Abstract

A novel glasses-free tabletop 3D display to float virtual objects on a flat tabletop surface is proposed. This method employs circularly arranged projectors and a conical rear-projection screen that serves as an anisotropic diffuser. Its practical implementation installs them beneath a round table and produces horizontal parallax in a circumferential direction without the use of high speed or a moving apparatus. Our prototype can display full-color, 5-cm-tall 3D characters on the table. Multiple viewers can share and enjoy its real-time animation from any angle of 360 degrees with appropriate perspectives as if the animated figures were present.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Takaki and S. Uchida, “Table screen 360-degree three-dimensional display using a small array of high-speed projectors,” Opt. Express 20(8), 8848–8861 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. S. Yoshida, S. Yano, and H. Ando, “Prototyping of glasses-free table style 3D display for tabletop tasks,” in Proceedings of SID 2010 Digest (2010), pp. 211–214.
  12. S. Yoshida, M. Kawakita, and H. Ando, “Light-field generation by several screen types for glasses-free tabletop 3D display,” in Proceedings of 3DTV-CON 2011 (2011), pp. 1–4.
  13. S. Yoshida, “Real-time rendering of multi-perspective images for a glasses-free tabletop 3D display,” in Proceedings of 3DTV-CON 2013 (2013), pp. 1–4.
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    [Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: a review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, T. Koike, and M. Oikawa, “Full-parallax autostereoscopic display with scalable lateral resolution using overlaid multiple projection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 494–500 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Yendo, T. Fujii, M. Tanimoto, and M. P. Tehrani, “The Seelinder: Cylindrical 3D display viewable from 360 degrees,” J. Vis. Comun. Image Res. 21(5–6), 586–594 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Horimai, D. Horimai, T. Kouketsu, P. B. Lim, and M. Inoue, “Full-color 3D display system with 360 degree horizontal viewing angle,” J. Three Dimensional Images 24(2), 7–10 (2010).

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

G. E. Favalore, “Volumetric 3D displays and application infrastructure,” Computer 38(8), 37–44 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ando, H.

S. Yoshida, S. Yano, and H. Ando, “Prototyping of glasses-free table style 3D display for tabletop tasks,” in Proceedings of SID 2010 Digest (2010), pp. 211–214.

Arai, J.

Bolas, M.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “An interactive 360° light field display,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2007 Emerging Technologies (2007), pp. 13.

Debevec, P.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “An interactive 360° light field display,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2007 Emerging Technologies (2007), pp. 13.

Dodgson, N. A.

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: a review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[Crossref]

Favalora, G. E.

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: a review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[Crossref]

Favalore, G. E.

G. E. Favalore, “Volumetric 3D displays and application infrastructure,” Computer 38(8), 37–44 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fujii, T.

T. Yendo, T. Fujii, M. Tanimoto, and M. P. Tehrani, “The Seelinder: Cylindrical 3D display viewable from 360 degrees,” J. Vis. Comun. Image Res. 21(5–6), 586–594 (2010).
[Crossref]

Holliman, N. S.

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: a review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[Crossref]

Horimai, D.

H. Horimai, D. Horimai, T. Kouketsu, P. B. Lim, and M. Inoue, “Full-color 3D display system with 360 degree horizontal viewing angle,” J. Three Dimensional Images 24(2), 7–10 (2010).

Horimai, H.

H. Horimai, D. Horimai, T. Kouketsu, P. B. Lim, and M. Inoue, “Full-color 3D display system with 360 degree horizontal viewing angle,” J. Three Dimensional Images 24(2), 7–10 (2010).

Inoue, M.

H. Horimai, D. Horimai, T. Kouketsu, P. B. Lim, and M. Inoue, “Full-color 3D display system with 360 degree horizontal viewing angle,” J. Three Dimensional Images 24(2), 7–10 (2010).

Jones, A.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “An interactive 360° light field display,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2007 Emerging Technologies (2007), pp. 13.

Kawai, H.

Koike, T.

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, T. Koike, and M. Oikawa, “Full-parallax autostereoscopic display with scalable lateral resolution using overlaid multiple projection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 494–500 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kouketsu, T.

H. Horimai, D. Horimai, T. Kouketsu, P. B. Lim, and M. Inoue, “Full-color 3D display system with 360 degree horizontal viewing angle,” J. Three Dimensional Images 24(2), 7–10 (2010).

Li, H.

Lim, P. B.

H. Horimai, D. Horimai, T. Kouketsu, P. B. Lim, and M. Inoue, “Full-color 3D display system with 360 degree horizontal viewing angle,” J. Three Dimensional Images 24(2), 7–10 (2010).

Liu, X.

McDowall, I.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “An interactive 360° light field display,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2007 Emerging Technologies (2007), pp. 13.

Oikawa, M.

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, T. Koike, and M. Oikawa, “Full-parallax autostereoscopic display with scalable lateral resolution using overlaid multiple projection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 494–500 (2010).
[Crossref]

Okano, F.

Peng, Y.

Pockett, L.

