Abstract

We report the first closed-loop operation of a 100 Gbps polarization-insensitive, 4-channel wavelength-tracking WDM receiver in silicon photonics platform. Error-free operation is achieved with input polarization scrambling over input wavelength change of 4.5 nm using efficient thermal tuning of Si microring demux, corresponding to greater than 60°C fluctuation in temperature.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. V. Krishnamoorthy, H. Schwetman, P. Koka, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. E. Cunningham, I. Shubin, X. Zheng, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, G. Li, J. Yao, K. Raj, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Highly-efficient thermally-tuned resonant optical filters,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19055–19063 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. X. Zheng, E. Chang, P. Amberg, I. Shubin, J. Lexau, F. Liu, H. Thacker, S. S. Djordjevic, S. Lin, Y. Luo, J. Yao, J.-H. Lee, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A high-speed, tunable silicon photonic ring modulator integrated with ultra-efficient active wavelength control,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12628–12633 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. F. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, G. Li, K. Raj, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-Gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  5. P. M. Krummrich, E.-D. Schmidt, W. Weiershausen, and A. Mattheus, “Field trial results on statistics of fast polarization changes in long haul WDM transmission systems,” in 2005 OFC/NFOEC Technical Digest. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2005), pp. 3.
    [Crossref]
  6. P. Dong, Y. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Reconfigurable four-channel polarization diversity silicon photonic WDM receiver,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2015) pp. 3–5.
    [Crossref]
  7. H. Guan, A. Gazman, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, Q. Li, R. Ding, Y. Li, X. Zhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “Polarization-insensitive 40Gb/s 4-WDM channels receiver on SOI platform,” 2015 IEEE Opt. Interconnects Conf.2, 54–55 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. De Heyn, J. De Coster, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, P. Absil, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Van Campenhout, “Polarization-insensitive 5x20Gb/s WDM Ge receiver using compact Si ring filters with collective thermal tuning,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf.(2014), paper Th4C.5.
    [Crossref]
  9. K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, T. Shiraishi, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, and K. Bergman, “Wavelength locking and thermally stabilizing microring resonators using dithering signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(3), 505–512 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  10. H. Jayatilleka, K. Murray, M. Á. Guillén-Torres, M. Caverley, R. Hu, N. A. Jaeger, L. Chrostowski, and S. Shekhar, “Wavelength tuning and stabilization of microring-based filters using silicon in-resonator photoconductive heaters,” Opt. Express 23(19), 25084–25097 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. a. Cox, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Integrated control of silicon-photonic micro-resonator wavelength via balanced homodyne locking,” 2013 Opt. Interconnects Conf. OI 2013(22), 52–53 (2013).
  12. H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Liu, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, “A 25 Gb/s, 4.4 V-swing, AC-coupled ring modulator-based WDM transmitter with wavelength stabilization in 65 nm CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits PP, 1–15 (2015).
  13. C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. L. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, and H. Jackel, “A 100-mW 4/spl times/10 Gb/s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40(12), 2667–2679 (2005).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

J. a. Cox, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Integrated control of silicon-photonic micro-resonator wavelength via balanced homodyne locking,” 2013 Opt. Interconnects Conf. OI 2013(22), 52–53 (2013).

2012 (1)

J. F. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, G. Li, K. Raj, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-Gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, H. Schwetman, P. Koka, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. L. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, and H. Jackel, “A 100-mW 4/spl times/10 Gb/s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40(12), 2667–2679 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ackert, J. J.

Amberg, P.

Baehr-Jones, T.

H. Guan, A. Gazman, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, Q. Li, R. Ding, Y. Li, X. Zhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “Polarization-insensitive 40Gb/s 4-WDM channels receiver on SOI platform,” 2015 IEEE Opt. Interconnects Conf.2, 54–55 (2015).
[Crossref]

Berger, C.

C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. L. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, and H. Jackel, “A 100-mW 4/spl times/10 Gb/s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40(12), 2667–2679 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bergman, K.

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, T. Shiraishi, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, and K. Bergman, “Wavelength locking and thermally stabilizing microring resonators using dithering signals,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(3), 505–512 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Guan, A. Gazman, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, Q. Li, R. Ding, Y. Li, X. Zhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “Polarization-insensitive 40Gb/s 4-WDM channels receiver on SOI platform,” 2015 IEEE Opt. Interconnects Conf.2, 54–55 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bona, G.-L.

C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. L. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, and H. Jackel, “A 100-mW 4/spl times/10 Gb/s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40(12), 2667–2679 (2005).
[Crossref]

Buckwalter, J. F.

J. F. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, G. Li, K. Raj, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-Gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
[Crossref]

Buhl, L. L.

P. Dong, Y. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Reconfigurable four-channel polarization diversity silicon photonic WDM receiver,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2015) pp. 3–5.
[Crossref]

Caverley, M.

Chang, E.

Chen, Y.

