Abstract

We present a method to design and fabricate a kind of converters based on flexible metasurfaces which can change the polarization state of an incident terahertz beam. The metasurface consists of a two-dimensional array of rectangular metallic antennas that can abruptly change the phase of the incoming terahertz beam. Experimentally demonstrated half-wave plates generate 0.1 THz beam with a π/2 polarization rotation. By slightly changing the structure of the converter, an elliptically or circularly polarized beam is expected to be obtained. These flexible terahertz converters may have many potential applications in terahertz technology.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  27. W. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Li, H. Cheng, P. Yu, J. Li, and J. Tian, “Realization of broadband cross-polarization conversion in transmission mode in the terahertz region using a single-layer metasurface,” Opt. Lett. 40(13), 3185–3188 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. T. Niu, W. Withayachumnankul, A. Upadhyay, P. Gutruf, D. Abbott, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Terahertz reflectarray as a polarizing beam splitter,” Opt. Express 22(13), 16148–16160 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15020 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. W. Wang, Z. Guo, Y. Sun, F. Shen, Y. Li, Y. Liu, X. Wang, and S. Qu, “Ultra-thin optical vortex phase plate based on the L-shaped nanoantenna for both linear and circular polarized incidences,” Opt. Commun. 355, 321–325 (2015).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  34. P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  35. X. Wen and J. Zheng, “Broadband THz reflective polarization rotator by multiple plasmon resonances,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28292–28300 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. Q. Yang, J. Gu, D. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Efficient flat metasurface lens for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25931–25939 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. Z. Li, W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Realizing broadband and invertible linear-to-circular polarization converter with ultrathin single-layer metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18106 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. S.-C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y.-S. Hu, Y.-H. Hu, G.-B. Ma, R.-W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  40. R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  41. N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  42. L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2015 (9)

F. Ding, Z. Wang, S. He, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Broadband high-efficiency half-wave plate: a supercell-based plasmonic metasurface approach,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4111–4119 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Li, H. Cheng, P. Yu, J. Li, and J. Tian, “Realization of broadband cross-polarization conversion in transmission mode in the terahertz region using a single-layer metasurface,” Opt. Lett. 40(13), 3185–3188 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wang, Y. Gu, Y. Gong, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “An ultrathin terahertz quarter-wave plate using planar babinet-inverted metasurface,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11114–11122 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Wang, Z. Guo, Y. Sun, F. Shen, Y. Li, Y. Liu, X. Wang, and S. Qu, “Ultra-thin optical vortex phase plate based on the L-shaped nanoantenna for both linear and circular polarized incidences,” Opt. Commun. 355, 321–325 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, J. Chen, and M. Xue, “Terahertz lenses based on nonuniform metasurfaces,” Opt. Commun. 338, 585–589 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Realizing broadband and invertible linear-to-circular polarization converter with ultrathin single-layer metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18106 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (8)

S.-C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y.-S. Hu, Y.-H. Hu, G.-B. Ma, R.-W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Wen and J. Zheng, “Broadband THz reflective polarization rotator by multiple plasmon resonances,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28292–28300 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Yang, J. Gu, D. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Efficient flat metasurface lens for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25931–25939 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Niu, W. Withayachumnankul, A. Upadhyay, P. Gutruf, D. Abbott, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Terahertz reflectarray as a polarizing beam splitter,” Opt. Express 22(13), 16148–16160 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Bianisotropic metasurfaces for optimal polarization control: analysis and synthesis,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 2(4), 044011 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Ding, B. Arigong, H. Ren, M. Zhou, J. Shao, Y. Lin, and H. Zhang, “Efficient multiband and broadband cross polarization converters based on slotted L-shaped nanoantennas,” Opt. Express 22(23), 29143–29151 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (10)

