Abstract

A concept to obtain a measure of the photon flux accepted by a solid sample in single-shot transmission experiments with extreme ultraviolet (XUV) or soft x-ray radiation is demonstrated. Shallow, continuously distorted gratings are used to diffract a constant fraction of the incident photons onto an extended area of a CCD detector. The signal can be tailored to fit the dynamic range of the detector, i.e. matching the scattered intensity of the studied structure of interest. Furthermore, composite grating designs that also allow for the measurement of the spatial photon distribution on the sample are demonstrated. The gratings are directly fabricated by focused ion-beam (FIB) lithography into a Si3N4 membrane that supports the actual sample layer. This allows for rapid fabrication of hundreds of samples, making the concept suitable for systematic studies in destructive single-shot measurements at free-electron laser (FEL) sources. We demonstrate relative photon flux measurements in magnetic scattering experiments with synchrotron and FEL radiation at 59.6 eV photon energy.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (2)

T. Katayama, S. Owada, T. Togashi, K. Ogawa, P. Karvinen, I. Vartiainen, A. Eronen, C. David, T. Sato, K. Nakajima, Y. Joti, H. Yumoto, H. Ohashi, and M. Yabashi, “A beam branching method for timing and spectral characterization of hard x-ray free-electron lasers,” Struct. Dyn. 3, 034301 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23, 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

M. Makita, P. Karvinen, D. Zhu, P. N. Juranic, J. Grünert, S. Cartier, J. H. Jungmann-Smith, H. T. Lemke, A. Mozzanica, S. Nelson, L. Patthey, M. Sikorski, S. Song, Y. Feng, and C. David, “High-resolution single-shot spectral monitoring of hard x-ray free-electron laser radiation,” Optica 2, 912 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Palutke, N. C. Gerken, K. Mertens, S. Klumpp, A. Mozzanica, B. Schmitt, C. Wunderer, H. Graafsma, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, W. Wurth, and M. Martins, “Spectrometer for shot-to-shot photon energy characterization in the multi-bunch mode of the free electron laser at Hamburg,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 113107 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Stöhr and A. Scherz, “Creation of x-ray transparency of matter by stimulated elastic forward scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 107402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yoneda, Y. Inubushi, K. Nagamine, Y. Michine, H. Ohashi, H. Yumoto, K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, H. Kitamura, T. Katayama, T. Ishikawa, and M. Yabashi, “Atomic inner-shell laser at 1.5-ångström wavelength pumped by an x-ray free-electron laser,” Nature 524, 446–449 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bencivenga, R. Cucini, F. Capotondi, A. Battistoni, R. Mincigrucci, E. Giangrisostomi, A. Gessini, M. Manfredda, I. P. Nikolov, E. Pedersoli, E. Principi, C. Svetina, P. Parisse, F. Casolari, M. B. Danailov, M. Kiskinova, and C. Masciovecchio, “Four-wave mixing experiments with extreme ultraviolet transient gratings,” Nature 520, 205–208 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

M. Beye, S. Schreck, F. Sorgenfrei, C. Trabant, N. Pontius, C. Schüßler-Langeheine, W. Wurth, and A. Föhlisch, “Stimulated x-ray emission for materials science,” Nature 501, 191–194 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Müller, C. Gutt, B. Pfau, S. Schaffert, J. Geilhufe, F. Büttner, J. Mohanty, S. Flewett, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, H. Redlin, A. Al-Shemmary, M. Hille, A. Kobs, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, B. Ziaja, N. Medvedev, S. K. Son, R. Thiele, R. Santra, B. Vodungbo, J. Lüning, S. Eisebitt, and G. Grübel, “Breakdown of the x-ray resonant magnetic scattering signal during intense pulses of extreme ultraviolet free-electron-laser radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 1–5 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. B. Kortright, “Resonant soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet magnetic scattering in nanostructured magnetic materials: fundamentals and directions,” J. Electron Spectros. Relat. Phenomena 189, 178–186 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

C. Gutt, S. Streit-Nierobisch, L.-M. Stadler, B. Pfau, C. M. Günther, R. Könnecke, R. Frömter, A. Kobs, D. Stickler, H. P. Oepen, R. R. Fäustlin, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, E. Weckert, I. a. Vartanyants, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, T. Wilhein, S. Eisebitt, and G. Grübel, “Single-pulse resonant magnetic scattering using a soft x-ray free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 2–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. F. Ziegler, M. D. Ziegler, and J. P. Biersack, “SRIM - the stopping and range of ions in matter (2010),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B Beam Interact. Mater. Atoms 268, 1818–1823 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

K. Tiedtke, J. Feldhaus, U. Hahn, U. Jastrow, T. Nunez, T. Tschentscher, S. V. Bobashev, A. A. Sorokin, J. B. Hastings, S. Möller, L. Cibik, A. Gottwald, A. Hoehl, U. Kroth, M. Krumrey, H. Schöppe, G. Ulm, and M. Richter, “Gas detectors for x-ray lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094511 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

I. V. Schweigert and S. Mukamel, “Coherent ultrafast core-hole correlation spectroscopy: x-ray analogues of multidimensional NMR,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 163001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Hellwig, A. Berger, J. B. Kortright, and E. E. Fullerton, “Domain structure and magnetization reversal of antiferromagnetically coupled perpendicular anisotropy films,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 319, 13–55 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

S. Valencia, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, H. C. Mertins, P. M. Oppeneer, D. Abramsohn, and C. M. Schneider, “Faraday rotation spectra at shallow core levels: 3p edges of Fe, Co, and Ni,” New J. Phys. 8, 1–11 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

B. Lengeler, “Coherence in X-ray physics,” Naturwissenschaften 88, 249–260 (2001).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

Abramsohn, D.