P. Dong, Y. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Reconfigurable four-channel polarization diversity silicon photonic WDM receiver,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2015) pp. 3–5.
[Crossref]

Chrostowski, L.

Cox, J. a.

J. a. Cox, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Integrated control of silicon-photonic micro-resonator wavelength via balanced homodyne locking,” 2013 Opt. Interconnects Conf. OI 2013(22), 52–53 (2013).

Cunningham, J. E.

Ding, R.

H. Guan, A. Gazman, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, Q. Li, R. Ding, Y. Li, X. Zhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “Polarization-insensitive 40Gb/s 4-WDM channels receiver on SOI platform,” 2015 IEEE Opt. Interconnects Conf.2, 54–55 (2015).
[Crossref]

Djordjevic, S. S.

Dong, P.

P. Dong, Y. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Reconfigurable four-channel polarization diversity silicon photonic WDM receiver,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2015) pp. 3–5.
[Crossref]

Ellinger, F.

C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. L. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, and H. Jackel, “A 100-mW 4/spl times/10 Gb/s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40(12), 2667–2679 (2005).
[Crossref]

Erni, D.

C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. L. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, and H. Jackel, “A 100-mW 4/spl times/10 Gb/s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40(12), 2667–2679 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gazman, A.

H. Guan, A. Gazman, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, Q. Li, R. Ding, Y. Li, X. Zhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “Polarization-insensitive 40Gb/s 4-WDM channels receiver on SOI platform,” 2015 IEEE Opt. Interconnects Conf.2, 54–55 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guan, H.

H. Guan, A. Gazman, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, Q. Li, R. Ding, Y. Li, X. Zhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “Polarization-insensitive 40Gb/s 4-WDM channels receiver on SOI platform,” 2015 IEEE Opt. Interconnects Conf.2, 54–55 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guillén-Torres, M. Á.

Ho, R.

Hochberg, M.

H. Guan, A. Gazman, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, Q. Li, R. Ding, Y. Li, X. Zhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “Polarization-insensitive 40Gb/s 4-WDM channels receiver on SOI platform,” 2015 IEEE Opt. Interconnects Conf.2, 54–55 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hu, R.

Jackel, H.

C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. L. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, and H. Jackel, “A 100-mW 4/spl times/10 Gb/s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40(12), 2667–2679 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jaeger, N. A.

Jayatilleka, H.

Knights, A. P.

Koka, P.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, H. Schwetman, P. Koka, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kromer, C.

C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. L. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, and H. Jackel, “A 100-mW 4/spl times/10 Gb/s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40(12), 2667–2679 (2005).
[Crossref]

Krummrich, P. M.

P. M. Krummrich, E.-D. Schmidt, W. Weiershausen, and A. Mattheus, “Field trial results on statistics of fast polarization changes in long haul WDM transmission systems,” in 2005 OFC/NFOEC Technical Digest. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2005), pp. 3.
[Crossref]

Lee, J.-H.

Lexau, J.

Li, G.

J. F. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, G. Li, K. Raj, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-Gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. E. Cunningham, I. Shubin, X. Zheng, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, G. Li, J. Yao, K. Raj, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Highly-efficient thermally-tuned resonant optical filters,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19055–19063 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Q.

H. Guan, A. Gazman, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, Q. Li, R. Ding, Y. Li, X. Zhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “Polarization-insensitive 40Gb/s 4-WDM channels receiver on SOI platform,” 2015 IEEE Opt. Interconnects Conf.2, 54–55 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

H. Guan, A. Gazman, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, Q. Li, R. Ding, Y. Li, X. Zhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “Polarization-insensitive 40Gb/s 4-WDM channels receiver on SOI platform,” 2015 IEEE Opt. Interconnects Conf.2, 54–55 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, S.

Liu, F.

Liu, Y.

H. Guan, A. Gazman, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, Q. Li, R. Ding, Y. Li, X. Zhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “Polarization-insensitive 40Gb/s 4-WDM channels receiver on SOI platform,” 2015 IEEE Opt. Interconnects Conf.2, 54–55 (2015).
[Crossref]

Logan, D. F.

Luo, Y.

Ma, Y.

H. Guan, A. Gazman, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, Q. Li, R. Ding, Y. Li, X. Zhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “Polarization-insensitive 40Gb/s 4-WDM channels receiver on SOI platform,” 2015 IEEE Opt. Interconnects Conf.2, 54–55 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mattheus, A.

P. M. Krummrich, E.-D. Schmidt, W. Weiershausen, and A. Mattheus, “Field trial results on statistics of fast polarization changes in long haul WDM transmission systems,” in 2005 OFC/NFOEC Technical Digest. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2005), pp. 3.
[Crossref]

Mekis, A.

Morf, T.

C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. L. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, and H. Jackel, “A 100-mW 4/spl times/10 Gb/s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40(12), 2667–2679 (2005).
[Crossref]

Murray, K.