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. He, X. Wang, D. Hu, J. Ye, S. Feng, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Generation and evolution of the terahertz vortex beam,” Opt. Express 21(17), 20230–20239 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rahm, J.-S. Li, and W. J. Padilla, “THz wave modulators: a brief review on different modulation techniques,” J Infrared Milli Terahz Waves 34(1), 1–27 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Nagatsuma, S. Horiguchi, Y. Minamikata, Y. Yoshimizu, S. Hisatake, S. Kuwano, N. Yoshimoto, J. Terada, and H. Takahashi, “Terahertz wireless communications based on photonics technologies,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23736–23747 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Zhou, Y. Liu, and W. Cai, “Plasmonic holographic imaging with V-shaped nanoantenna array,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4348–4354 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Kaveev, G. I. Kropotov, E. V. Tsygankova, I. A. Tzibizov, S. D. Ganichev, S. N. Danilov, P. Olbrich, C. Zoth, E. G. Kaveeva, A. I. Zhdanov, A. A. Ivanov, R. Z. Deyanov, and B. Redlich, “Terahertz polarization conversion with quartz waveplate sets,” Appl. Opt. 52(4), B60–B69 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hu, X. Wang, S. Feng, J. Ye, W. Sun, Q. Kan, P. J. Klar, and Y. Zhang, “Ultrathin terahertz planar elements,” Adv. Optical Mater 1(2), 186–191 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Pors and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonic metasurfaces for efficient phase control in reflection,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27438–27451 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wei, Y. Cao, X. Su, Z. Gong, Y. Long, and H. Li, “Highly efficient beam steering with a transparent metasurface,” Opt. Express 21(9), 10739–10745 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

T. Nagatsuma, “Terahertz technologies: present and future,” IEICE Electron. Express 8(14), 1127–1142 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

J. Federici and L. Moeller, “Review of terahertz and subterahertz wireless communications,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 111101 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

Y. Kawano, T. Uchida, and K. Ishibashi, “Terahertz sensing with a carbon nanotube/two-dimensional electron gas hybrid transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 083123 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent polarization control of terahertz waves generated from two-color laser-induced gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 023001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Wen and A. M. Lindenberg, “Coherent terahertz polarization control through manipulation of electron trajectories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 023902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

D. Veksler, F. Teppe, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Y. Kachorovskii, W. Knap, and M. S. Shur, “Detection of terahertz radiation in gated two-dimensional structures governed by dc current,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125328 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Abbott, D.

Aieta, F.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arigong, B.

Azad, A. K.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, B.

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beigang, R.

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bhaskaran, M.

Blanchard, R.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Briggs, D. P.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

Cao, Y.

Capasso, F.

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-B.

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-T.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

Z. Wang, J. Chen, and M. Xue, “Terahertz lenses based on nonuniform metasurfaces,” Opt. Commun. 338, 585–589 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

W. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Li, H. Cheng, P. Yu, J. Li, and J. Tian, “Realization of broadband cross-polarization conversion in transmission mode in the terahertz region using a single-layer metasurface,” Opt. Lett. 40(13), 3185–3188 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Realizing broadband and invertible linear-to-circular polarization converter with ultrathin single-layer metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18106 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W. T.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, H.

Z. Li, W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Realizing broadband and invertible linear-to-circular polarization converter with ultrathin single-layer metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18106 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Li, H. Cheng, P. Yu, J. Li, and J. Tian, “Realization of broadband cross-polarization conversion in transmission mode in the terahertz region using a single-layer metasurface,” Opt. Lett. 40(13), 3185–3188 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, Q.

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chowdhury, D. R.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, T.-J.

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dai, J.

J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent polarization control of terahertz waves generated from two-color laser-induced gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 023001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dalvit, D. A.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Danilov, S. N.

De Leon, I.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Deyanov, R. Z.

Ding, F.

F. Ding, Z. Wang, S. He, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Broadband high-efficiency half-wave plate: a supercell-based plasmonic metasurface approach,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4111–4119 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, J.

Dmitriev, A. P.

D. Veksler, F. Teppe, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Y. Kachorovskii, W. Knap, and M. S. Shur, “Detection of terahertz radiation in gated two-dimensional structures governed by dc current,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125328 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fan, R. H.

R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. Federici and L. Moeller, “Review of terahertz and subterahertz wireless communications,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 111101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Feng, S.

D. Hu, X. Wang, S. Feng, J. Ye, W. Sun, Q. Kan, P. J. Klar, and Y. Zhang, “Ultrathin terahertz planar elements,” Adv. Optical Mater 1(2), 186–191 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. He, X. Wang, D. Hu, J. Ye, S. Feng, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Generation and evolution of the terahertz vortex beam,” Opt. Express 21(17), 20230–20239 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fumeaux, C.