S. Valencia, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, H. C. Mertins, P. M. Oppeneer, D. Abramsohn, and C. M. Schneider, “Faraday rotation spectra at shallow core levels: 3p edges of Fe, Co, and Ni,” New J. Phys. 8, 1–11 (2006).
[Crossref]

Al-Shemmary, A.

L. Müller, C. Gutt, B. Pfau, S. Schaffert, J. Geilhufe, F. Büttner, J. Mohanty, S. Flewett, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, H. Redlin, A. Al-Shemmary, M. Hille, A. Kobs, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, B. Ziaja, N. Medvedev, S. K. Son, R. Thiele, R. Santra, B. Vodungbo, J. Lüning, S. Eisebitt, and G. Grübel, “Breakdown of the x-ray resonant magnetic scattering signal during intense pulses of extreme ultraviolet free-electron-laser radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 1–5 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bachrach, R. Z.

Bajt, S.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Barty, A.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Battistoni, A.

F. Bencivenga, R. Cucini, F. Capotondi, A. Battistoni, R. Mincigrucci, E. Giangrisostomi, A. Gessini, M. Manfredda, I. P. Nikolov, E. Pedersoli, E. Principi, C. Svetina, P. Parisse, F. Casolari, M. B. Danailov, M. Kiskinova, and C. Masciovecchio, “Four-wave mixing experiments with extreme ultraviolet transient gratings,” Nature 520, 205–208 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bencivenga, F.

F. Bencivenga, R. Cucini, F. Capotondi, A. Battistoni, R. Mincigrucci, E. Giangrisostomi, A. Gessini, M. Manfredda, I. P. Nikolov, E. Pedersoli, E. Principi, C. Svetina, P. Parisse, F. Casolari, M. B. Danailov, M. Kiskinova, and C. Masciovecchio, “Four-wave mixing experiments with extreme ultraviolet transient gratings,” Nature 520, 205–208 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benner, W. H.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Berger, A.

O. Hellwig, A. Berger, J. B. Kortright, and E. E. Fullerton, “Domain structure and magnetization reversal of antiferromagnetically coupled perpendicular anisotropy films,” J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 319, 13–55 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bergh, M.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Beye, M.

M. Beye, S. Schreck, F. Sorgenfrei, C. Trabant, N. Pontius, C. Schüßler-Langeheine, W. Wurth, and A. Föhlisch, “Stimulated x-ray emission for materials science,” Nature 501, 191–194 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biersack, J. P.

J. F. Ziegler, M. D. Ziegler, and J. P. Biersack, “SRIM - the stopping and range of ions in matter (2010),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B Beam Interact. Mater. Atoms 268, 1818–1823 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bischoff, P.

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23, 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bobashev, S. V.

K. Tiedtke, J. Feldhaus, U. Hahn, U. Jastrow, T. Nunez, T. Tschentscher, S. V. Bobashev, A. A. Sorokin, J. B. Hastings, S. Möller, L. Cibik, A. Gottwald, A. Hoehl, U. Kroth, M. Krumrey, H. Schöppe, G. Ulm, and M. Richter, “Gas detectors for x-ray lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094511 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bogan, M. J.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bostedt, C.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Boutet, S.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Burmeister, F.

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Manfredda, M.

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Martins, M.

S. Palutke, N. C. Gerken, K. Mertens, S. Klumpp, A. Mozzanica, B. Schmitt, C. Wunderer, H. Graafsma, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, W. Wurth, and M. Martins, “Spectrometer for shot-to-shot photon energy characterization in the multi-bunch mode of the free electron laser at Hamburg,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 113107 (2015).
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F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23, 67–77 (2016).
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S. Palutke, N. C. Gerken, K. Mertens, S. Klumpp, A. Mozzanica, B. Schmitt, C. Wunderer, H. Graafsma, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, W. Wurth, and M. Martins, “Spectrometer for shot-to-shot photon energy characterization in the multi-bunch mode of the free electron laser at Hamburg,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 113107 (2015).
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S. Palutke, N. C. Gerken, K. Mertens, S. Klumpp, A. Mozzanica, B. Schmitt, C. Wunderer, H. Graafsma, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, W. Wurth, and M. Martins, “Spectrometer for shot-to-shot photon energy characterization in the multi-bunch mode of the free electron laser at Hamburg,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 113107 (2015).
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H. Yoneda, Y. Inubushi, K. Nagamine, Y. Michine, H. Ohashi, H. Yumoto, K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, H. Kitamura, T. Katayama, T. Ishikawa, and M. Yabashi, “Atomic inner-shell laser at 1.5-ångström wavelength pumped by an x-ray free-electron laser,” Nature 524, 446–449 (2015).
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H. Yoneda, Y. Inubushi, K. Nagamine, Y. Michine, H. Ohashi, H. Yumoto, K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, H. Kitamura, T. Katayama, T. Ishikawa, and M. Yabashi, “Atomic inner-shell laser at 1.5-ångström wavelength pumped by an x-ray free-electron laser,” Nature 524, 446–449 (2015).
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F. Bencivenga, R. Cucini, F. Capotondi, A. Battistoni, R. Mincigrucci, E. Giangrisostomi, A. Gessini, M. Manfredda, I. P. Nikolov, E. Pedersoli, E. Principi, C. Svetina, P. Parisse, F. Casolari, M. B. Danailov, M. Kiskinova, and C. Masciovecchio, “Four-wave mixing experiments with extreme ultraviolet transient gratings,” Nature 520, 205–208 (2015).
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L. Müller, C. Gutt, B. Pfau, S. Schaffert, J. Geilhufe, F. Büttner, J. Mohanty, S. Flewett, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, H. Redlin, A. Al-Shemmary, M. Hille, A. Kobs, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, B. Ziaja, N. Medvedev, S. K. Son, R. Thiele, R. Santra, B. Vodungbo, J. Lüning, S. Eisebitt, and G. Grübel, “Breakdown of the x-ray resonant magnetic scattering signal during intense pulses of extreme ultraviolet free-electron-laser radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 1–5 (2013).
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S. Palutke, N. C. Gerken, K. Mertens, S. Klumpp, A. Mozzanica, B. Schmitt, C. Wunderer, H. Graafsma, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, W. Wurth, and M. Martins, “Spectrometer for shot-to-shot photon energy characterization in the multi-bunch mode of the free electron laser at Hamburg,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 113107 (2015).
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Müller, L.

