Abstract

A BOTDA sensing scheme combined frequency sweeping and slope-assisted techniques is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for simultaneously temperature and strain-induced vibration sensing. In this scheme, during sweeping Brillouin gain spectrum (BGS) for temperature measurement, we simultaneously perform FFT to the time-domain traces whose probe-pump frequency difference (PPFD) is within the FWHM of the BGS at each position of fiber, and the location and the frequency of the strain-induced vibration event can be acquired based on SA-BOTDA technique. In this way, the vibration can be continuously measured at each selected working frequency point during the BGS scanning process and multiple measurements of vibration event can be completed in one whole BGS scanning process. Meanwhile, double sidebands probe method is employed to reduce the nonlocal effects. In our experiment, a temperature event and two vibration events with the frequency of 7.00Hz or 10.00Hz are simultaneously measured near the end of 10.6km long sensing fiber in a traditional BOTDA system. The system shows 1.2°C temperature accuracy and 0.67Hz frequency resolution, as well as a 3m spatial resolution. The proposed method may find some potential applications where both the strain-induced vibration frequency and temperature are the diagnostic objects.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. K. Y. Song and K. Hotate, “Distributed Fiber Strain Sensor With 1-kHz Sampling Rate Based on Brillouin Optical Correlation Domain Analysis,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1928–1930 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  6. K. Y. Song, M. Kishi, Z. He, and K. Hotate, “High-repetition-rate distributed Brillouin sensor based on optical correlation-domain analysis with differential frequency modulation,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 2062–2064 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. Voskoboinik, J. Wang, B. Shamee, S. R. Nuccio, L. Zhang, M. Chitgarha, A. E. Willner, and M. Tur, “SBS-based fiber optical sensing using frequency-domain simultaneous tone interrogation,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29(11), 1729–1735 (2011).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  12. Y. Peled, A. Motil, L. Yaron, and M. Tur, “Slope-assisted fast distributed sensing in optical fibers with arbitrary Brillouin profile,” Opt. Express 19(21), 19845–19854 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Peled, A. Motil, and M. Tur, “Fast Brillouin optical time domain analysis for dynamic sensing,” Opt. Express 20(8), 8584–8591 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. K. Tsuji, H. Noda, and N. Onodera, “Sweep-free Brillouin optical time domain analysis using two individual laser sources,” Opt. Rev. 19(6), 381–387 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. Y. Dong, D. Ba, T. Jiang, D. Zhou, H. Zhang, C. Zhu, Z. Lu, H. Li, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High-Spatial-Resolution Fast BOTDA for Dynamic Strain Measurement Based on Differential Double-Pulse and Second-Order Sideband of Modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 2600407 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. I. Sovran, A. Motil, and M. Tur, “Frequency-scanning BOTDA with ultimately fast acquisition speed,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(13), 1426–1429 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  17. D. Ba, B. Wang, D. Zhou, M. Yin, Y. Dong, H. Li, Z. Lu, and Z. Fan, “Distributed measurement of dynamic strain based on multi-slope assisted fast BOTDA,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9781–9793 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. A. Motil, O. Danon, Y. Peled, and M. Tur, “Pump-power-independent Double Slope-Assisted distributed and fast Brillouin fiber-optic sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(8), 797–800 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  19. L. Zhou, F. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Pan, Z. Sun, J. Hua, and X. Zhang, “Distributed Strain and Vibration Sensing System Based on Phase-Sensitive OTDR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1884–1886 (2015).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

2015 (2)

L. Zhou, F. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Pan, Z. Sun, J. Hua, and X. Zhang, “Distributed Strain and Vibration Sensing System Based on Phase-Sensitive OTDR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1884–1886 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Sovran, A. Motil, and M. Tur, “Frequency-scanning BOTDA with ultimately fast acquisition speed,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(13), 1426–1429 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

A. Motil, O. Danon, Y. Peled, and M. Tur, “Pump-power-independent Double Slope-Assisted distributed and fast Brillouin fiber-optic sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(8), 797–800 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

J. Hu, X. Zhang, Y. Yao, and X. Zhao, “A BOTDA with break interrogation function over 72 km sensing length,” Opt. Express 21(1), 145–153 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Dong, D. Ba, T. Jiang, D. Zhou, H. Zhang, C. Zhu, Z. Lu, H. Li, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High-Spatial-Resolution Fast BOTDA for Dynamic Strain Measurement Based on Differential Double-Pulse and Second-Order Sideband of Modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 2600407 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

2011 (5)