Padmaraju, K.

Pinguet, T.

Raj, K.

Schmatz, M. L.

C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. L. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, and H. Jackel, “A 100-mW 4/spl times/10 Gb/s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40(12), 2667–2679 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, E.-D.

P. M. Krummrich, E.-D. Schmidt, W. Weiershausen, and A. Mattheus, “Field trial results on statistics of fast polarization changes in long haul WDM transmission systems,” in 2005 OFC/NFOEC Technical Digest. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2005), pp. 3.
[Crossref]

Schwetman, H.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, H. Schwetman, P. Koka, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shekhar, S.

Shiraishi, T.

Shubin, I.

Sialm, G.

C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. L. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, and H. Jackel, “A 100-mW 4/spl times/10 Gb/s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40(12), 2667–2679 (2005).
[Crossref]

Starbuck, A. L.

J. a. Cox, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Integrated control of silicon-photonic micro-resonator wavelength via balanced homodyne locking,” 2013 Opt. Interconnects Conf. OI 2013(22), 52–53 (2013).

Thacker, H.

Trotter, D. C.

J. a. Cox, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Integrated control of silicon-photonic micro-resonator wavelength via balanced homodyne locking,” 2013 Opt. Interconnects Conf. OI 2013(22), 52–53 (2013).

Weiershausen, W.

P. M. Krummrich, E.-D. Schmidt, W. Weiershausen, and A. Mattheus, “Field trial results on statistics of fast polarization changes in long haul WDM transmission systems,” in 2005 OFC/NFOEC Technical Digest. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2005), pp. 3.
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

Zheng, X.

Zhu, X.

H. Guan, A. Gazman, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, Q. Li, R. Ding, Y. Li, X. Zhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “Polarization-insensitive 40Gb/s 4-WDM channels receiver on SOI platform,” 2015 IEEE Opt. Interconnects Conf.2, 54–55 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 Opt. Interconnects Conf. OI (1)

J. a. Cox, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Integrated control of silicon-photonic micro-resonator wavelength via balanced homodyne locking,” 2013 Opt. Interconnects Conf. OI 2013(22), 52–53 (2013).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (2)

C. Kromer, G. Sialm, C. Berger, T. Morf, M. L. Schmatz, F. Ellinger, D. Erni, G.-L. Bona, and H. Jackel, “A 100-mW 4/spl times/10 Gb/s transceiver in 80-nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40(12), 2667–2679 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. F. Buckwalter, X. Zheng, G. Li, K. Raj, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A monolithic 25-Gb/s transceiver with photonic ring modulators and ge detectors in a 130-nm CMOS SOI process,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 47(6), 1309–1322 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Express (3)

Proc. IEEE (1)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, H. Schwetman, P. Koka, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

H. Li, Z. Xuan, A. Titriku, C. Li, K. Yu, B. Wang, A. Shafik, N. Qi, Y. Liu, R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Fiorentino, M. Hochberg, S. Palermo, and P. Y. Chiang, “A 25 Gb/s, 4.4 V-swing, AC-coupled ring modulator-based WDM transmitter with wavelength stabilization in 65 nm CMOS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits PP, 1–15 (2015).

P. M. Krummrich, E.-D. Schmidt, W. Weiershausen, and A. Mattheus, “Field trial results on statistics of fast polarization changes in long haul WDM transmission systems,” in 2005 OFC/NFOEC Technical Digest. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (IEEE, 2005), pp. 3.
[Crossref]

P. Dong, Y. Chen, and L. L. Buhl, “Reconfigurable four-channel polarization diversity silicon photonic WDM receiver,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2015) pp. 3–5.
[Crossref]

H. Guan, A. Gazman, Y. Ma, Y. Liu, Q. Li, R. Ding, Y. Li, X. Zhu, T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, and K. Bergman, “Polarization-insensitive 40Gb/s 4-WDM channels receiver on SOI platform,” 2015 IEEE Opt. Interconnects Conf.2, 54–55 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. De Heyn, J. De Coster, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, P. Absil, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, and J. Van Campenhout, “Polarization-insensitive 5x20Gb/s WDM Ge receiver using compact Si ring filters with collective thermal tuning,” in Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf.(2014), paper Th4C.5.
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the receiver. (b) As-fabricated through-port response of the two arms of the receiver. (c) Microscope image of the PSGC and receiver.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Flowchart of the control algorithm. (b) Slowed-down locking dynamic of the control-loop.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Received 25Gbps electrical eye diagrams of input with polarization scrambling. (b) BER curve showing negligible power penalty of the control loop. (c) Received 25 Gbps electrical eye diagrams under free-running and closed-loop operation with polarization scrambling.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 BER curves for all four channels of the polarization insensitive receiver over 4.5 nm variation in input wavelength.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Area and power breakdown of a 4λ x 25 Gbps SiPh receiver

Tables Icon

Table 2 Ring demux design parameters

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