L. Müller, C. Gutt, B. Pfau, S. Schaffert, J. Geilhufe, F. Büttner, J. Mohanty, S. Flewett, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, H. Redlin, A. Al-Shemmary, M. Hille, A. Kobs, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, B. Ziaja, N. Medvedev, S. K. Son, R. Thiele, R. Santra, B. Vodungbo, J. Lüning, S. Eisebitt, and G. Grübel, “Breakdown of the x-ray resonant magnetic scattering signal during intense pulses of extreme ultraviolet free-electron-laser radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 1–5 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nagamine, K.

H. Yoneda, Y. Inubushi, K. Nagamine, Y. Michine, H. Ohashi, H. Yumoto, K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, H. Kitamura, T. Katayama, T. Ishikawa, and M. Yabashi, “Atomic inner-shell laser at 1.5-ångström wavelength pumped by an x-ray free-electron laser,” Nature 524, 446–449 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakajima, K.

T. Katayama, S. Owada, T. Togashi, K. Ogawa, P. Karvinen, I. Vartiainen, A. Eronen, C. David, T. Sato, K. Nakajima, Y. Joti, H. Yumoto, H. Ohashi, and M. Yabashi, “A beam branching method for timing and spectral characterization of hard x-ray free-electron lasers,” Struct. Dyn. 3, 034301 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, S.

Nikolov, I. P.

F. Bencivenga, R. Cucini, F. Capotondi, A. Battistoni, R. Mincigrucci, E. Giangrisostomi, A. Gessini, M. Manfredda, I. P. Nikolov, E. Pedersoli, E. Principi, C. Svetina, P. Parisse, F. Casolari, M. B. Danailov, M. Kiskinova, and C. Masciovecchio, “Four-wave mixing experiments with extreme ultraviolet transient gratings,” Nature 520, 205–208 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nunez, T.

K. Tiedtke, J. Feldhaus, U. Hahn, U. Jastrow, T. Nunez, T. Tschentscher, S. V. Bobashev, A. A. Sorokin, J. B. Hastings, S. Möller, L. Cibik, A. Gottwald, A. Hoehl, U. Kroth, M. Krumrey, H. Schöppe, G. Ulm, and M. Richter, “Gas detectors for x-ray lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094511 (2008).
[Crossref]

Oepen, H. P.

L. Müller, C. Gutt, B. Pfau, S. Schaffert, J. Geilhufe, F. Büttner, J. Mohanty, S. Flewett, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, H. Redlin, A. Al-Shemmary, M. Hille, A. Kobs, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, B. Ziaja, N. Medvedev, S. K. Son, R. Thiele, R. Santra, B. Vodungbo, J. Lüning, S. Eisebitt, and G. Grübel, “Breakdown of the x-ray resonant magnetic scattering signal during intense pulses of extreme ultraviolet free-electron-laser radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 1–5 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Gutt, S. Streit-Nierobisch, L.-M. Stadler, B. Pfau, C. M. Günther, R. Könnecke, R. Frömter, A. Kobs, D. Stickler, H. P. Oepen, R. R. Fäustlin, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, E. Weckert, I. a. Vartanyants, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, T. Wilhein, S. Eisebitt, and G. Grübel, “Single-pulse resonant magnetic scattering using a soft x-ray free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 2–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ogawa, K.

T. Katayama, S. Owada, T. Togashi, K. Ogawa, P. Karvinen, I. Vartiainen, A. Eronen, C. David, T. Sato, K. Nakajima, Y. Joti, H. Yumoto, H. Ohashi, and M. Yabashi, “A beam branching method for timing and spectral characterization of hard x-ray free-electron lasers,” Struct. Dyn. 3, 034301 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohashi, H.

T. Katayama, S. Owada, T. Togashi, K. Ogawa, P. Karvinen, I. Vartiainen, A. Eronen, C. David, T. Sato, K. Nakajima, Y. Joti, H. Yumoto, H. Ohashi, and M. Yabashi, “A beam branching method for timing and spectral characterization of hard x-ray free-electron lasers,” Struct. Dyn. 3, 034301 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yoneda, Y. Inubushi, K. Nagamine, Y. Michine, H. Ohashi, H. Yumoto, K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, H. Kitamura, T. Katayama, T. Ishikawa, and M. Yabashi, “Atomic inner-shell laser at 1.5-ångström wavelength pumped by an x-ray free-electron laser,” Nature 524, 446–449 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oppeneer, P. M.

S. Valencia, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, H. C. Mertins, P. M. Oppeneer, D. Abramsohn, and C. M. Schneider, “Faraday rotation spectra at shallow core levels: 3p edges of Fe, Co, and Ni,” New J. Phys. 8, 1–11 (2006).
[Crossref]

Owada, S.

T. Katayama, S. Owada, T. Togashi, K. Ogawa, P. Karvinen, I. Vartiainen, A. Eronen, C. David, T. Sato, K. Nakajima, Y. Joti, H. Yumoto, H. Ohashi, and M. Yabashi, “A beam branching method for timing and spectral characterization of hard x-ray free-electron lasers,” Struct. Dyn. 3, 034301 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palutke, S.