Q. Cui, S. Pamukcu, W. Xiao, and M. Pervizpour, “Truly distributed fiber vibration sensor using pulse base BOTDA with wide dynamic range,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(24), 1887–1889 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Peled, A. Motil, L. Yaron, and M. Tur, “Slope-assisted fast distributed sensing in optical fibers with arbitrary Brillouin profile,” Opt. Express 19(21), 19845–19854 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Y. Song, M. Kishi, Z. He, and K. Hotate, “High-repetition-rate distributed Brillouin sensor based on optical correlation-domain analysis with differential frequency modulation,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 2062–2064 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Voskoboinik, J. Wang, B. Shamee, S. R. Nuccio, L. Zhang, M. Chitgarha, A. E. Willner, and M. Tur, “SBS-based fiber optical sensing using frequency-domain simultaneous tone interrogation,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29(11), 1729–1735 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Voskoboinik, O. F. Yilmaz, A. W. Willner, and M. Tur, “Sweep-free distributed Brillouin time-domain analyzer (SF-BOTDA),” Opt. Express 19(26), B842–B847 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

K. Y. Song and K. Hotate, “Distributed Fiber Strain Sensor With 1-kHz Sampling Rate Based on Brillouin Optical Correlation Domain Analysis,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1928–1930 (2007).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

Angulo-Vinuesa, X.

Ba, D.

D. Ba, B. Wang, D. Zhou, M. Yin, Y. Dong, H. Li, Z. Lu, and Z. Fan, “Distributed measurement of dynamic strain based on multi-slope assisted fast BOTDA,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9781–9793 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Dong, D. Ba, T. Jiang, D. Zhou, H. Zhang, C. Zhu, Z. Lu, H. Li, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High-Spatial-Resolution Fast BOTDA for Dynamic Strain Measurement Based on Differential Double-Pulse and Second-Order Sideband of Modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 2600407 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bao, X.

Y. Dong, D. Ba, T. Jiang, D. Zhou, H. Zhang, C. Zhu, Z. Lu, H. Li, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High-Spatial-Resolution Fast BOTDA for Dynamic Strain Measurement Based on Differential Double-Pulse and Second-Order Sideband of Modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 2600407 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Bao and L. Chen, “Recent progress in distributed fiber optic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 12(7), 8601–8639 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Bao, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, “32-km distributed temperature sensor based on Brillouin loss in an optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 18(18), 1561–1563 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernini, R.

Chen, L.

Y. Dong, D. Ba, T. Jiang, D. Zhou, H. Zhang, C. Zhu, Z. Lu, H. Li, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High-Spatial-Resolution Fast BOTDA for Dynamic Strain Measurement Based on Differential Double-Pulse and Second-Order Sideband of Modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 2600407 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Bao and L. Chen, “Recent progress in distributed fiber optic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 12(7), 8601–8639 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chitgarha, M.

A. Voskoboinik, J. Wang, B. Shamee, S. R. Nuccio, L. Zhang, M. Chitgarha, A. E. Willner, and M. Tur, “SBS-based fiber optical sensing using frequency-domain simultaneous tone interrogation,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29(11), 1729–1735 (2011).
[Crossref]

Corredera, P.

Cui, Q.

Q. Cui, S. Pamukcu, W. Xiao, and M. Pervizpour, “Truly distributed fiber vibration sensor using pulse base BOTDA with wide dynamic range,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(24), 1887–1889 (2011).
[Crossref]

Danon, O.

A. Motil, O. Danon, Y. Peled, and M. Tur, “Pump-power-independent Double Slope-Assisted distributed and fast Brillouin fiber-optic sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(8), 797–800 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dong, Y.

D. Ba, B. Wang, D. Zhou, M. Yin, Y. Dong, H. Li, Z. Lu, and Z. Fan, “Distributed measurement of dynamic strain based on multi-slope assisted fast BOTDA,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9781–9793 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Dong, D. Ba, T. Jiang, D. Zhou, H. Zhang, C. Zhu, Z. Lu, H. Li, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High-Spatial-Resolution Fast BOTDA for Dynamic Strain Measurement Based on Differential Double-Pulse and Second-Order Sideband of Modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 2600407 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fan, Z.

Gonzalez-Herraez, M.

He, Z.

Hotate, K.

K. Y. Song, M. Kishi, Z. He, and K. Hotate, “High-repetition-rate distributed Brillouin sensor based on optical correlation-domain analysis with differential frequency modulation,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 2062–2064 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Y. Song and K. Hotate, “Distributed Fiber Strain Sensor With 1-kHz Sampling Rate Based on Brillouin Optical Correlation Domain Analysis,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1928–1930 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hu, J.

Hua, J.

