Abstract

The new optical gating technique uses a femtosecond optical laser pulses for the photoconductive detection of short pulses of terahertz (THz) radiation. This technique reproduces the shape of the THz pulse and after pulse plasmonic response of the two-dimensional electron gas in a short channel high electron mobility transistor (HEMT). The results are in excellent agreement with the electro-optic effect measurements and with the simulation results obtained in the frame of a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The femtosecond optical laser pulse time is delayed with respect to the THz pulse and generates a large concentration of the electron-hole pairs in the AlGaAs/InGaAs HEMT. This drastically increases the channel conductivity on the femtosecond scale and effectively shorts the device quenching the transistor response. The achieved time resolution is better than 250 femtoseconds and could be improved using shorter femtosecond laser pulses. The spatial resolution of this technique is on the order of tens of nanometers or even smaller. It could be applied for studying the electron transport in a variety of electronic devices ranging from silicon MOSFETs to heterostructure bipolar transistors.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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  28. D. Coquillat, V. Nodjiadjim, A. Konczykowska, N. Dyakonova, C. Consejo, S. Ruffenach, F. Teppe, M. Riet, A. Muraviev, A. Gutin, M. Shur, J. Godin, and W. Knap, “InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor for broadband terahertz detection and imaging systems,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 10, 012036 (2015).
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    [Crossref]

2015 (2)

S. Rudin, G. Rupper, and M. Shur, “Ultimate response time of high electron mobility transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(17), 174502 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Coquillat, V. Nodjiadjim, A. Konczykowska, N. Dyakonova, C. Consejo, S. Ruffenach, F. Teppe, M. Riet, A. Muraviev, A. Gutin, M. Shur, J. Godin, and W. Knap, “InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor for broadband terahertz detection and imaging systems,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 10, 012036 (2015).

2014 (3)

S. Rudin, G. Rupper, A. Gutin, and M. Shur, “Theoretical and experimental studies of response of plasmonic terahertz detector to large signals,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 064503 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Otsuji, A. Satou, S. Boubanga Tombet, A. A. Dubinov, V. V. Popov, V. Ryzhii, and M. S. Shur, “Graphene active plasmonics for new types of terahertz lasers,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 23(3–4), 1450018 (2014).

T. Otsuji and M. Shur, “Terahertz plasmonics. Good results and great expectations,” IEEE Microw. J. 15(7), 43–50 (2014).

2013 (1)

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

S. Blin, F. Teppe, L. Tohme, S. Hisatake, K. Arakawa, P. Nouvel, D. Coquillat, A. Pénarier, J. Torres, L. Varani, W. Knap, and T. Nagatsuma, “Plasma-wave detectors for terahertz wireless communication,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(10), 1354–1356 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Gutin, V. Kachorovskii, A. Muraviev, and M. Shur, “Plasmonic terahertz detector response at high intensities,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 014508 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Ryzhii, T. Otsuji, M. Ryzhii, and M. S. Shur, “Double graphene-layer plasma resonances terahertz detector,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(30), 302001 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

H.-J. Song and T. Nagatsuma, “Present and future of terahertz communications,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 256–263 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

V. Yu. Kachorovskii and M. S. Shur, “Field effect transistor as ultrafast tunable detector of terahertz radiation,” Solid-State Electron. 52(2), 182–185 (2008).

2007 (1)

V. V. Popov, M. S. Shur, G. M. Tsymbalov, and D. V. Fateev, “Higher-order plasmon resonances in GaN-based field-effect transistor arrays,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 17(03), 557–566 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

D. Veksler, F. Teppe, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Yu Kachorovskii, W. Knap, and M. S. Shur, “Detection of terahertz radiation in gated two-dimensional structures governed by dc current,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125328 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquière, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Tauk, F. T. S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, and C. Fenouillet-Beranger, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effects transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675 (2004).
[Crossref]

W. Knap, J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Emission of terahertz radiation by plasma waves in 60 nm AlInAs/InGaAs high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2331–2333 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant detection of subterahertz and terahertz radiation by plasma waves in submicron field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4637 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, J.-F. Roux, and J.-L. Coutaz, “Analytical modeling and optimization of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy experiments, using photoswitches as antennas,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 615–623 (2001).

2000 (1)

M. Tani, K.-S. Lee, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of terahertz radiation with low-temperature-grown GaAs-based photoconductive antenna using 1.55 µm probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(9), 1396–1398 (2000).

1998 (1)

J.-Q. Lu, M. S. Shur, J. L. Hesler, L. Sun, and R. Weikle, “Terahertz detector utilizing two-dimensional electronic fluid,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 19(10), 373–375 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent x-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).

1996 (2)

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two‐dimensional electro‐optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026 (1996).