S. Palutke, N. C. Gerken, K. Mertens, S. Klumpp, A. Mozzanica, B. Schmitt, C. Wunderer, H. Graafsma, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, W. Wurth, and M. Martins, “Spectrometer for shot-to-shot photon energy characterization in the multi-bunch mode of the free electron laser at Hamburg,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 113107 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parisse, P.

F. Bencivenga, R. Cucini, F. Capotondi, A. Battistoni, R. Mincigrucci, E. Giangrisostomi, A. Gessini, M. Manfredda, I. P. Nikolov, E. Pedersoli, E. Principi, C. Svetina, P. Parisse, F. Casolari, M. B. Danailov, M. Kiskinova, and C. Masciovecchio, “Four-wave mixing experiments with extreme ultraviolet transient gratings,” Nature 520, 205–208 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patthey, L.

Pedersoli, E.

F. Bencivenga, R. Cucini, F. Capotondi, A. Battistoni, R. Mincigrucci, E. Giangrisostomi, A. Gessini, M. Manfredda, I. P. Nikolov, E. Pedersoli, E. Principi, C. Svetina, P. Parisse, F. Casolari, M. B. Danailov, M. Kiskinova, and C. Masciovecchio, “Four-wave mixing experiments with extreme ultraviolet transient gratings,” Nature 520, 205–208 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfau, B.

L. Müller, C. Gutt, B. Pfau, S. Schaffert, J. Geilhufe, F. Büttner, J. Mohanty, S. Flewett, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, H. Redlin, A. Al-Shemmary, M. Hille, A. Kobs, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, B. Ziaja, N. Medvedev, S. K. Son, R. Thiele, R. Santra, B. Vodungbo, J. Lüning, S. Eisebitt, and G. Grübel, “Breakdown of the x-ray resonant magnetic scattering signal during intense pulses of extreme ultraviolet free-electron-laser radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 1–5 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Gutt, S. Streit-Nierobisch, L.-M. Stadler, B. Pfau, C. M. Günther, R. Könnecke, R. Frömter, A. Kobs, D. Stickler, H. P. Oepen, R. R. Fäustlin, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, E. Weckert, I. a. Vartanyants, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, T. Wilhein, S. Eisebitt, and G. Grübel, “Single-pulse resonant magnetic scattering using a soft x-ray free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 2–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

Plönjes, E.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pontius, N.

M. Beye, S. Schreck, F. Sorgenfrei, C. Trabant, N. Pontius, C. Schüßler-Langeheine, W. Wurth, and A. Föhlisch, “Stimulated x-ray emission for materials science,” Nature 501, 191–194 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Principi, E.

F. Bencivenga, R. Cucini, F. Capotondi, A. Battistoni, R. Mincigrucci, E. Giangrisostomi, A. Gessini, M. Manfredda, I. P. Nikolov, E. Pedersoli, E. Principi, C. Svetina, P. Parisse, F. Casolari, M. B. Danailov, M. Kiskinova, and C. Masciovecchio, “Four-wave mixing experiments with extreme ultraviolet transient gratings,” Nature 520, 205–208 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Redlin, H.

L. Müller, C. Gutt, B. Pfau, S. Schaffert, J. Geilhufe, F. Büttner, J. Mohanty, S. Flewett, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, H. Redlin, A. Al-Shemmary, M. Hille, A. Kobs, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, B. Ziaja, N. Medvedev, S. K. Son, R. Thiele, R. Santra, B. Vodungbo, J. Lüning, S. Eisebitt, and G. Grübel, “Breakdown of the x-ray resonant magnetic scattering signal during intense pulses of extreme ultraviolet free-electron-laser radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 1–5 (2013).
[Crossref]

Richter, M.

K. Tiedtke, J. Feldhaus, U. Hahn, U. Jastrow, T. Nunez, T. Tschentscher, S. V. Bobashev, A. A. Sorokin, J. B. Hastings, S. Möller, L. Cibik, A. Gottwald, A. Hoehl, U. Kroth, M. Krumrey, H. Schöppe, G. Ulm, and M. Richter, “Gas detectors for x-ray lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094511 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rosenhahn, A.

C. Gutt, S. Streit-Nierobisch, L.-M. Stadler, B. Pfau, C. M. Günther, R. Könnecke, R. Frömter, A. Kobs, D. Stickler, H. P. Oepen, R. R. Fäustlin, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, E. Weckert, I. a. Vartanyants, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, T. Wilhein, S. Eisebitt, and G. Grübel, “Single-pulse resonant magnetic scattering using a soft x-ray free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 2–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

Santra, R.

L. Müller, C. Gutt, B. Pfau, S. Schaffert, J. Geilhufe, F. Büttner, J. Mohanty, S. Flewett, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, H. Redlin, A. Al-Shemmary, M. Hille, A. Kobs, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, B. Ziaja, N. Medvedev, S. K. Son, R. Thiele, R. Santra, B. Vodungbo, J. Lüning, S. Eisebitt, and G. Grübel, “Breakdown of the x-ray resonant magnetic scattering signal during intense pulses of extreme ultraviolet free-electron-laser radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 1–5 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sato, T.

T. Katayama, S. Owada, T. Togashi, K. Ogawa, P. Karvinen, I. Vartiainen, A. Eronen, C. David, T. Sato, K. Nakajima, Y. Joti, H. Yumoto, H. Ohashi, and M. Yabashi, “A beam branching method for timing and spectral characterization of hard x-ray free-electron lasers,” Struct. Dyn. 3, 034301 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schäfers, F.

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23, 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schaffert, S.