L. Zhou, F. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Pan, Z. Sun, J. Hua, and X. Zhang, “Distributed Strain and Vibration Sensing System Based on Phase-Sensitive OTDR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1884–1886 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jackson, D. A.

Jiang, T.

Y. Dong, D. Ba, T. Jiang, D. Zhou, H. Zhang, C. Zhu, Z. Lu, H. Li, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High-Spatial-Resolution Fast BOTDA for Dynamic Strain Measurement Based on Differential Double-Pulse and Second-Order Sideband of Modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 2600407 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kishi, M.

Li, H.

D. Ba, B. Wang, D. Zhou, M. Yin, Y. Dong, H. Li, Z. Lu, and Z. Fan, “Distributed measurement of dynamic strain based on multi-slope assisted fast BOTDA,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9781–9793 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Dong, D. Ba, T. Jiang, D. Zhou, H. Zhang, C. Zhu, Z. Lu, H. Li, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High-Spatial-Resolution Fast BOTDA for Dynamic Strain Measurement Based on Differential Double-Pulse and Second-Order Sideband of Modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 2600407 (2013).
[Crossref]

Loayssa, A.

Lu, Z.

D. Ba, B. Wang, D. Zhou, M. Yin, Y. Dong, H. Li, Z. Lu, and Z. Fan, “Distributed measurement of dynamic strain based on multi-slope assisted fast BOTDA,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9781–9793 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Dong, D. Ba, T. Jiang, D. Zhou, H. Zhang, C. Zhu, Z. Lu, H. Li, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High-Spatial-Resolution Fast BOTDA for Dynamic Strain Measurement Based on Differential Double-Pulse and Second-Order Sideband of Modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 2600407 (2013).
[Crossref]

Martin-Lopez, S.

Minardo, A.

Motil, A.

I. Sovran, A. Motil, and M. Tur, “Frequency-scanning BOTDA with ultimately fast acquisition speed,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(13), 1426–1429 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Motil, O. Danon, Y. Peled, and M. Tur, “Pump-power-independent Double Slope-Assisted distributed and fast Brillouin fiber-optic sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(8), 797–800 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Peled, A. Motil, and M. Tur, “Fast Brillouin optical time domain analysis for dynamic sensing,” Opt. Express 20(8), 8584–8591 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Peled, A. Motil, L. Yaron, and M. Tur, “Slope-assisted fast distributed sensing in optical fibers with arbitrary Brillouin profile,” Opt. Express 19(21), 19845–19854 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noda, H.

K. Tsuji, H. Noda, and N. Onodera, “Sweep-free Brillouin optical time domain analysis using two individual laser sources,” Opt. Rev. 19(6), 381–387 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nuccio, S. R.

A. Voskoboinik, J. Wang, B. Shamee, S. R. Nuccio, L. Zhang, M. Chitgarha, A. E. Willner, and M. Tur, “SBS-based fiber optical sensing using frequency-domain simultaneous tone interrogation,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29(11), 1729–1735 (2011).
[Crossref]

Onodera, N.

K. Tsuji, H. Noda, and N. Onodera, “Sweep-free Brillouin optical time domain analysis using two individual laser sources,” Opt. Rev. 19(6), 381–387 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pamukcu, S.

Q. Cui, S. Pamukcu, W. Xiao, and M. Pervizpour, “Truly distributed fiber vibration sensor using pulse base BOTDA with wide dynamic range,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(24), 1887–1889 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pan, Y.

L. Zhou, F. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Pan, Z. Sun, J. Hua, and X. Zhang, “Distributed Strain and Vibration Sensing System Based on Phase-Sensitive OTDR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1884–1886 (2015).
[Crossref]

Peled, Y.

Pervizpour, M.

Q. Cui, S. Pamukcu, W. Xiao, and M. Pervizpour, “Truly distributed fiber vibration sensor using pulse base BOTDA with wide dynamic range,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(24), 1887–1889 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sagues, M.

Shamee, B.

A. Voskoboinik, J. Wang, B. Shamee, S. R. Nuccio, L. Zhang, M. Chitgarha, A. E. Willner, and M. Tur, “SBS-based fiber optical sensing using frequency-domain simultaneous tone interrogation,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29(11), 1729–1735 (2011).
[Crossref]

Song, K. Y.

K. Y. Song, M. Kishi, Z. He, and K. Hotate, “High-repetition-rate distributed Brillouin sensor based on optical correlation-domain analysis with differential frequency modulation,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 2062–2064 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Y. Song and K. Hotate, “Distributed Fiber Strain Sensor With 1-kHz Sampling Rate Based on Brillouin Optical Correlation Domain Analysis,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19(23), 1928–1930 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sovran, I.