M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, “Detection, mixing, and frequency multiplication of terahertz radiation by two-dimensional electronic fluid,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 43(3), 380–387 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free‐space electro‐optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(24), 3523 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, “Shallow water analogy for a ballistic field effect transistor: New mechanism of plasma wave generation by dc current,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(15), 2465–2468 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ambacher, O.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Antes, J.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Arakawa, K.

S. Blin, F. Teppe, L. Tohme, S. Hisatake, K. Arakawa, P. Nouvel, D. Coquillat, A. Pénarier, J. Torres, L. Varani, W. Knap, and T. Nagatsuma, “Plasma-wave detectors for terahertz wireless communication,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(10), 1354–1356 (2012).
[Crossref]

Beere, H. E.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beltram, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blin, S.

S. Blin, F. Teppe, L. Tohme, S. Hisatake, K. Arakawa, P. Nouvel, D. Coquillat, A. Pénarier, J. Torres, L. Varani, W. Knap, and T. Nagatsuma, “Plasma-wave detectors for terahertz wireless communication,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(10), 1354–1356 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boes, F.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boeuf, F.

R. Tauk, F. T. S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, and C. Fenouillet-Beranger, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effects transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bollaert, S.

W. Knap, J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Emission of terahertz radiation by plasma waves in 60 nm AlInAs/InGaAs high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2331–2333 (2004).
[Crossref]

Boubanga, F. T. S.

R. Tauk, F. T. S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, and C. Fenouillet-Beranger, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effects transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[Crossref]

Boubanga Tombet, S.

T. Otsuji, A. Satou, S. Boubanga Tombet, A. A. Dubinov, V. V. Popov, V. Ryzhii, and M. S. Shur, “Graphene active plasmonics for new types of terahertz lasers,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 23(3–4), 1450018 (2014).

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquière, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342 (2006).
[Crossref]

Burnett, N. H.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent x-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).

Capasso, F.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cappy, A.

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquière, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Knap, J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Emission of terahertz radiation by plasma waves in 60 nm AlInAs/InGaAs high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2331–2333 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cho, A. Y.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Consejo, C.

D. Coquillat, V. Nodjiadjim, A. Konczykowska, N. Dyakonova, C. Consejo, S. Ruffenach, F. Teppe, M. Riet, A. Muraviev, A. Gutin, M. Shur, J. Godin, and W. Knap, “InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor for broadband terahertz detection and imaging systems,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 10, 012036 (2015).

Coquillat, D.

D. Coquillat, V. Nodjiadjim, A. Konczykowska, N. Dyakonova, C. Consejo, S. Ruffenach, F. Teppe, M. Riet, A. Muraviev, A. Gutin, M. Shur, J. Godin, and W. Knap, “InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor for broadband terahertz detection and imaging systems,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 10, 012036 (2015).

S. Blin, F. Teppe, L. Tohme, S. Hisatake, K. Arakawa, P. Nouvel, D. Coquillat, A. Pénarier, J. Torres, L. Varani, W. Knap, and T. Nagatsuma, “Plasma-wave detectors for terahertz wireless communication,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(10), 1354–1356 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Tauk, F. T. S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, and C. Fenouillet-Beranger, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effects transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[Crossref]

Coutaz, J.-L.

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, J.-F. Roux, and J.-L. Coutaz, “Analytical modeling and optimization of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy experiments, using photoswitches as antennas,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 615–623 (2001).

Davies, A. G.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deng, Y.

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant detection of subterahertz and terahertz radiation by plasma waves in submicron field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4637 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dmitriev, A. P.

D. Veksler, F. Teppe, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Yu Kachorovskii, W. Knap, and M. S. Shur, “Detection of terahertz radiation in gated two-dimensional structures governed by dc current,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125328 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dubinov, A. A.

T. Otsuji, A. Satou, S. Boubanga Tombet, A. A. Dubinov, V. V. Popov, V. Ryzhii, and M. S. Shur, “Graphene active plasmonics for new types of terahertz lasers,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 23(3–4), 1450018 (2014).

Duvillaret, L.

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, J.-F. Roux, and J.-L. Coutaz, “Analytical modeling and optimization of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy experiments, using photoswitches as antennas,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 615–623 (2001).

Dyakonov, M.

M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, “Detection, mixing, and frequency multiplication of terahertz radiation by two-dimensional electronic fluid,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 43(3), 380–387 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, “Shallow water analogy for a ballistic field effect transistor: New mechanism of plasma wave generation by dc current,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(15), 2465–2468 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dyakonova, N.

D. Coquillat, V. Nodjiadjim, A. Konczykowska, N. Dyakonova, C. Consejo, S. Ruffenach, F. Teppe, M. Riet, A. Muraviev, A. Gutin, M. Shur, J. Godin, and W. Knap, “InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor for broadband terahertz detection and imaging systems,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 10, 012036 (2015).