L. Müller, C. Gutt, B. Pfau, S. Schaffert, J. Geilhufe, F. Büttner, J. Mohanty, S. Flewett, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, H. Redlin, A. Al-Shemmary, M. Hille, A. Kobs, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, B. Ziaja, N. Medvedev, S. K. Son, R. Thiele, R. Santra, B. Vodungbo, J. Lüning, S. Eisebitt, and G. Grübel, “Breakdown of the x-ray resonant magnetic scattering signal during intense pulses of extreme ultraviolet free-electron-laser radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 1–5 (2013).
[Crossref]

Scherz, A.

J. Stöhr and A. Scherz, “Creation of x-ray transparency of matter by stimulated elastic forward scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 107402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, J.-S.

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23, 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref]

Schmitt, B.

S. Palutke, N. C. Gerken, K. Mertens, S. Klumpp, A. Mozzanica, B. Schmitt, C. Wunderer, H. Graafsma, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, W. Wurth, and M. Martins, “Spectrometer for shot-to-shot photon energy characterization in the multi-bunch mode of the free electron laser at Hamburg,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 113107 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schneider, C. M.

S. Valencia, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, H. C. Mertins, P. M. Oppeneer, D. Abramsohn, and C. M. Schneider, “Faraday rotation spectra at shallow core levels: 3p edges of Fe, Co, and Ni,” New J. Phys. 8, 1–11 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schneider, J. R.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schnopper, H. W.

Schöppe, H.

K. Tiedtke, J. Feldhaus, U. Hahn, U. Jastrow, T. Nunez, T. Tschentscher, S. V. Bobashev, A. A. Sorokin, J. B. Hastings, S. Möller, L. Cibik, A. Gottwald, A. Hoehl, U. Kroth, M. Krumrey, H. Schöppe, G. Ulm, and M. Richter, “Gas detectors for x-ray lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094511 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schreck, S.

M. Beye, S. Schreck, F. Sorgenfrei, C. Trabant, N. Pontius, C. Schüßler-Langeheine, W. Wurth, and A. Föhlisch, “Stimulated x-ray emission for materials science,” Nature 501, 191–194 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schüßler-Langeheine, C.

M. Beye, S. Schreck, F. Sorgenfrei, C. Trabant, N. Pontius, C. Schüßler-Langeheine, W. Wurth, and A. Föhlisch, “Stimulated x-ray emission for materials science,” Nature 501, 191–194 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schweigert, I. V.

I. V. Schweigert and S. Mukamel, “Coherent ultrafast core-hole correlation spectroscopy: x-ray analogues of multidimensional NMR,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 163001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seibert, M. M.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Senf, F.

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23, 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shapiro, D. A.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Siewert, F.

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23, 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sikorski, M.

Sokolov, A.

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23, 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref]

Son, S. K.

L. Müller, C. Gutt, B. Pfau, S. Schaffert, J. Geilhufe, F. Büttner, J. Mohanty, S. Flewett, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, H. Redlin, A. Al-Shemmary, M. Hille, A. Kobs, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, B. Ziaja, N. Medvedev, S. K. Son, R. Thiele, R. Santra, B. Vodungbo, J. Lüning, S. Eisebitt, and G. Grübel, “Breakdown of the x-ray resonant magnetic scattering signal during intense pulses of extreme ultraviolet free-electron-laser radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 1–5 (2013).
[Crossref]

Song, S.

Sorgenfrei, F.

M. Beye, S. Schreck, F. Sorgenfrei, C. Trabant, N. Pontius, C. Schüßler-Langeheine, W. Wurth, and A. Föhlisch, “Stimulated x-ray emission for materials science,” Nature 501, 191–194 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sorokin, A. A.

K. Tiedtke, J. Feldhaus, U. Hahn, U. Jastrow, T. Nunez, T. Tschentscher, S. V. Bobashev, A. A. Sorokin, J. B. Hastings, S. Möller, L. Cibik, A. Gottwald, A. Hoehl, U. Kroth, M. Krumrey, H. Schöppe, G. Ulm, and M. Richter, “Gas detectors for x-ray lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094511 (2008).
[Crossref]

Spiller, E.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stadler, L.-M.

C. Gutt, S. Streit-Nierobisch, L.-M. Stadler, B. Pfau, C. M. Günther, R. Könnecke, R. Frömter, A. Kobs, D. Stickler, H. P. Oepen, R. R. Fäustlin, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, E. Weckert, I. a. Vartanyants, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, T. Wilhein, S. Eisebitt, and G. Grübel, “Single-pulse resonant magnetic scattering using a soft x-ray free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 2–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stickler, D.

C. Gutt, S. Streit-Nierobisch, L.-M. Stadler, B. Pfau, C. M. Günther, R. Könnecke, R. Frömter, A. Kobs, D. Stickler, H. P. Oepen, R. R. Fäustlin, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, E. Weckert, I. a. Vartanyants, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, T. Wilhein, S. Eisebitt, and G. Grübel, “Single-pulse resonant magnetic scattering using a soft x-ray free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 2–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

Stöhr, J.

J. Stöhr and A. Scherz, “Creation of x-ray transparency of matter by stimulated elastic forward scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 107402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Streit-Nierobisch, S.

C. Gutt, S. Streit-Nierobisch, L.-M. Stadler, B. Pfau, C. M. Günther, R. Könnecke, R. Frömter, A. Kobs, D. Stickler, H. P. Oepen, R. R. Fäustlin, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, E. Weckert, I. a. Vartanyants, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, T. Wilhein, S. Eisebitt, and G. Grübel, “Single-pulse resonant magnetic scattering using a soft x-ray free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 2–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

Svetina, C.

