with gigahertz frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 113108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shepard, K. L.

J. Zheng, Y. Li, M. Sirin Aras, A. Stein, K. L. Shepard, and C. Wei Wong, “Parametric optomechanical oscillations in two-dimensional slot-type high-Q photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(21), 211908 (2012).
[Crossref]

Simmonds, R. W.

R. W. Andrews, R. W. Peterson, T. P. Purdy, K. Cicak, R. W. Simmonds, C. A. Regal, and K. W. Lehnert, “Bidirectional and efficient conversion between microwave and optical light,” Nat. Phys. 10(4), 321–326 (2014).
[Crossref]

Simonsen, A.

T. Bagci, A. Simonsen, S. Schmid, L. G. Villanueva, E. Zeuthen, J. Appel, J. M. Taylor, A. Sørensen, K. Usami, A. Schliesser, and E. S. Polzik, “Optical detection of radio waves through a nanomechanical transducer,” Nature 507(7490), 81–85 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sirin Aras, M.

J. Zheng, Y. Li, M. Sirin Aras, A. Stein, K. L. Shepard, and C. Wei Wong, “Parametric optomechanical oscillations in two-dimensional slot-type high-Q photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(21), 211908 (2012).
[Crossref]

Skorobogatiy, M. A.

S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. A. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Perturbation theory for Maxwell’s equations with shifting material boundaries,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(6), 066611 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, J. D.

Sørensen, A.

T. Bagci, A. Simonsen, S. Schmid, L. G. Villanueva, E. Zeuthen, J. Appel, J. M. Taylor, A. Sørensen, K. Usami, A. Schliesser, and E. S. Polzik, “Optical detection of radio waves through a nanomechanical transducer,” Nature 507(7490), 81–85 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, K.

K. Grutter, M. Davanço, and K. Srinivasan, “Si3N4 nanobeam optomechanical crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 21(4), 61–71 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. E. Grutter, M. I. Davanço, and K. Srinivasan, “Slot-mode optomechanical crystals: a versatile platform for multimode optomechanics,” Optica 2(11), 994–1001 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. C. Balram, M. Davanço, J. Y. Lim, J. D. Song, and K. Srinivasan, “Moving boundary and photoelastic coupling in GaAs optomechanical resonators,” Optica 1(6), 414–420 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Davanço, S. Ates, Y. Liu, and K. Srinivasan, “Si3N4 optomechanical crystals in the resolved-sideband regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(4), 041101 (2014).
[Crossref]

Stein, A.

J. Zheng, Y. Li, M. Sirin Aras, A. Stein, K. L. Shepard, and C. Wei Wong, “Parametric optomechanical oscillations in two-dimensional slot-type high-Q photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(21), 211908 (2012).
[Crossref]

Stobbe, S.

Stöferle, T.

Tadesse, S. A.

Taylor, J. M.

T. Bagci, A. Simonsen, S. Schmid, L. G. Villanueva, E. Zeuthen, J. Appel, J. M. Taylor, A. Sørensen, K. Usami, A. Schliesser, and E. S. Polzik, “Optical detection of radio waves through a nanomechanical transducer,” Nature 507(7490), 81–85 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torres, C. M.

J. Gomis-Bresco, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Oudich, S. El-Jallal, A. Griol, D. Puerto, E. Chavez, Y. Pennec, B. Djafari-Rouhani, F. Alzina, A. Martínez, and C. M. Torres, “A one-dimensional optomechanical crystal with a complete phononic band gap,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4452 (2014).
[PubMed]

Usami, K.

T. Bagci, A. Simonsen, S. Schmid, L. G. Villanueva, E. Zeuthen, J. Appel, J. M. Taylor, A. Sørensen, K. Usami, A. Schliesser, and E. S. Polzik, “Optical detection of radio waves through a nanomechanical transducer,” Nature 507(7490), 81–85 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vahala, K. J.

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462(7269), 78–82 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vainsencher, A.

J. Bochmann, A. Vainsencher, D. D. Awschalom, and A. N. Cleland, “Nanomechanical coupling between microwave and optical photons,” Nat. Phys. 9(11), 712–716 (2013).
[Crossref]

Verhagen, E.

R. Leijssen and E. Verhagen, “Strong optomechanical interactions in a sliced photonic crystal nanobeam,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15974 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villanueva, L. G.

T. Bagci, A. Simonsen, S. Schmid, L. G. Villanueva, E. Zeuthen, J. Appel, J. M. Taylor, A. Sørensen, K. Usami, A. Schliesser, and E. S. Polzik, “Optical detection of radio waves through a nanomechanical transducer,” Nature 507(7490), 81–85 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wahlbrink, T.

T. Wahlbrink, T. Mollenhauer, Y. M. Georgiev, W. Henschel, J. K. Efavi, H. D. B. Gottlob, M. C. Lemme, H. Kurz, J. Niehusmann, and P. Bolivar, “Highly selective etch process for silicon-on-insulator nano-devices,” Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 212–217 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Wei Wong, C.