Gaburro, Z.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ganichev, S. D.

Gao, L.-H.

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Genevet, P.

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, Y.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wang, Y. Gu, Y. Gong, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “An ultrathin terahertz quarter-wave plate using planar babinet-inverted metasurface,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11114–11122 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, Z.

Grady, N. K.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grbic, A.

C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, “Bianisotropic metasurfaces for optimal polarization control: analysis and synthesis,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 2(4), 044011 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gu, J.

Q. Yang, J. Gu, D. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Efficient flat metasurface lens for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25931–25939 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gu, Y.

D. Wang, Y. Gu, Y. Gong, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “An ultrathin terahertz quarter-wave plate using planar babinet-inverted metasurface,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11114–11122 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, G. Y.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, Z.

W. Wang, Z. Guo, Y. Sun, F. Shen, Y. Li, Y. Liu, X. Wang, and S. Qu, “Ultra-thin optical vortex phase plate based on the L-shaped nanoantenna for both linear and circular polarized incidences,” Opt. Commun. 355, 321–325 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gutruf, P.

Han, J.

Q. Yang, J. Gu, D. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Efficient flat metasurface lens for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25931–25939 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, J.

He, Q.

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, S.

F. Ding, Z. Wang, S. He, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Broadband high-efficiency half-wave plate: a supercell-based plasmonic metasurface approach,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4111–4119 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heyes, J. E.

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hisatake, S.

Hong, M.

D. Wang, Y. Gu, Y. Gong, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “An ultrathin terahertz quarter-wave plate using planar babinet-inverted metasurface,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11114–11122 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horiguchi, S.

Hu, D.

J. He, X. Wang, D. Hu, J. Ye, S. Feng, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Generation and evolution of the terahertz vortex beam,” Opt. Express 21(17), 20230–20239 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Hu, X. Wang, S. Feng, J. Ye, W. Sun, Q. Kan, P. J. Klar, and Y. Zhang, “Ultrathin terahertz planar elements,” Adv. Optical Mater 1(2), 186–191 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.-H.

S.-C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y.-S. Hu, Y.-H. Hu, G.-B. Ma, R.-W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.-S.

S.-C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y.-S. Hu, Y.-H. Hu, G.-B. Ma, R.-W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, L.

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, X. R.

R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Imhof, C.

P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Inoue, H.

Ishibashi, K.

Y. Kawano, T. Uchida, and K. Ishibashi, “Terahertz sensing with a carbon nanotube/two-dimensional electron gas hybrid transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 083123 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, A. A.

Jian, L.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15020 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, S. C.

R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, S.-C.

S.-C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y.-S. Hu, Y.-H. Hu, G.-B. Ma, R.-W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jiang, W.-X.

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jin, B.-B.

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jin, G.

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Juan, T. K.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kachorovskii, V. Y.

D. Veksler, F. Teppe, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Y. Kachorovskii, W. Knap, and M. S. Shur, “Detection of terahertz radiation in gated two-dimensional structures governed by dc current,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125328 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kan, Q.

D. Hu, X. Wang, S. Feng, J. Ye, W. Sun, Q. Kan, P. J. Klar, and Y. Zhang, “Ultrathin terahertz planar elements,” Adv. Optical Mater 1(2), 186–191 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. He, X. Wang, D. Hu, J. Ye, S. Feng, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Generation and evolution of the terahertz vortex beam,” Opt. Express 21(17), 20230–20239 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karimi, E.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Karpowicz, N.

J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent polarization control of terahertz waves generated from two-color laser-induced gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 023001 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kats, M. A.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaveev, A. K.

Kaveeva, E. G.

Kawano, Y.

Y. Kawano, T. Uchida, and K. Ishibashi, “Terahertz sensing with a carbon nanotube/two-dimensional electron gas hybrid transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 083123 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kawase, K.

Kildishev, A. V.

F. Ding, Z. Wang, S. He, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Broadband high-efficiency half-wave plate: a supercell-based plasmonic metasurface approach,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4111–4119 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klar, P. J.