I. Sovran, A. Motil, and M. Tur, “Frequency-scanning BOTDA with ultimately fast acquisition speed,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(13), 1426–1429 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z.

L. Zhou, F. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Pan, Z. Sun, J. Hua, and X. Zhang, “Distributed Strain and Vibration Sensing System Based on Phase-Sensitive OTDR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1884–1886 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tsuji, K.

K. Tsuji, H. Noda, and N. Onodera, “Sweep-free Brillouin optical time domain analysis using two individual laser sources,” Opt. Rev. 19(6), 381–387 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tur, M.

I. Sovran, A. Motil, and M. Tur, “Frequency-scanning BOTDA with ultimately fast acquisition speed,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(13), 1426–1429 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Motil, O. Danon, Y. Peled, and M. Tur, “Pump-power-independent Double Slope-Assisted distributed and fast Brillouin fiber-optic sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(8), 797–800 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Peled, A. Motil, and M. Tur, “Fast Brillouin optical time domain analysis for dynamic sensing,” Opt. Express 20(8), 8584–8591 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Peled, A. Motil, L. Yaron, and M. Tur, “Slope-assisted fast distributed sensing in optical fibers with arbitrary Brillouin profile,” Opt. Express 19(21), 19845–19854 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Voskoboinik, J. Wang, B. Shamee, S. R. Nuccio, L. Zhang, M. Chitgarha, A. E. Willner, and M. Tur, “SBS-based fiber optical sensing using frequency-domain simultaneous tone interrogation,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29(11), 1729–1735 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Voskoboinik, O. F. Yilmaz, A. W. Willner, and M. Tur, “Sweep-free distributed Brillouin time-domain analyzer (SF-BOTDA),” Opt. Express 19(26), B842–B847 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urricelqui, J.

Voskoboinik, A.

A. Voskoboinik, O. F. Yilmaz, A. W. Willner, and M. Tur, “Sweep-free distributed Brillouin time-domain analyzer (SF-BOTDA),” Opt. Express 19(26), B842–B847 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Voskoboinik, J. Wang, B. Shamee, S. R. Nuccio, L. Zhang, M. Chitgarha, A. E. Willner, and M. Tur, “SBS-based fiber optical sensing using frequency-domain simultaneous tone interrogation,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29(11), 1729–1735 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, B.

Wang, F.

L. Zhou, F. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Pan, Z. Sun, J. Hua, and X. Zhang, “Distributed Strain and Vibration Sensing System Based on Phase-Sensitive OTDR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1884–1886 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

A. Voskoboinik, J. Wang, B. Shamee, S. R. Nuccio, L. Zhang, M. Chitgarha, A. E. Willner, and M. Tur, “SBS-based fiber optical sensing using frequency-domain simultaneous tone interrogation,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29(11), 1729–1735 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

L. Zhou, F. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Pan, Z. Sun, J. Hua, and X. Zhang, “Distributed Strain and Vibration Sensing System Based on Phase-Sensitive OTDR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1884–1886 (2015).
[Crossref]

Webb, D. J.

Willner, A. E.

A. Voskoboinik, J. Wang, B. Shamee, S. R. Nuccio, L. Zhang, M. Chitgarha, A. E. Willner, and M. Tur, “SBS-based fiber optical sensing using frequency-domain simultaneous tone interrogation,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29(11), 1729–1735 (2011).
[Crossref]

Willner, A. W.

Xiao, W.

Q. Cui, S. Pamukcu, W. Xiao, and M. Pervizpour, “Truly distributed fiber vibration sensor using pulse base BOTDA with wide dynamic range,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(24), 1887–1889 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yao, Y.

Yaron, L.

Yilmaz, O. F.

Yin, M.

Zeni, L.

Zhang, H.

Y. Dong, D. Ba, T. Jiang, D. Zhou, H. Zhang, C. Zhu, Z. Lu, H. Li, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High-Spatial-Resolution Fast BOTDA for Dynamic Strain Measurement Based on Differential Double-Pulse and Second-Order Sideband of Modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 2600407 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

A. Voskoboinik, J. Wang, B. Shamee, S. R. Nuccio, L. Zhang, M. Chitgarha, A. E. Willner, and M. Tur, “SBS-based fiber optical sensing using frequency-domain simultaneous tone interrogation,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29(11), 1729–1735 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

L. Zhou, F. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Pan, Z. Sun, J. Hua, and X. Zhang, “Distributed Strain and Vibration Sensing System Based on Phase-Sensitive OTDR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1884–1886 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Hu, X. Zhang, Y. Yao, and X. Zhao, “A BOTDA with break interrogation function over 72 km sensing length,” Opt. Express 21(1), 145–153 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, X.