F. Bencivenga, R. Cucini, F. Capotondi, A. Battistoni, R. Mincigrucci, E. Giangrisostomi, A. Gessini, M. Manfredda, I. P. Nikolov, E. Pedersoli, E. Principi, C. Svetina, P. Parisse, F. Casolari, M. B. Danailov, M. Kiskinova, and C. Masciovecchio, “Four-wave mixing experiments with extreme ultraviolet transient gratings,” Nature 520, 205–208 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Szöke, A.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Thiele, R.

L. Müller, C. Gutt, B. Pfau, S. Schaffert, J. Geilhufe, F. Büttner, J. Mohanty, S. Flewett, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, H. Redlin, A. Al-Shemmary, M. Hille, A. Kobs, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, B. Ziaja, N. Medvedev, S. K. Son, R. Thiele, R. Santra, B. Vodungbo, J. Lüning, S. Eisebitt, and G. Grübel, “Breakdown of the x-ray resonant magnetic scattering signal during intense pulses of extreme ultraviolet free-electron-laser radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 1–5 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tiedtke, K.

K. Tiedtke, J. Feldhaus, U. Hahn, U. Jastrow, T. Nunez, T. Tschentscher, S. V. Bobashev, A. A. Sorokin, J. B. Hastings, S. Möller, L. Cibik, A. Gottwald, A. Hoehl, U. Kroth, M. Krumrey, H. Schöppe, G. Ulm, and M. Richter, “Gas detectors for x-ray lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094511 (2008).
[Crossref]

Timneanu, N.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Togashi, T.

T. Katayama, S. Owada, T. Togashi, K. Ogawa, P. Karvinen, I. Vartiainen, A. Eronen, C. David, T. Sato, K. Nakajima, Y. Joti, H. Yumoto, H. Ohashi, and M. Yabashi, “A beam branching method for timing and spectral characterization of hard x-ray free-electron lasers,” Struct. Dyn. 3, 034301 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trabant, C.

M. Beye, S. Schreck, F. Sorgenfrei, C. Trabant, N. Pontius, C. Schüßler-Langeheine, W. Wurth, and A. Föhlisch, “Stimulated x-ray emission for materials science,” Nature 501, 191–194 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Treusch, R.

L. Müller, C. Gutt, B. Pfau, S. Schaffert, J. Geilhufe, F. Büttner, J. Mohanty, S. Flewett, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, H. Redlin, A. Al-Shemmary, M. Hille, A. Kobs, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, B. Ziaja, N. Medvedev, S. K. Son, R. Thiele, R. Santra, B. Vodungbo, J. Lüning, S. Eisebitt, and G. Grübel, “Breakdown of the x-ray resonant magnetic scattering signal during intense pulses of extreme ultraviolet free-electron-laser radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 1–5 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Gutt, S. Streit-Nierobisch, L.-M. Stadler, B. Pfau, C. M. Günther, R. Könnecke, R. Frömter, A. Kobs, D. Stickler, H. P. Oepen, R. R. Fäustlin, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, E. Weckert, I. a. Vartanyants, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, T. Wilhein, S. Eisebitt, and G. Grübel, “Single-pulse resonant magnetic scattering using a soft x-ray free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 2–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tschentscher, T.

K. Tiedtke, J. Feldhaus, U. Hahn, U. Jastrow, T. Nunez, T. Tschentscher, S. V. Bobashev, A. A. Sorokin, J. B. Hastings, S. Möller, L. Cibik, A. Gottwald, A. Hoehl, U. Kroth, M. Krumrey, H. Schöppe, G. Ulm, and M. Richter, “Gas detectors for x-ray lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094511 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ulm, G.

K. Tiedtke, J. Feldhaus, U. Hahn, U. Jastrow, T. Nunez, T. Tschentscher, S. V. Bobashev, A. A. Sorokin, J. B. Hastings, S. Möller, L. Cibik, A. Gottwald, A. Hoehl, U. Kroth, M. Krumrey, H. Schöppe, G. Ulm, and M. Richter, “Gas detectors for x-ray lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094511 (2008).
[Crossref]

Valencia, S.

S. Valencia, A. Gaupp, W. Gudat, H. C. Mertins, P. M. Oppeneer, D. Abramsohn, and C. M. Schneider, “Faraday rotation spectra at shallow core levels: 3p edges of Fe, Co, and Ni,” New J. Phys. 8, 1–11 (2006).
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H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Van Speybroeck, L. P.

Vartanyants, I. a.

C. Gutt, S. Streit-Nierobisch, L.-M. Stadler, B. Pfau, C. M. Günther, R. Könnecke, R. Frömter, A. Kobs, D. Stickler, H. P. Oepen, R. R. Fäustlin, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, E. Weckert, I. a. Vartanyants, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, T. Wilhein, S. Eisebitt, and G. Grübel, “Single-pulse resonant magnetic scattering using a soft x-ray free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 2–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

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T. Katayama, S. Owada, T. Togashi, K. Ogawa, P. Karvinen, I. Vartiainen, A. Eronen, C. David, T. Sato, K. Nakajima, Y. Joti, H. Yumoto, H. Ohashi, and M. Yabashi, “A beam branching method for timing and spectral characterization of hard x-ray free-electron lasers,” Struct. Dyn. 3, 034301 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vodungbo, B.

L. Müller, C. Gutt, B. Pfau, S. Schaffert, J. Geilhufe, F. Büttner, J. Mohanty, S. Flewett, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, H. Redlin, A. Al-Shemmary, M. Hille, A. Kobs, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, B. Ziaja, N. Medvedev, S. K. Son, R. Thiele, R. Santra, B. Vodungbo, J. Lüning, S. Eisebitt, and G. Grübel, “Breakdown of the x-ray resonant magnetic scattering signal during intense pulses of extreme ultraviolet free-electron-laser radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 1–5 (2013).
[Crossref]

Weckert, E.