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675 (2004).
[Crossref]

El Fatimy, A.

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquière, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342 (2006).
[Crossref]

Faist, J.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fareed, Q.

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquière, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fateev, D. V.

V. V. Popov, M. S. Shur, G. M. Tsymbalov, and D. V. Fateev, “Higher-order plasmon resonances in GaN-based field-effect transistor arrays,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 17(03), 557–566 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fenouillet-Beranger, C.

R. Tauk, F. T. S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, and C. Fenouillet-Beranger, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effects transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[Crossref]

Freude, W.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gallon, C.

R. Tauk, F. T. S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, and C. Fenouillet-Beranger, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effects transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gaquière, C.

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquière, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342 (2006).
[Crossref]

Garet, F.

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, J.-F. Roux, and J.-L. Coutaz, “Analytical modeling and optimization of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy experiments, using photoswitches as antennas,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 615–623 (2001).

Gaska, R.

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquière, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342 (2006).
[Crossref]

Godin, J.

D. Coquillat, V. Nodjiadjim, A. Konczykowska, N. Dyakonova, C. Consejo, S. Ruffenach, F. Teppe, M. Riet, A. Muraviev, A. Gutin, M. Shur, J. Godin, and W. Knap, “InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor for broadband terahertz detection and imaging systems,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 10, 012036 (2015).

Gutin, A.

D. Coquillat, V. Nodjiadjim, A. Konczykowska, N. Dyakonova, C. Consejo, S. Ruffenach, F. Teppe, M. Riet, A. Muraviev, A. Gutin, M. Shur, J. Godin, and W. Knap, “InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor for broadband terahertz detection and imaging systems,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 10, 012036 (2015).

S. Rudin, G. Rupper, A. Gutin, and M. Shur, “Theoretical and experimental studies of response of plasmonic terahertz detector to large signals,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 064503 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Gutin, V. Kachorovskii, A. Muraviev, and M. Shur, “Plasmonic terahertz detector response at high intensities,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 014508 (2012).
[Crossref]

Henneberger, R.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hesler, J. L.

J.-Q. Lu, M. S. Shur, J. L. Hesler, L. Sun, and R. Weikle, “Terahertz detector utilizing two-dimensional electronic fluid,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 19(10), 373–375 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hewitt, T. D.

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two‐dimensional electro‐optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026 (1996).

Hillerkuss, D.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hisatake, S.

S. Blin, F. Teppe, L. Tohme, S. Hisatake, K. Arakawa, P. Nouvel, D. Coquillat, A. Pénarier, J. Torres, L. Varani, W. Knap, and T. Nagatsuma, “Plasma-wave detectors for terahertz wireless communication,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(10), 1354–1356 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hutchinson, A. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kachorovskii, V.

A. Gutin, V. Kachorovskii, A. Muraviev, and M. Shur, “Plasmonic terahertz detector response at high intensities,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 014508 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kachorovskii, V. Yu.

V. Yu. Kachorovskii and M. S. Shur, “Field effect transistor as ultrafast tunable detector of terahertz radiation,” Solid-State Electron. 52(2), 182–185 (2008).

Kallfass, I.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kan, C.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent x-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).

Knap, W.

D. Coquillat, V. Nodjiadjim, A. Konczykowska, N. Dyakonova, C. Consejo, S. Ruffenach, F. Teppe, M. Riet, A. Muraviev, A. Gutin, M. Shur, J. Godin, and W. Knap, “InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor for broadband terahertz detection and imaging systems,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 10, 012036 (2015).

S. Blin, F. Teppe, L. Tohme, S. Hisatake, K. Arakawa, P. Nouvel, D. Coquillat, A. Pénarier, J. Torres, L. Varani, W. Knap, and T. Nagatsuma, “Plasma-wave detectors for terahertz wireless communication,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(10), 1354–1356 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Tauk, F. T. S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, and C. Fenouillet-Beranger, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effects transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Veksler, F. Teppe, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Yu Kachorovskii, W. Knap, and M. S. Shur, “Detection of terahertz radiation in gated two-dimensional structures governed by dc current,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125328 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquière, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Knap, J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Emission of terahertz radiation by plasma waves in 60 nm AlInAs/InGaAs high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2331–2333 (2004).
[Crossref]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675 (2004).
[Crossref]

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant detection of subterahertz and terahertz radiation by plasma waves in submicron field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4637 (2002).
[Crossref]

Koenig, S.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Konczykowska, A.

D. Coquillat, V. Nodjiadjim, A. Konczykowska, N. Dyakonova, C. Consejo, S. Ruffenach, F. Teppe, M. Riet, A. Muraviev, A. Gutin, M. Shur, J. Godin, and W. Knap, “InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor for broadband terahertz detection and imaging systems,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 10, 012036 (2015).