J. Zheng, Y. Li, M. Sirin Aras, A. Stein, K. L. Shepard, and C. Wei Wong, “Parametric optomechanical oscillations in two-dimensional slot-type high-Q photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(21), 211908 (2012).
[Crossref]

Weis, S.

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically induced transparency,” Science 330(6010), 1520–1523 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weisberg, O.

S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. A. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Perturbation theory for Maxwell’s equations with shifting material boundaries,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(6), 066611 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winger, M.

Wu, M.

M. Wu, A. C. Hryciw, C. Healey, D. P. Lake, H. Jayakumar, M. R. Freeman, J. P. Davis, and P. E. Barclay, “Dissipative and dispersive optomechanics in a nanocavity torque sensor,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021052 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

Zeuthen, E.

T. Bagci, A. Simonsen, S. Schmid, L. G. Villanueva, E. Zeuthen, J. Appel, J. M. Taylor, A. Sørensen, K. Usami, A. Schliesser, and E. S. Polzik, “Optical detection of radio waves through a nanomechanical transducer,” Nature 507(7490), 81–85 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, J.

J. Zheng, Y. Li, M. Sirin Aras, A. Stein, K. L. Shepard, and C. Wei Wong, “Parametric optomechanical oscillations in two-dimensional slot-type high-Q photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(21), 211908 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. Chan, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, S. Meenehan, and O. Painter, “Optimized optomechanical crystal cavity with acoustic radiation shield,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 081115 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Davanço, S. Ates, Y. Liu, and K. Srinivasan, “Si3N4 optomechanical crystals in the resolved-sideband regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(4), 041101 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Zheng, Y. Li, M. Sirin Aras, A. Stein, K. L. Shepard, and C. Wei Wong, “Parametric optomechanical oscillations in two-dimensional slot-type high-Q photonic crystal cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(21), 211908 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Ding, C. Baker, P. Senellart, A. Lemaitre, S. Ducci, G. Leo, and I. Favero, “Wavelength-sized GaAs optomechanical resonators with gigahertz frequency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 113108 (2011).
[Crossref]

Comput. Phys. Commun. (1)

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Lalanne and J. P. Hugonin, “Bloch-wave engineering for high-Q, small-V microcavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(11), 1430–1438 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. (1)

K. Grutter, M. Davanço, and K. Srinivasan, “Si3N4 nanobeam optomechanical crystals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum. Electron. 21(4), 61–71 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Low Temp. Phys. (1)

D. F. McGuigan, C. C. Lam, R. Q. Gram, A. W. Hoffman, D. H. Douglass, and H. W. Gutche, “Measurements of the mechanical Q of single-crystal silicon at low temperatures,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 30(5), 621–629 (1978).
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Microelectron. Eng. (1)

T. Wahlbrink, T. Mollenhauer, Y. M. Georgiev, W. Henschel, J. K. Efavi, H. D. B. Gottlob, M. C. Lemme, H. Kurz, J. Niehusmann, and P. Bolivar, “Highly selective etch process for silicon-on-insulator nano-devices,” Microelectron. Eng. 78-79, 212–217 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

J. Gomis-Bresco, D. Navarro-Urrios, M. Oudich, S. El-Jallal, A. Griol, D. Puerto, E. Chavez, Y. Pennec, B. Djafari-Rouhani, F. Alzina, A. Martínez, and C. M. Torres, “A one-dimensional optomechanical crystal with a complete phononic band gap,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4452 (2014).
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Nat. Photonics (1)

I. Favero and K. Karrai, “Optomechanics of deformable optical cavities,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 201–205 (2009).
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Nat. Phys. (2)

R. W. Andrews, R. W. Peterson, T. P. Purdy, K. Cicak, R. W. Simmonds, C. A. Regal, and K. W. Lehnert, “Bidirectional and efficient conversion between microwave and optical light,” Nat. Phys. 10(4), 321–326 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Bochmann, A. Vainsencher, D. D. Awschalom, and A. N. Cleland, “Nanomechanical coupling between microwave and optical photons,” Nat. Phys. 9(11), 712–716 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature (5)

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462(7269), 78–82 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. Mayer Alegre, J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, M. Winger, Q. Lin, J. T. Hill, D. E. Chang, and O. Painter, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light with optomechanics,” Nature 472(7341), 69–73 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478(7367), 89–92 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Bagci, A. Simonsen, S. Schmid, L. G. Villanueva, E. Zeuthen, J. Appel, J. M. Taylor, A. Sørensen, K. Usami, A. Schliesser, and E. S. Polzik, “Optical detection of radio waves through a nanomechanical transducer,” Nature 507(7490), 81–85 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (1)

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S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. A. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Y. Fink, “Perturbation theory for Maxwell’s equations with shifting material boundaries,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 65(6), 066611 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(14), 143901 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, S. Meenehan, J. Chan, S. Gröblacher, and O. Painter, “Two-dimensional phononic-photonic band gap optomechanical crystal cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(15), 153603 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. X (1)