C. Gutt, S. Streit-Nierobisch, L.-M. Stadler, B. Pfau, C. M. Günther, R. Könnecke, R. Frömter, A. Kobs, D. Stickler, H. P. Oepen, R. R. Fäustlin, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, E. Weckert, I. a. Vartanyants, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, T. Wilhein, S. Eisebitt, and G. Grübel, “Single-pulse resonant magnetic scattering using a soft x-ray free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 2–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wilhein, T.

C. Gutt, S. Streit-Nierobisch, L.-M. Stadler, B. Pfau, C. M. Günther, R. Könnecke, R. Frömter, A. Kobs, D. Stickler, H. P. Oepen, R. R. Fäustlin, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, E. Weckert, I. a. Vartanyants, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, T. Wilhein, S. Eisebitt, and G. Grübel, “Single-pulse resonant magnetic scattering using a soft x-ray free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 2–5 (2010).
[Crossref]

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H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

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S. Palutke, N. C. Gerken, K. Mertens, S. Klumpp, A. Mozzanica, B. Schmitt, C. Wunderer, H. Graafsma, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, W. Wurth, and M. Martins, “Spectrometer for shot-to-shot photon energy characterization in the multi-bunch mode of the free electron laser at Hamburg,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 113107 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wurth, W.

S. Palutke, N. C. Gerken, K. Mertens, S. Klumpp, A. Mozzanica, B. Schmitt, C. Wunderer, H. Graafsma, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, W. Wurth, and M. Martins, “Spectrometer for shot-to-shot photon energy characterization in the multi-bunch mode of the free electron laser at Hamburg,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 113107 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Beye, S. Schreck, F. Sorgenfrei, C. Trabant, N. Pontius, C. Schüßler-Langeheine, W. Wurth, and A. Föhlisch, “Stimulated x-ray emission for materials science,” Nature 501, 191–194 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yabashi, M.

T. Katayama, S. Owada, T. Togashi, K. Ogawa, P. Karvinen, I. Vartiainen, A. Eronen, C. David, T. Sato, K. Nakajima, Y. Joti, H. Yumoto, H. Ohashi, and M. Yabashi, “A beam branching method for timing and spectral characterization of hard x-ray free-electron lasers,” Struct. Dyn. 3, 034301 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yoneda, Y. Inubushi, K. Nagamine, Y. Michine, H. Ohashi, H. Yumoto, K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, H. Kitamura, T. Katayama, T. Ishikawa, and M. Yabashi, “Atomic inner-shell laser at 1.5-ångström wavelength pumped by an x-ray free-electron laser,” Nature 524, 446–449 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamauchi, K.

H. Yoneda, Y. Inubushi, K. Nagamine, Y. Michine, H. Ohashi, H. Yumoto, K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, H. Kitamura, T. Katayama, T. Ishikawa, and M. Yabashi, “Atomic inner-shell laser at 1.5-ångström wavelength pumped by an x-ray free-electron laser,” Nature 524, 446–449 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoneda, H.

H. Yoneda, Y. Inubushi, K. Nagamine, Y. Michine, H. Ohashi, H. Yumoto, K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, H. Kitamura, T. Katayama, T. Ishikawa, and M. Yabashi, “Atomic inner-shell laser at 1.5-ångström wavelength pumped by an x-ray free-electron laser,” Nature 524, 446–449 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yumoto, H.

T. Katayama, S. Owada, T. Togashi, K. Ogawa, P. Karvinen, I. Vartiainen, A. Eronen, C. David, T. Sato, K. Nakajima, Y. Joti, H. Yumoto, H. Ohashi, and M. Yabashi, “A beam branching method for timing and spectral characterization of hard x-ray free-electron lasers,” Struct. Dyn. 3, 034301 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yoneda, Y. Inubushi, K. Nagamine, Y. Michine, H. Ohashi, H. Yumoto, K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, H. Kitamura, T. Katayama, T. Ishikawa, and M. Yabashi, “Atomic inner-shell laser at 1.5-ångström wavelength pumped by an x-ray free-electron laser,” Nature 524, 446–449 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeschke, T.

F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23, 67–77 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhu, D.

Ziaja, B.

L. Müller, C. Gutt, B. Pfau, S. Schaffert, J. Geilhufe, F. Büttner, J. Mohanty, S. Flewett, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, H. Redlin, A. Al-Shemmary, M. Hille, A. Kobs, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, B. Ziaja, N. Medvedev, S. K. Son, R. Thiele, R. Santra, B. Vodungbo, J. Lüning, S. Eisebitt, and G. Grübel, “Breakdown of the x-ray resonant magnetic scattering signal during intense pulses of extreme ultraviolet free-electron-laser radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 1–5 (2013).
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J. F. Ziegler, M. D. Ziegler, and J. P. Biersack, “SRIM - the stopping and range of ions in matter (2010),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B Beam Interact. Mater. Atoms 268, 1818–1823 (2010).
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J. F. Ziegler, M. D. Ziegler, and J. P. Biersack, “SRIM - the stopping and range of ions in matter (2010),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B Beam Interact. Mater. Atoms 268, 1818–1823 (2010).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Tiedtke, J. Feldhaus, U. Hahn, U. Jastrow, T. Nunez, T. Tschentscher, S. V. Bobashev, A. A. Sorokin, J. B. Hastings, S. Möller, L. Cibik, A. Gottwald, A. Hoehl, U. Kroth, M. Krumrey, H. Schöppe, G. Ulm, and M. Richter, “Gas detectors for x-ray lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 103, 094511 (2008).
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J. B. Kortright, “Resonant soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet magnetic scattering in nanostructured magnetic materials: fundamentals and directions,” J. Electron Spectros. Relat. Phenomena 189, 178–186 (2013).
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F. Schäfers, P. Bischoff, F. Eggenstein, A. Erko, A. Gaupp, S. Künstner, M. Mast, J.-S. Schmidt, F. Senf, F. Siewert, A. Sokolov, and T. Zeschke, “The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 23, 67–77 (2016).
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Nat. Phys. (1)