D. Hu, X. Wang, S. Feng, J. Ye, W. Sun, Q. Kan, P. J. Klar, and Y. Zhang, “Ultrathin terahertz planar elements,” Adv. Optical Mater 1(2), 186–191 (2013).
[Crossref]

Knap, W.

D. Veksler, F. Teppe, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Y. Kachorovskii, W. Knap, and M. S. Shur, “Detection of terahertz radiation in gated two-dimensional structures governed by dc current,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125328 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kravchenko, I. I.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kropotov, G. I.

Kung, W. T.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuwano, S.

Li, G.

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
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Li, J.

Li, J.-S.

M. Rahm, J.-S. Li, and W. J. Padilla, “THz wave modulators: a brief review on different modulation techniques,” J Infrared Milli Terahz Waves 34(1), 1–27 (2013).
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W. Wang, Z. Guo, Y. Sun, F. Shen, Y. Li, Y. Liu, X. Wang, and S. Qu, “Ultra-thin optical vortex phase plate based on the L-shaped nanoantenna for both linear and circular polarized incidences,” Opt. Commun. 355, 321–325 (2015).
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Li, Z.

W. Liu, S. Chen, Z. Li, H. Cheng, P. Yu, J. Li, and J. Tian, “Realization of broadband cross-polarization conversion in transmission mode in the terahertz region using a single-layer metasurface,” Opt. Lett. 40(13), 3185–3188 (2015).
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Z. Li, W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Realizing broadband and invertible linear-to-circular polarization converter with ultrathin single-layer metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18106 (2015).
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L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
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S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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H. Wen and A. M. Lindenberg, “Coherent terahertz polarization control through manipulation of electron trajectories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 023902 (2009).
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W. Wang, Z. Guo, Y. Sun, F. Shen, Y. Li, Y. Liu, X. Wang, and S. Qu, “Ultra-thin optical vortex phase plate based on the L-shaped nanoantenna for both linear and circular polarized incidences,” Opt. Commun. 355, 321–325 (2015).
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D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15020 (2015).
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X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
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P. Weis, O. Paul, C. Imhof, R. Beigang, and M. Rahm, “Strongly birefringent metamaterials as negative index terahertz wave plates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(17), 171104 (2009).
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R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
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W. Wang, Z. Guo, Y. Sun, F. Shen, Y. Li, Y. Liu, X. Wang, and S. Qu, “Ultra-thin optical vortex phase plate based on the L-shaped nanoantenna for both linear and circular polarized incidences,” Opt. Commun. 355, 321–325 (2015).
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M. Rahm, J.-S. Li, and W. J. Padilla, “THz wave modulators: a brief review on different modulation techniques,” J Infrared Milli Terahz Waves 34(1), 1–27 (2013).
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E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
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P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
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Q. Yang, J. Gu, D. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Efficient flat metasurface lens for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25931–25939 (2014).
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Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
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D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15020 (2015).
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F. Ding, Z. Wang, S. He, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Broadband high-efficiency half-wave plate: a supercell-based plasmonic metasurface approach,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4111–4119 (2015).
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R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y.-S. Hu, Y.-H. Hu, G.-B. Ma, R.-W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
[Crossref]

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R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xue, M.

Z. Wang, J. Chen, and M. Xue, “Terahertz lenses based on nonuniform metasurfaces,” Opt. Commun. 338, 585–589 (2015).
[Crossref]

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L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
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S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
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L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ye, J.

J. He, X. Wang, D. Hu, J. Ye, S. Feng, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Generation and evolution of the terahertz vortex beam,” Opt. Express 21(17), 20230–20239 (2013).
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D. Hu, X. Wang, S. Feng, J. Ye, W. Sun, Q. Kan, P. J. Klar, and Y. Zhang, “Ultrathin terahertz planar elements,” Adv. Optical Mater 1(2), 186–191 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yoshimizu, Y.

Yoshimoto, N.

Yu, N.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 013101 (2012).
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N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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Yu, P.

Yue, W.

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
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N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
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Zhang, H.

Zhang, L.

D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15020 (2015).
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Zhang, S.