Koos, C.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Koppitsch, R.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent x-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).

Krausz, F.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent x-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).

Lee, K.-S.

M. Tani, K.-S. Lee, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of terahertz radiation with low-temperature-grown GaAs-based photoconductive antenna using 1.55 µm probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(9), 1396–1398 (2000).

Lenzner, M.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent x-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).

Leuther, A.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Leuthold, J.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Linfield, E. H.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lopez-Diaz, D.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lu, J.-Q.

J.-Q. Lu, M. S. Shur, J. L. Hesler, L. Sun, and R. Weikle, “Terahertz detector utilizing two-dimensional electronic fluid,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 19(10), 373–375 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lusakowski, J.

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675 (2004).
[Crossref]

W. Knap, J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Emission of terahertz radiation by plasma waves in 60 nm AlInAs/InGaAs high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2331–2333 (2004).
[Crossref]

Maude, D.

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675 (2004).
[Crossref]

Meziani, Y.

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675 (2004).
[Crossref]

Meziani, Y. M.

R. Tauk, F. T. S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, and C. Fenouillet-Beranger, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effects transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[Crossref]

Muraviev, A.

D. Coquillat, V. Nodjiadjim, A. Konczykowska, N. Dyakonova, C. Consejo, S. Ruffenach, F. Teppe, M. Riet, A. Muraviev, A. Gutin, M. Shur, J. Godin, and W. Knap, “InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor for broadband terahertz detection and imaging systems,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 10, 012036 (2015).

A. Gutin, V. Kachorovskii, A. Muraviev, and M. Shur, “Plasmonic terahertz detector response at high intensities,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 014508 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nagatsuma, T.

S. Blin, F. Teppe, L. Tohme, S. Hisatake, K. Arakawa, P. Nouvel, D. Coquillat, A. Pénarier, J. Torres, L. Varani, W. Knap, and T. Nagatsuma, “Plasma-wave detectors for terahertz wireless communication,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(10), 1354–1356 (2012).
[Crossref]

H.-J. Song and T. Nagatsuma, “Present and future of terahertz communications,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 256–263 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nodjiadjim, V.

D. Coquillat, V. Nodjiadjim, A. Konczykowska, N. Dyakonova, C. Consejo, S. Ruffenach, F. Teppe, M. Riet, A. Muraviev, A. Gutin, M. Shur, J. Godin, and W. Knap, “InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor for broadband terahertz detection and imaging systems,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 10, 012036 (2015).

Nouvel, P.

S. Blin, F. Teppe, L. Tohme, S. Hisatake, K. Arakawa, P. Nouvel, D. Coquillat, A. Pénarier, J. Torres, L. Varani, W. Knap, and T. Nagatsuma, “Plasma-wave detectors for terahertz wireless communication,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(10), 1354–1356 (2012).
[Crossref]

Otsuji, T.

T. Otsuji and M. Shur, “Terahertz plasmonics. Good results and great expectations,” IEEE Microw. J. 15(7), 43–50 (2014).

T. Otsuji, A. Satou, S. Boubanga Tombet, A. A. Dubinov, V. V. Popov, V. Ryzhii, and M. S. Shur, “Graphene active plasmonics for new types of terahertz lasers,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 23(3–4), 1450018 (2014).

V. Ryzhii, T. Otsuji, M. Ryzhii, and M. S. Shur, “Double graphene-layer plasma resonances terahertz detector,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(30), 302001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pala, N.

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquière, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342 (2006).
[Crossref]

Palmer, R.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Parenty, T.

W. Knap, J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Emission of terahertz radiation by plasma waves in 60 nm AlInAs/InGaAs high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2331–2333 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pénarier, A.

S. Blin, F. Teppe, L. Tohme, S. Hisatake, K. Arakawa, P. Nouvel, D. Coquillat, A. Pénarier, J. Torres, L. Varani, W. Knap, and T. Nagatsuma, “Plasma-wave detectors for terahertz wireless communication,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(10), 1354–1356 (2012).
[Crossref]

Popov, V.

W. Knap, J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Emission of terahertz radiation by plasma waves in 60 nm AlInAs/InGaAs high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2331–2333 (2004).
[Crossref]

Popov, V. V.

T. Otsuji, A. Satou, S. Boubanga Tombet, A. A. Dubinov, V. V. Popov, V. Ryzhii, and M. S. Shur, “Graphene active plasmonics for new types of terahertz lasers,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 23(3–4), 1450018 (2014).

V. V. Popov, M. S. Shur, G. M. Tsymbalov, and D. V. Fateev, “Higher-order plasmon resonances in GaN-based field-effect transistor arrays,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 17(03), 557–566 (2007).
[Crossref]

Riet, M.