M. Wu, A. C. Hryciw, C. Healey, D. P. Lake, H. Jayakumar, M. R. Freeman, J. P. Davis, and P. E. Barclay, “Dissipative and dispersive optomechanics in a nanocavity torque sensor,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021052 (2014).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

R. Leijssen and E. Verhagen, “Strong optomechanical interactions in a sliced photonic crystal nanobeam,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15974 (2015).
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Science (1)

S. Weis, R. Rivière, S. Deléglise, E. Gavartin, O. Arcizet, A. Schliesser, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optomechanically induced transparency,” Science 330(6010), 1520–1523 (2010).
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J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, J. N. Winn, and R. D. Meade, Photonic Crystals, Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University, 2008).

J. Chan, “Laser cooling of an optomechanical crystal resonator to its quantum ground state of motion,” Ph.D. Thesis, (California Institute of Technology, 2012).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) and (b) Cross-sections through the central portion of the photonic crystal cavity taken from a finite element simulation of the electric field of the highest frequency cavity mode with an antinode in the slot. (a) Total magnitude of the electric field, increasing from blue to red. (b) E y component of the electric field (red and blue correspond to opposite signs). The simulations indicate that the electric field amplitude for this mode is strongly enhanced in the slot. (c) Displacement image from a finite-element simulation of the in-plane mechanical breathing mode at 2.69 GHz. The displacement overlaps spatially with the region of maximum electric field shown in (a). (d) Distribution of the first principal strain for the breathing mode. The region of greatest strain is nearly identical to the location of the first node in the electric field.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Scanning electron microscope images of the freestanding photonic crystal nanobeam cavity on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer with a 40-nm slot. (a) Full device with nine holes on either side of the cavity. The center of the structure, where the cavity is located, is freestanding. The connected waveguides rest on the SiO2 substrate. (b) The central portion of the photonic crystal cavity. (c) View down the slot at 30° tilt. Note the almost perfectly straight inner sidewalls of the slot.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic of the experimental apparatus for characterization of the photonic crystal nanobeam cavities. See text for definition of abbreviations.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Power spectral density after the transimpedance amplifier of the fast photodiode. Each resonance peak corresponds to a mechanical mode that couples optomechanically to the light trapped in the cavity. The most prominent peak is the breathing mode at Ω m /2π=2.69  GHz. The inset shows a magnification of this resonance peak.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Determination of g 0 by comparing the thermomechanical cavity frequency fluctuation with a calibration tone, which is generated by phase modulating the input laser field. The left peak is the Lorentzian mechanical resonance resulting from the thermal motion of the optical cavity. The right peak is the Gaussian calibration tone.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured transmission versus two-photon detuning Δ pc . (a) The two spikes are OMIA signals with the broad background given by the cavity transmission profile. (b) and (c) Same measurement as in (a) with increased range for Δ pc . The measurements were taken for devices with different numbers of holes on each side of the cavity as indicated. The OMIA spikes are not resolved because of the limited number of sampling points. (d) and (e) Measurement at higher resolution of the transmitted signal over the window of induced absorption.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured optical transmission spectrum of a device with ten holes (blue). A Lorentzian fit (red) yields a calculated optical quality factor of Q o =8.8 ×  10 4 .
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Measured amplitude of the carrier (red dots) and first sideband (blue dots) as a function of the input voltage at the EOM. Lines are fits of Bessel functions of the first kind to the data.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Simulated optomechanical coupling rates for optimized designs of varying slot width.

Equations (11)

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S ω ( Ω )8 g 0 2 n th Ω m 2 ( Ω 2 Ω m 2 ) 2 + Γ m 2 Ω m 2
S ω cal ( Ω )= 1 2 Ω cal 2 β 2 δ( Ω Ω cal )
g 0 = βΩ cal 2 1 n th V 2 m V 2 cal | G ( Ω cal ) G ( Ω m ) |
t p ( Δ pc )= κ e 2 i( Δ oc + Δ pc ) +  κ 2  +  G 2 i( Ω m Δ pc ) Γ m 2
E out = e i ω c t { t p ( 0 )+ t p ( Δ pc ) β 2 e i Δ pc t + t p ( Δ pc ) β 2 e i Δ pc t }
I=| t p ( Δ pc ) |cos( φ )+| t p ( Δ pc ) |cos( φ + )
Q=| t p ( Δ pc ) |sin( φ )| t p ( Δ pc ) |sin( φ + )
T( Δ oc )= 1 4 Q e 2 ( Δ oc / ω o ) 2 + 1 4 Q o 2
g 0 = ω o 2 E ε x E * dV EDdV
g 0,mb = ω o 2 ( q n ^ )( Δε E 2 Δ ε 1 D 2 )dS EDdV
g 0,pe = ω o 2 E( ε 0 n 4 p ijkl S kl ) E * dV EDdV

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