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
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X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
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Zhang, W.

Q. Yang, J. Gu, D. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Efficient flat metasurface lens for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25931–25939 (2014).
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X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
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Q. Yang, J. Gu, D. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Efficient flat metasurface lens for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25931–25939 (2014).
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X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
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J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent polarization control of terahertz waves generated from two-color laser-induced gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 023001 (2009).
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D. Hu, X. Wang, S. Feng, J. Ye, W. Sun, Q. Kan, P. J. Klar, and Y. Zhang, “Ultrathin terahertz planar elements,” Adv. Optical Mater 1(2), 186–191 (2013).
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J. He, X. Wang, D. Hu, J. Ye, S. Feng, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Generation and evolution of the terahertz vortex beam,” Opt. Express 21(17), 20230–20239 (2013).
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Zhao, J.

L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
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Zhdanov, A. I.

Zheng, J.

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L.-H. Gao, Q. Cheng, J. Yang, S.-J. Ma, J. Zhao, S. Liu, H.-B. Chen, Q. He, W.-X. Jiang, H.-F. Ma, Q.-Y. Wen, L.-J. Liang, B.-B. Jin, W.-W. Liu, L. Zhou, J.-Q. Yao, P.-H. Wu, and T.-J. Cui, “Broadband diffusion of terahertz waves by multi-bit coding metasurfaces,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e324 (2015).
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S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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ACS Nano (1)

F. Ding, Z. Wang, S. He, V. M. Shalaev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Broadband high-efficiency half-wave plate: a supercell-based plasmonic metasurface approach,” ACS Nano 9(4), 4111–4119 (2015).
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Adv. Mater. (2)

X. Zhang, Z. Tian, W. Yue, J. Gu, S. Zhang, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave deflection based on C-shape complex metamaterials with phase discontinuities,” Adv. Mater. 25(33), 4567–4572 (2013).
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R. H. Fan, Y. Zhou, X. P. Ren, R. W. Peng, S. C. Jiang, D. H. Xu, X. Xiong, X. R. Huang, and M. Wang, “Freely tunable broadband polarization rotator for terahertz waves,” Adv. Mater. 27(7), 1201–1206 (2015).
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Adv. Optical Mater (1)

D. Hu, X. Wang, S. Feng, J. Ye, W. Sun, Q. Kan, P. J. Klar, and Y. Zhang, “Ultrathin terahertz planar elements,” Adv. Optical Mater 1(2), 186–191 (2013).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Y. Kawano, T. Uchida, and K. Ishibashi, “Terahertz sensing with a carbon nanotube/two-dimensional electron gas hybrid transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 083123 (2009).
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T. Nagatsuma, “Terahertz technologies: present and future,” IEICE Electron. Express 8(14), 1127–1142 (2011).
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E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
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Nano Lett. (4)

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
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Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
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F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
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S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

X. Chen, L. Huang, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, C. W. Qiu, S. Zhang, and T. Zentgraf, “Dual-polarity plasmonic metalens for visible light,” Nat. Commun. 3, 1198 (2012).
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Opt. Commun. (2)

W. Wang, Z. Guo, Y. Sun, F. Shen, Y. Li, Y. Liu, X. Wang, and S. Qu, “Ultra-thin optical vortex phase plate based on the L-shaped nanoantenna for both linear and circular polarized incidences,” Opt. Commun. 355, 321–325 (2015).
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Opt. Express (11)