D. Coquillat, V. Nodjiadjim, A. Konczykowska, N. Dyakonova, C. Consejo, S. Ruffenach, F. Teppe, M. Riet, A. Muraviev, A. Gutin, M. Shur, J. Godin, and W. Knap, “InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor for broadband terahertz detection and imaging systems,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 10, 012036 (2015).

Ritchie, D. A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roux, J.-F.

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, J.-F. Roux, and J.-L. Coutaz, “Analytical modeling and optimization of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy experiments, using photoswitches as antennas,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 615–623 (2001).

Rudin, S.

S. Rudin, G. Rupper, and M. Shur, “Ultimate response time of high electron mobility transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(17), 174502 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Rudin, G. Rupper, A. Gutin, and M. Shur, “Theoretical and experimental studies of response of plasmonic terahertz detector to large signals,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 064503 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ruffenach, S.

D. Coquillat, V. Nodjiadjim, A. Konczykowska, N. Dyakonova, C. Consejo, S. Ruffenach, F. Teppe, M. Riet, A. Muraviev, A. Gutin, M. Shur, J. Godin, and W. Knap, “InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor for broadband terahertz detection and imaging systems,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 10, 012036 (2015).

Rumyantsev, S.

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquière, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675 (2004).
[Crossref]

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant detection of subterahertz and terahertz radiation by plasma waves in submicron field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4637 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rupper, G.

S. Rudin, G. Rupper, and M. Shur, “Ultimate response time of high electron mobility transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(17), 174502 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Rudin, G. Rupper, A. Gutin, and M. Shur, “Theoretical and experimental studies of response of plasmonic terahertz detector to large signals,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 064503 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ryzhii, M.

V. Ryzhii, T. Otsuji, M. Ryzhii, and M. S. Shur, “Double graphene-layer plasma resonances terahertz detector,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(30), 302001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ryzhii, V.

T. Otsuji, A. Satou, S. Boubanga Tombet, A. A. Dubinov, V. V. Popov, V. Ryzhii, and M. S. Shur, “Graphene active plasmonics for new types of terahertz lasers,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 23(3–4), 1450018 (2014).

V. Ryzhii, T. Otsuji, M. Ryzhii, and M. S. Shur, “Double graphene-layer plasma resonances terahertz detector,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(30), 302001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sartania, S.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent x-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).

Satou, A.

T. Otsuji, A. Satou, S. Boubanga Tombet, A. A. Dubinov, V. V. Popov, V. Ryzhii, and M. S. Shur, “Graphene active plasmonics for new types of terahertz lasers,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 23(3–4), 1450018 (2014).

Schmogrow, R.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schnürer, M.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent x-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).

Seliuta, D.

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquière, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shur, M.

S. Rudin, G. Rupper, and M. Shur, “Ultimate response time of high electron mobility transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(17), 174502 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Coquillat, V. Nodjiadjim, A. Konczykowska, N. Dyakonova, C. Consejo, S. Ruffenach, F. Teppe, M. Riet, A. Muraviev, A. Gutin, M. Shur, J. Godin, and W. Knap, “InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor for broadband terahertz detection and imaging systems,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 10, 012036 (2015).

S. Rudin, G. Rupper, A. Gutin, and M. Shur, “Theoretical and experimental studies of response of plasmonic terahertz detector to large signals,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 064503 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Otsuji and M. Shur, “Terahertz plasmonics. Good results and great expectations,” IEEE Microw. J. 15(7), 43–50 (2014).

A. Gutin, V. Kachorovskii, A. Muraviev, and M. Shur, “Plasmonic terahertz detector response at high intensities,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 014508 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, “Detection, mixing, and frequency multiplication of terahertz radiation by two-dimensional electronic fluid,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 43(3), 380–387 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, “Shallow water analogy for a ballistic field effect transistor: New mechanism of plasma wave generation by dc current,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(15), 2465–2468 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shur, M. S.

T. Otsuji, A. Satou, S. Boubanga Tombet, A. A. Dubinov, V. V. Popov, V. Ryzhii, and M. S. Shur, “Graphene active plasmonics for new types of terahertz lasers,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 23(3–4), 1450018 (2014).

V. Ryzhii, T. Otsuji, M. Ryzhii, and M. S. Shur, “Double graphene-layer plasma resonances terahertz detector,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(30), 302001 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Yu. Kachorovskii and M. S. Shur, “Field effect transistor as ultrafast tunable detector of terahertz radiation,” Solid-State Electron. 52(2), 182–185 (2008).