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: a review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sakai, H.

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, T. Koike, and M. Oikawa, “Full-parallax autostereoscopic display with scalable lateral resolution using overlaid multiple projection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 494–500 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shen, W.

Takaki, Y.

Tanimoto, M.

T. Yendo, T. Fujii, M. Tanimoto, and M. P. Tehrani, “The Seelinder: Cylindrical 3D display viewable from 360 degrees,” J. Vis. Comun. Image Res. 21(5–6), 586–594 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tehrani, M. P.

T. Yendo, T. Fujii, M. Tanimoto, and M. P. Tehrani, “The Seelinder: Cylindrical 3D display viewable from 360 degrees,” J. Vis. Comun. Image Res. 21(5–6), 586–594 (2010).
[Crossref]

Uchida, S.

Wang, H.

Xia, X.

Yamada, H.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “An interactive 360° light field display,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2007 Emerging Technologies (2007), pp. 13.

Yamasaki, M.

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, T. Koike, and M. Oikawa, “Full-parallax autostereoscopic display with scalable lateral resolution using overlaid multiple projection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 494–500 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yano, S.

S. Yoshida, S. Yano, and H. Ando, “Prototyping of glasses-free table style 3D display for tabletop tasks,” in Proceedings of SID 2010 Digest (2010), pp. 211–214.

Yendo, T.

T. Yendo, T. Fujii, M. Tanimoto, and M. P. Tehrani, “The Seelinder: Cylindrical 3D display viewable from 360 degrees,” J. Vis. Comun. Image Res. 21(5–6), 586–594 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, S.

S. Yoshida, S. Yano, and H. Ando, “Prototyping of glasses-free table style 3D display for tabletop tasks,” in Proceedings of SID 2010 Digest (2010), pp. 211–214.

Zheng, Z.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Computer (1)

G. E. Favalore, “Volumetric 3D displays and application infrastructure,” Computer 38(8), 37–44 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Broadcast (1)

N. S. Holliman, N. A. Dodgson, G. E. Favalora, and L. Pockett, “Three-dimensional displays: a review and applications analysis,” IEEE Trans. Broadcast 57(2), 362–371 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

M. Yamasaki, H. Sakai, T. Koike, and M. Oikawa, “Full-parallax autostereoscopic display with scalable lateral resolution using overlaid multiple projection,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 18(7), 494–500 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Three Dimensional Images (1)

H. Horimai, D. Horimai, T. Kouketsu, P. B. Lim, and M. Inoue, “Full-color 3D display system with 360 degree horizontal viewing angle,” J. Three Dimensional Images 24(2), 7–10 (2010).

J. Vis. Comun. Image Res. (1)

T. Yendo, T. Fujii, M. Tanimoto, and M. P. Tehrani, “The Seelinder: Cylindrical 3D display viewable from 360 degrees,” J. Vis. Comun. Image Res. 21(5–6), 586–594 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Other (6)

S. Yoshida, S. Yano, and H. Ando, “Prototyping of glasses-free table style 3D display for tabletop tasks,” in Proceedings of SID 2010 Digest (2010), pp. 211–214.

S. Yoshida, M. Kawakita, and H. Ando, “Light-field generation by several screen types for glasses-free tabletop 3D display,” in Proceedings of 3DTV-CON 2011 (2011), pp. 1–4.

S. Yoshida, “Real-time rendering of multi-perspective images for a glasses-free tabletop 3D display,” in Proceedings of 3DTV-CON 2013 (2013), pp. 1–4.

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “An interactive 360° light field display,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2007 Emerging Technologies (2007), pp. 13.

Y. Kitamura, T. Konishi, S. Yamamoto, and F. Kishino, “Interactive stereoscopic display for three or more users,” in Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2001 (2001), pp. 231–240.

G. E. Favalore and O. S. Cossairt, “Theta-parallax-only (TPO) displays,” United States patent 7,364,300 (2008).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Generating tabletop 3D images using a conical screen and projector array.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Exterior of the latest prototype named fVisiOn (left).The tabletop area can be used as an ordinary round table of 90 cm diameter and 70 cm height. It provides virtual 3D images in the center of the table (right).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Characteristics of horizontal angular diffusion of prototype screens.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Anisotropic diffusion of screen.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Circularly arranged projectors and screen (left). The screen is covered by a plate. A 3D image has appeared (right).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Overview of prototype projector module (left). Single-module setting to produce a 30° viewing area (middle) and side view of two-module setting for a portable demonstration (right).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Geometrical path of each ray for reproducing 3D images.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Example of computed projection image: assumed 3D scene (left), ordinary single-perspective image photographed at Pe (middle), and multi-perspective image to be projected from Pp (right).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Calibration of rays (24 projectors): hardware-only alignment (left) and after software calibration (right).
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Reproduced virtual 3D scene on the tabletop surface.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Mixed-reality environment that consists from virtual and real objects.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Average and standard deviation of color temperature and intensity of illumination before and after calibration. Target values were 6500 K and 37 lx for after calibration.

Metrics