X. Wen and J. Zheng, “Broadband THz reflective polarization rotator by multiple plasmon resonances,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28292–28300 (2014).
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Q. Yang, J. Gu, D. Wang, X. Zhang, Z. Tian, C. Ouyang, R. Singh, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Efficient flat metasurface lens for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Express 22(21), 25931–25939 (2014).
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T. Niu, W. Withayachumnankul, A. Upadhyay, P. Gutruf, D. Abbott, M. Bhaskaran, S. Sriram, and C. Fumeaux, “Terahertz reflectarray as a polarizing beam splitter,” Opt. Express 22(13), 16148–16160 (2014).
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D. Wang, Y. Gu, Y. Gong, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “An ultrathin terahertz quarter-wave plate using planar babinet-inverted metasurface,” Opt. Express 23(9), 11114–11122 (2015).
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J. He, X. Wang, D. Hu, J. Ye, S. Feng, Q. Kan, and Y. Zhang, “Generation and evolution of the terahertz vortex beam,” Opt. Express 21(17), 20230–20239 (2013).
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D. Veksler, F. Teppe, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Y. Kachorovskii, W. Knap, and M. S. Shur, “Detection of terahertz radiation in gated two-dimensional structures governed by dc current,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125328 (2006).
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J. Dai, N. Karpowicz, and X. C. Zhang, “Coherent polarization control of terahertz waves generated from two-color laser-induced gas plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 023001 (2009).
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H. Wen and A. M. Lindenberg, “Coherent terahertz polarization control through manipulation of electron trajectories,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(2), 023902 (2009).
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Phys. Rev. X (1)

S.-C. Jiang, X. Xiong, Y.-S. Hu, Y.-H. Hu, G.-B. Ma, R.-W. Peng, C. Sun, and M. Wang, “Controlling the polarization state of light with a dispersion-free metastructure,” Phys. Rev. X 4(2), 021026 (2014).
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Z. Li, W. Liu, H. Cheng, S. Chen, and J. Tian, “Realizing broadband and invertible linear-to-circular polarization converter with ultrathin single-layer metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 18106 (2015).
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D. Wang, L. Zhang, Y. Gu, M. Q. Mehmood, Y. Gong, A. Srivastava, L. Jian, T. Venkatesan, C. W. Qiu, and M. Hong, “Switchable ultrathin quarter-wave plate in terahertz using active phase-change metasurface,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15020 (2015).
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Science (2)

N. K. Grady, J. E. Heyes, D. R. Chowdhury, Y. Zeng, M. T. Reiten, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, D. A. Dalvit, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz metamaterials for linear polarization conversion and anomalous refraction,” Science 340(6138), 1304–1307 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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Other (1)

J. Baena, A. Slobozhanyuk, J. Ortiz, and P. Belov, “Linear to circular polarization converters based on self-complementary metasurfaces,” in Advanced Electromagnetic Materials in Microwaves and Optics (METAMATERIALS),20148th International Congress on (IEEE, 2014), 43–45.
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematics of the unit cell. It is composed of an Ag (yellow) nano rod and an Ag ground plane separated by a 0.2 mm Polypropylene (grey) spacer. The spacing distance L is 1.5 mm. The thickness of Ag rod Ta is 10 μm. (b) The structure of the line array A (B) that is includes 8 unit cells in a row, in which the antennas have the same values of Lx (Ly) and different values of Ly (Lx).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The calculated amplitude and phase of the reflected field components Ex and Ey when the unit cell is illuminated by a normally incident 0.1 THz beam polarized at 45 degrees to x-axis. (a) and (b) The Ly dependence for Ex and Ey, respectively. The Lx dependence is not shown here. (c) and (d) Eight unit cells from #1 to #8 are considered and each cell is calculated individually. The calculated results of the eight unit cells are put all together for Ex and Ey, respectively. The Lx and Ly of the antenna in the unit cell from #1 to #8 are Lx = 0.32 mm and Ly = 0.7, 0.84, 0.87, 0.9, 0.92, 0.94, 1.0, and 1.3 mm, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The simulated reflected field patterns on x-z plane when the liner array A is under the incidence of a normally incoming THz beam polarized at 45 degrees to x-axis.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The structure of the deigned metasurface consisting of the line arrays A and B which are interlaced arrangement along y direction with an offset distance d between them in the x direction. (b) The calculated Lissajous figure for the deigned metasurface, which shows the different polarization state could be obtained by changing the distance d with d = 0, d = p/8, d = p/4, d = 3p/8, and d = p/2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) The microphotograph of the part of one fabricated metasurface. (b) The experimental setup. Tx is a 0.1 THz source and Rx is a receiver.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The detected polarization state of the extraordinary beam when (a) d = 0 and (b) d = p/2.

Equations (2)

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θ r = sin 1 (sin θ i + λ 0 /p),
sin( θ r ) n r -sin( θ i ) n i = λ 0 2π dϕ dx ,

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