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
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Nature (3)

H. Yoneda, Y. Inubushi, K. Nagamine, Y. Michine, H. Ohashi, H. Yumoto, K. Yamauchi, H. Mimura, H. Kitamura, T. Katayama, T. Ishikawa, and M. Yabashi, “Atomic inner-shell laser at 1.5-ångström wavelength pumped by an x-ray free-electron laser,” Nature 524, 446–449 (2015).
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Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B Beam Interact. Mater. Atoms (1)

J. F. Ziegler, M. D. Ziegler, and J. P. Biersack, “SRIM - the stopping and range of ions in matter (2010),” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B Beam Interact. Mater. Atoms 268, 1818–1823 (2010).
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Phys. Rev. B (1)

C. Gutt, S. Streit-Nierobisch, L.-M. Stadler, B. Pfau, C. M. Günther, R. Könnecke, R. Frömter, A. Kobs, D. Stickler, H. P. Oepen, R. R. Fäustlin, R. Treusch, J. Feldhaus, E. Weckert, I. a. Vartanyants, M. Grunze, A. Rosenhahn, T. Wilhein, S. Eisebitt, and G. Grübel, “Single-pulse resonant magnetic scattering using a soft x-ray free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 2–5 (2010).
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S. Palutke, N. C. Gerken, K. Mertens, S. Klumpp, A. Mozzanica, B. Schmitt, C. Wunderer, H. Graafsma, K.-H. Meiwes-Broer, W. Wurth, and M. Martins, “Spectrometer for shot-to-shot photon energy characterization in the multi-bunch mode of the free electron laser at Hamburg,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 113107 (2015).
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Struct. Dyn. (1)

T. Katayama, S. Owada, T. Togashi, K. Ogawa, P. Karvinen, I. Vartiainen, A. Eronen, C. David, T. Sato, K. Nakajima, Y. Joti, H. Yumoto, H. Ohashi, and M. Yabashi, “A beam branching method for timing and spectral characterization of hard x-ray free-electron lasers,” Struct. Dyn. 3, 034301 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic sketch of the experiment. A sample membrane on a movable silicon chip (green) is aligned to the incident XUV beam (red). Each membrane is structured with a curved grating reference that scatters a well-defined fraction of the incident photons onto the detector. The curvature is not discernible in the small image frame of the scanning electron micrograph inset. The structure under study (blue) is deposited on the back of the sample chip. After passing the sample, the intense zero-order light is blocked by a beamstop (black cross). The scattered intensity (light red cone) is detected on a 2D pixelated detector and carries the scattering signal from the fluence monitor grating (white spots in upper left and lower right corner) and from the sample under study (bright ring).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a)c): Example lattices illustrating the real-space distortion effect of increasing the distortion-parameter d. The generated gratings are regular for d = 0, and have variable curvature and periodicity for d > 0. For demonstration purposes, the gratings shown here are distorted much more than in the actual experiments. d)f): Influence of lattice parameters p and d on the scattering signature. With increasing number of periods, the scattering pattern shifts towards higher scattering angles. At the same time its size changes as the distortion parameter d is a relative value. f): For increasing d, the scattering signature stays in place with its size extending. Consequentially, the scattered intensity per pixel decreases. The shown lattices and power spectra can be scaled arbitrarily, hence no absolute physical scale can be given.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a), b): XUV scattering patterns of test samples to illustrate intensity matching by varying the distortion parameter d. A central cross-shaped beamstop blocks the directly transmitted light. The magnetic domains are partially aligned, giving rise to the two arc-shaped scattering lobes in the upper-left and lower-right quadrant, respectively. In these examples the scattering contributions of magnetic domains and curved grating overlap. This can be avoided either by aligning the domains perpendicular to the grating or with a different grating periodicity. Exposure times are 15 s in a) and 5 s in b). c): Scattering pattern of a single 100 mJ/cm2 FEL shot on a sample with magnetic layer and well-matched grating. In all experiments the photon energy is 59.6 eV. Images d) to f) are simulated scattering patterns obtained by calculating the power-spectrum of the fabricated gratings, neglecting the existence of a magnetic domain structure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a): Scanning electron micrograph of a section of patterned Si3N4 membrane. A single grating (dark) only covers an area of 7.5 μm × 7.5 μm in order to reduce milling time and the space between the gratings is not patterned. The actual grating structure of lines and grooves, as seen in Fig. 1, is not discernible in this magnification. b): Scattering pattern of a 250 μm × 250 μm membrane with 6 × 6 segmented gratings, illuminated by multiple XUV FEL shots. The bright ring near the center of the image is the XMCD scattering signal of the magnetic sample layer. Each pair of centro-symmetric spots on the outer ring corresponds to a different grating. c): False color intensity map of the sample illumination as measured by the segmented grating. Values are linearly interpolated between the 6 × 6 grating positions. d): Intensity map of the FEL spot obtained by scanning a 30 μm × 30 μm square aperture over the beam in 20 μm steps and recording the transmitted intensity with a photodiode. The white frame marks an area of the same size as the sampled area in c).

Equations (3)

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θ = arcsin ( λ / g )
Δ q = 4 π sin ( θ / 2 ) / λ
h ( x , y ) = c p ( 1 d ) ( x + y ( 1 + x 2 d 1 d ) ) ÷ 2

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