Zhou, D.

D. Ba, B. Wang, D. Zhou, M. Yin, Y. Dong, H. Li, Z. Lu, and Z. Fan, “Distributed measurement of dynamic strain based on multi-slope assisted fast BOTDA,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9781–9793 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Dong, D. Ba, T. Jiang, D. Zhou, H. Zhang, C. Zhu, Z. Lu, H. Li, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High-Spatial-Resolution Fast BOTDA for Dynamic Strain Measurement Based on Differential Double-Pulse and Second-Order Sideband of Modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 2600407 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

L. Zhou, F. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Pan, Z. Sun, J. Hua, and X. Zhang, “Distributed Strain and Vibration Sensing System Based on Phase-Sensitive OTDR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1884–1886 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, C.

Y. Dong, D. Ba, T. Jiang, D. Zhou, H. Zhang, C. Zhu, Z. Lu, H. Li, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High-Spatial-Resolution Fast BOTDA for Dynamic Strain Measurement Based on Differential Double-Pulse and Second-Order Sideband of Modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 2600407 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zornoza, A.

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. Voskoboinik, J. Wang, B. Shamee, S. R. Nuccio, L. Zhang, M. Chitgarha, A. E. Willner, and M. Tur, “SBS-based fiber optical sensing using frequency-domain simultaneous tone interrogation,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29(11), 1729–1735 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

Y. Dong, D. Ba, T. Jiang, D. Zhou, H. Zhang, C. Zhu, Z. Lu, H. Li, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “High-Spatial-Resolution Fast BOTDA for Dynamic Strain Measurement Based on Differential Double-Pulse and Second-Order Sideband of Modulation,” IEEE Photonics J. 5(3), 2600407 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (5)

I. Sovran, A. Motil, and M. Tur, “Frequency-scanning BOTDA with ultimately fast acquisition speed,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(13), 1426–1429 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Cui, S. Pamukcu, W. Xiao, and M. Pervizpour, “Truly distributed fiber vibration sensor using pulse base BOTDA with wide dynamic range,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(24), 1887–1889 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Motil, O. Danon, Y. Peled, and M. Tur, “Pump-power-independent Double Slope-Assisted distributed and fast Brillouin fiber-optic sensor,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(8), 797–800 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, F. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Pan, Z. Sun, J. Hua, and X. Zhang, “Distributed Strain and Vibration Sensing System Based on Phase-Sensitive OTDR,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(17), 1884–1886 (2015).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Rev. (1)

K. Tsuji, H. Noda, and N. Onodera, “Sweep-free Brillouin optical time domain analysis using two individual laser sources,” Opt. Rev. 19(6), 381–387 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sensors (Basel) (1)

X. Bao and L. Chen, “Recent progress in distributed fiber optic sensors,” Sensors (Basel) 12(7), 8601–8639 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

L. Thévenaz, “Inelastic Scatterings and Applications to Distributed Sensing,” in Advanced Fiber Optics: Concepts and Technology (EPFL Press, 2011).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Brillouin gain spectrum (BGS) scanning procedure. (b) Strain-induced vibration measurement process for a given location z using the time-domain traces at a pump-probe frequency difference of vj.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Experimental setup of the proposed BOTDA. (b) The fiber under test (FUT) layout.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Three-dimensional vibration frequency spectra for the sensing fiber ranging from 10.37km to10.65km at the working frequency points of 10.815GHz (a), 10.831GHz (b), 10.845GHz (c) and 10.865GHz (d).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The time traces of the vibration point with two different frequencies when the work frequency points are respectively set at 10.815GHz (a), 10.831GHz(b) and 10.845GHz (b). (d) is the frequency-domain normalized power spectrum of (b).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The 3D BGS (a) and the BGS at specific locations of 8.50km, 10.00km and 10.57km (b).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The distribution of measured Brillouin frequency shift along the fiber. The inset is the BFS distribution at the heated segment.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a)Three-dimensional vibration frequency spectrum at the working frequency point of 10.831GHz and (b) the power of the 10.00Hz frequency component after FFT along the fiber. The inset of (b) is the enlarged view near the end of fiber.

Equations (3)

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P pi (Δ v i ,z)= j=1 N P p j (Δ v i ,z) ,(i=1,2,m)
ν B (t,z)= ν ¯ B (z)+δ ν B (t,z)
P B (t,z)=αP(z)G( [Δv ν B (t,z)] Δ v B )

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