V. V. Popov, M. S. Shur, G. M. Tsymbalov, and D. V. Fateev, “Higher-order plasmon resonances in GaN-based field-effect transistor arrays,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 17(03), 557–566 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquière, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Veksler, F. Teppe, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Yu Kachorovskii, W. Knap, and M. S. Shur, “Detection of terahertz radiation in gated two-dimensional structures governed by dc current,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125328 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Knap, J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Emission of terahertz radiation by plasma waves in 60 nm AlInAs/InGaAs high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2331–2333 (2004).
[Crossref]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675 (2004).
[Crossref]

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant detection of subterahertz and terahertz radiation by plasma waves in submicron field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4637 (2002).
[Crossref]

J.-Q. Lu, M. S. Shur, J. L. Hesler, L. Sun, and R. Weikle, “Terahertz detector utilizing two-dimensional electronic fluid,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 19(10), 373–375 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sirtori, C.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skotnicki, T.

R. Tauk, F. T. S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, and C. Fenouillet-Beranger, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effects transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675 (2004).
[Crossref]

Song, H.-J.

H.-J. Song and T. Nagatsuma, “Present and future of terahertz communications,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 256–263 (2011).
[Crossref]

Spielmann, Ch.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent x-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).

Sun, L.

J.-Q. Lu, M. S. Shur, J. L. Hesler, L. Sun, and R. Weikle, “Terahertz detector utilizing two-dimensional electronic fluid,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 19(10), 373–375 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tani, M.

M. Tani, K.-S. Lee, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of terahertz radiation with low-temperature-grown GaAs-based photoconductive antenna using 1.55 µm probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(9), 1396–1398 (2000).

Tauk, R.

R. Tauk, F. T. S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, and C. Fenouillet-Beranger, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effects transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[Crossref]

Teppe, F.

D. Coquillat, V. Nodjiadjim, A. Konczykowska, N. Dyakonova, C. Consejo, S. Ruffenach, F. Teppe, M. Riet, A. Muraviev, A. Gutin, M. Shur, J. Godin, and W. Knap, “InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor for broadband terahertz detection and imaging systems,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 10, 012036 (2015).

S. Blin, F. Teppe, L. Tohme, S. Hisatake, K. Arakawa, P. Nouvel, D. Coquillat, A. Pénarier, J. Torres, L. Varani, W. Knap, and T. Nagatsuma, “Plasma-wave detectors for terahertz wireless communication,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(10), 1354–1356 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquière, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Veksler, F. Teppe, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Yu Kachorovskii, W. Knap, and M. S. Shur, “Detection of terahertz radiation in gated two-dimensional structures governed by dc current,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125328 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tessmann, A.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Theron, D.

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquière, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tohme, L.

S. Blin, F. Teppe, L. Tohme, S. Hisatake, K. Arakawa, P. Nouvel, D. Coquillat, A. Pénarier, J. Torres, L. Varani, W. Knap, and T. Nagatsuma, “Plasma-wave detectors for terahertz wireless communication,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(10), 1354–1356 (2012).
[Crossref]

Torres, J.

S. Blin, F. Teppe, L. Tohme, S. Hisatake, K. Arakawa, P. Nouvel, D. Coquillat, A. Pénarier, J. Torres, L. Varani, W. Knap, and T. Nagatsuma, “Plasma-wave detectors for terahertz wireless communication,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(10), 1354–1356 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tredicucci, A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsymbalov, G. M.

V. V. Popov, M. S. Shur, G. M. Tsymbalov, and D. V. Fateev, “Higher-order plasmon resonances in GaN-based field-effect transistor arrays,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 17(03), 557–566 (2007).
[Crossref]

Valusis, G.

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquière, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342 (2006).
[Crossref]

Varani, L.

S. Blin, F. Teppe, L. Tohme, S. Hisatake, K. Arakawa, P. Nouvel, D. Coquillat, A. Pénarier, J. Torres, L. Varani, W. Knap, and T. Nagatsuma, “Plasma-wave detectors for terahertz wireless communication,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(10), 1354–1356 (2012).
[Crossref]

Veksler, D.

D. Veksler, F. Teppe, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Yu Kachorovskii, W. Knap, and M. S. Shur, “Detection of terahertz radiation in gated two-dimensional structures governed by dc current,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125328 (2006).
[Crossref]

Veksler, D. B.

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquière, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342 (2006).
[Crossref]

Weikle, R.

J.-Q. Lu, M. S. Shur, J. L. Hesler, L. Sun, and R. Weikle, “Terahertz detector utilizing two-dimensional electronic fluid,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 19(10), 373–375 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wobrauschek, P.

Ch. Spielmann, N. H. Burnett, S. Sartania, R. Koppitsch, M. Schnürer, C. Kan, M. Lenzner, P. Wobrauschek, and F. Krausz, “Generation of coherent x-rays in the water window using 5-femtosecond laser pulses,” Science 278(5338), 661–664 (1997).

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two‐dimensional electro‐optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026 (1996).

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free‐space electro‐optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(24), 3523 (1995).
[Crossref]

Yu Kachorovskii, V.

D. Veksler, F. Teppe, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Yu Kachorovskii, W. Knap, and M. S. Shur, “Detection of terahertz radiation in gated two-dimensional structures governed by dc current,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125328 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.-C.

M. Tani, K.-S. Lee, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of terahertz radiation with low-temperature-grown GaAs-based photoconductive antenna using 1.55 µm probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(9), 1396–1398 (2000).

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two‐dimensional electro‐optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026 (1996).

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free‐space electro‐optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(24), 3523 (1995).
[Crossref]

Zwick, T.

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

W. Knap, F. Teppe, Y. Meziani, N. Dyakonova, J. Lusakowski, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, D. Maude, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Plasma wave detection of sub-terahertz and terahertz radiation by silicon field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(4), 675 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Tauk, F. T. S. Boubanga, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. M. Meziani, C. Gallon, F. Boeuf, T. Skotnicki, and C. Fenouillet-Beranger, “Plasma wave detection of terahertz radiation by silicon field effects transistors: responsivity and noise equivalent power,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 253511 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant detection of subterahertz and terahertz radiation by plasma waves in submicron field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4637 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. Knap, J. Lusakowski, T. Parenty, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, V. Popov, and M. S. Shur, “Emission of terahertz radiation by plasma waves in 60 nm AlInAs/InGaAs high electron mobility transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(13), 2331–2333 (2004).
[Crossref]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Free‐space electro‐optic sampling of terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(24), 3523 (1995).
[Crossref]

Q. Wu, T. D. Hewitt, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two‐dimensional electro‐optic imaging of THz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1026 (1996).

M. Tani, K.-S. Lee, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of terahertz radiation with low-temperature-grown GaAs-based photoconductive antenna using 1.55 µm probe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(9), 1396–1398 (2000).

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. El Fatimy, S. Boubanga Tombet, F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, S. Rumyantsev, M. S. Shur, N. Pala, R. Gaska, Q. Fareed, D. Seliuta, G. Valusis, C. Gaquière, D. Theron, and A. Cappy, “Terahertz detection by GaN/AlGaN transistors,” Electron. Lett. 42(23), 1342 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

S. Blin, F. Teppe, L. Tohme, S. Hisatake, K. Arakawa, P. Nouvel, D. Coquillat, A. Pénarier, J. Torres, L. Varani, W. Knap, and T. Nagatsuma, “Plasma-wave detectors for terahertz wireless communication,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(10), 1354–1356 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. (1)

J.-Q. Lu, M. S. Shur, J. L. Hesler, L. Sun, and R. Weikle, “Terahertz detector utilizing two-dimensional electronic fluid,” IEEE Electron. Dev. Lett. 19(10), 373–375 (1998).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Duvillaret, F. Garet, J.-F. Roux, and J.-L. Coutaz, “Analytical modeling and optimization of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy experiments, using photoswitches as antennas,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7(4), 615–623 (2001).

IEEE Microw. J. (1)

T. Otsuji and M. Shur, “Terahertz plasmonics. Good results and great expectations,” IEEE Microw. J. 15(7), 43–50 (2014).

IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. (1)

M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, “Detection, mixing, and frequency multiplication of terahertz radiation by two-dimensional electronic fluid,” IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 43(3), 380–387 (1996).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (1)

H.-J. Song and T. Nagatsuma, “Present and future of terahertz communications,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 256–263 (2011).
[Crossref]

Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. (2)

V. V. Popov, M. S. Shur, G. M. Tsymbalov, and D. V. Fateev, “Higher-order plasmon resonances in GaN-based field-effect transistor arrays,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 17(03), 557–566 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Otsuji, A. Satou, S. Boubanga Tombet, A. A. Dubinov, V. V. Popov, V. Ryzhii, and M. S. Shur, “Graphene active plasmonics for new types of terahertz lasers,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 23(3–4), 1450018 (2014).

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

S. Rudin, G. Rupper, and M. Shur, “Ultimate response time of high electron mobility transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 117(17), 174502 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Gutin, V. Kachorovskii, A. Muraviev, and M. Shur, “Plasmonic terahertz detector response at high intensities,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(1), 014508 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Rudin, G. Rupper, A. Gutin, and M. Shur, “Theoretical and experimental studies of response of plasmonic terahertz detector to large signals,” J. Appl. Phys. 115, 064503 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

D. Coquillat, V. Nodjiadjim, A. Konczykowska, N. Dyakonova, C. Consejo, S. Ruffenach, F. Teppe, M. Riet, A. Muraviev, A. Gutin, M. Shur, J. Godin, and W. Knap, “InP double heterojunction bipolar transistor for broadband terahertz detection and imaging systems,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 10, 012036 (2015).

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

V. Ryzhii, T. Otsuji, M. Ryzhii, and M. S. Shur, “Double graphene-layer plasma resonances terahertz detector,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 45(30), 302001 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

S. Koenig, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, F. Boes, R. Henneberger, A. Leuther, A. Tessmann, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, J. Leuthold, and I. Kallfass, “Wireless sub-THz communication system with high data rate,” Nat. Photonics 7(12), 977–981 (2013).
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Nature (1)

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

D. Veksler, F. Teppe, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Yu Kachorovskii, W. Knap, and M. S. Shur, “Detection of terahertz radiation in gated two-dimensional structures governed by dc current,” Phys. Rev. B 73(12), 125328 (2006).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Dyakonov and M. Shur, “Shallow water analogy for a ballistic field effect transistor: New mechanism of plasma wave generation by dc current,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(15), 2465–2468 (1993).
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Solid-State Electron. (1)

V. Yu. Kachorovskii and M. S. Shur, “Field effect transistor as ultrafast tunable detector of terahertz radiation,” Solid-State Electron. 52(2), 182–185 (2008).

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A. Garreffa, Fujitsu's new wireless receiver can transmit 8K videos instantly, Connectivity and Communications News, Sep 9, 2015, http://www.tweaktown.com/news/47479/fujitsus-new-wireless-receiver-transmit-8k-videos-instantly/index.html .

O. V. Polischuk, V. V. Popov, M. S. Shur, and W. Knap, “Excitation of gated and ungated plasmons and generation of terahertz radiation in nanometer-gate field-effect transistor,” in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Advanced Optoelectronics and Lasers (CAOL, 2005), Vol. 2. (2005), pp. 19–22.
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M. Shur, ed., “Fundamental and applied problems of terahertz devices and technologies,” in Selected Papers from the Russia-Japan-USA Symposium, Selected Topics in Electronics and Systems, Vol. 56, (World Scientific Publishing Company, 2016).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Equivalent circuit of the photoconductive HEMT detector channel before (a) and after (b) laser pulse application. State (b) persists during the electron-hole recombination time (~100 ps or higher in an InGaAs HEMT.)
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Qualitative comparison of the conventional photoconductive antenna technique and photoconductive HEMT technique. Left panel: scale, electron-hole concentration in the semiconductor region, conductance waveform in semiconductor region, and the measured pulse waveform for the he conventional photoconductive technique. Right panel: same plots for the photoconductive HEMT technique.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Simulation results using the full hydrodynamic simulation (solid line) and the simplified version using UCCM (dashed line). The inset shows the device geometry The HEMT parameters are drain-to source distance 1,100 nm, gate length 130 nm, barrier thickness 22 nm, dielectric permittivity of the barrier layer ε = 13.9. VGS – VT = 0.172 V, threshold voltage VT = −0.172 V, mobility μ = 3,500 cm2/Vs. (b) The waveform of the THz pulse used in the calculation (dotted like) and the shape of the output signal (solid line)
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematics of the experimental setup. Optical pulses: 800 nm, 100 fs duration at 1 kHz, 0.6 mJ pulse energy. The inset shows the delayed optical pulse.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured (solid lines) and simulated (dashed line) current-voltage characteristics of the device under test. The simulations at zero gate bias (used in the THz measurements) were done using the analytical model described in [29]. The parameters used in the simulation are the same as used in the hydrodynamic model (see Fig. 3).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 HEMT photovoltaic response to a single THz pulse. The pulse width of 50 ps (FWHM) is limited by the bandwidth of detector RF package and acquisition electronics.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Dependence of the photovoltaic response amplitude in case of optical gating as a function of optical pulse delay in respect to the THz pulse. The two insets show the output pulse shapes with the varying amplitude for two different time delays.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Central peak amplitude as a function of optical pulse intensity, points – measured, line – square root dependence predicted by Eq. (3).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Comparison of the photoconductive HEMT response (dashed line) with electro-optic effect measurements of the THz pulse (dotted line) and hydrodynamic simulations (solid line) using the electro-optic waveform as an input pulse. The gate voltage Vg = 0; the threshold voltage VT = −0.75 V. T = 300 K.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) Fourier spectra of the THz pulse electro-optic measurements (dotted line in Fig. 9) and (b) photoconductive FET response (dashed line in Fig. 9).

Equations (3)

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n s = C ch η V th q ln[ 1+exp( V GS V T U η V th ) ].
S=α( U opt + U THz )+β ( U opt + U THz ) 2 .
S THz =2β U opt U THz =2γ I U THz ,

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