Abstract

We show a practical implementation of a pulse characterization method for sub-cycle pulse measurements in the infrared spectral range based on spectral shearing interferometry. We employ spatially-encoded arrangement filter-based spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction with external ancila pulses (X-SEA-F-SPIDER). We show merits and limitations of the setup and an in-depth comparison to another widely used temporal characterization technique - Second-Harmonic Generation Frequency Resolved Optical Gating (SHG-FROG). The X-SEA-F-SPIDER implementation presented in this paper allows measurement of sub-cycle pulses with over one octave wide spectrum spanning the 900–2400 nm range without adding any extra dispersion due to the pulse characterization apparatus.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (1)

T. Balčiūnas, C. Fourcade-Dutin, G. Fan, T. Witting, A. Voronin, A. Zheltikov, F. Gerome, G. Paulus, A. Baltuška, and F. Benabid, “A strong-field driver in the single-cycle regime based on self-compression in a kagome fibre,” Nat. Communications 6, 6117 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

M. Hirasawa, N. Nakagawa, K. Yamamoto, R. Morita, H. Shigekawa, and M. Yamashita, “Sensitivity improvement of spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction for the characterization of low-intensity femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74, s225–s229 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Zeek, A. Shreenath, P. O’Shea, M. Kimmel, and R. Trebino, “Simultaneous automatic calibration and direction-of-time removal in frequency-resolved optical gating,” Appl. Phys. B 74, s265–s271 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2012 (4)

2011 (4)

Y. Wang, N. V. Wheeler, F. Couny, P. Roberts, and F. Benabid, “Low loss broadband transmission in hypocycloid-core kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 36, 669–671 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Wang, N. V. Wheeler, F. Couny, P. J. Roberts, and F. Benabid, “Low loss broadband transmission in hypocycloid-core Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 36, 669–671 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-W. Huang, G. Cirmi, J. Moses, K.-H. Hong, S. Bhardwaj, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-energy pulse synthesis with sub-cycle waveform control for strong-field physics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 475–479 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Wirth, Th, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized Light Transients,” Science 334, 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2009 (3)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Witting, D. R. Austin, and I. A. Walmsley, “Improved ancilla preparation in spectral shearing interferometry for accurate ultrafast pulse characterization,” Opt. Lett. 34, 881–883 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Austin, T. Witting, and I. A. Walmsley, “Broadband astigmatism-free czerny-turner imaging spectrometer using spherical mirrors,” Appl. Opt. 48, 3846–3853 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Physics 4, 386–389 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Akturk, C. D’Amico, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Measuring ultrashort pulses in the single-cycle regime using frequency-resolved optical gating,” JOSA B 25, A63–A69 (2008).
[Crossref]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kacprowicz, W. Wasilewski, and K. Banaszek, “Complete characterization of weak ultra-short near-uv pulses by spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 283–286 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

K. Yamane, Z. Zhang, K. Oka, R. Morita, M. Yamashita, and A. Suguro, “Optical pulse compression to 3.4 fs in the monocycle region by feedback phase compensation,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2258–2260 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Londero, M. E. Anderson, C. Radzewicz, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring ultrafast pulses in the near-ultraviolet using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” Journal of Modern Optics 50, 179–184 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. S. J. Russell, “Stimulated raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298, 399–402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. Anderson, L. de Araujo, E. Kosik, and I. Walmsley, “The effects of noise on ultrashort-optical-pulse measurement using spider,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S85–S93 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating in the single-cycle regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 459–478 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1993 (1)

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 29, 571–579 (1993).
[Crossref]

Abdolvand, A.

Agostini, P.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Physics 4, 386–389 (2008).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2007).

Akturk, S.

S. Akturk, C. D’Amico, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Measuring ultrashort pulses in the single-cycle regime using frequency-resolved optical gating,” JOSA B 25, A63–A69 (2008).
[Crossref]

Alahmed, Z. A.

A. Wirth, Th, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized Light Transients,” Science 334, 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ališauskas, S.

Alonso, B.

Anderson, M.

M. Anderson, L. de Araujo, E. Kosik, and I. Walmsley, “The effects of noise on ultrashort-optical-pulse measurement using spider,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S85–S93 (2000).
[Crossref]

Anderson, M. E.

P. Londero, M. E. Anderson, C. Radzewicz, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring ultrafast pulses in the near-ultraviolet using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” Journal of Modern Optics 50, 179–184 (2003).
[Crossref]

Andriukaitis, G.

Antonopoulos, G.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. S. J. Russell, “Stimulated raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298, 399–402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnold, C. L.

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Austin, D. R.

Azzeer, A. M.

A. Wirth, Th, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized Light Transients,” Science 334, 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bahabad, A.

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 10516–10521 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balciunas, T.

T. Balčiūnas, C. Fourcade-Dutin, G. Fan, T. Witting, A. Voronin, A. Zheltikov, F. Gerome, G. Paulus, A. Baltuška, and F. Benabid, “A strong-field driver in the single-cycle regime based on self-compression in a kagome fibre,” Nat. Communications 6, 6117 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baltuska, A.

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating in the single-cycle regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 459–478 (1999).
[Crossref]

Baltuška, A.

T. Balčiūnas, C. Fourcade-Dutin, G. Fan, T. Witting, A. Voronin, A. Zheltikov, F. Gerome, G. Paulus, A. Baltuška, and F. Benabid, “A strong-field driver in the single-cycle regime based on self-compression in a kagome fibre,” Nat. Communications 6, 6117 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Malevich, G. Andriukaitis, T. Flöry, A. J. Verhoef, A. Fernández, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, L. H. Tan, C. F. Chua, and P. B. Phua, “High energy and average power femtosecond laser for driving mid-infrared optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2746–2749 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Banaszek, K.

M. Kacprowicz, W. Wasilewski, and K. Banaszek, “Complete characterization of weak ultra-short near-uv pulses by spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 283–286 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bartels, R.

Bates, P.

P. Bates, O. Chalus, and J. Biegert, “Ultrashort pulse characterization in the mid-infrared,” Optics letters 35, 1377–1379 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baum, P.

Baxter, J.

J. Baxter, “Spectroscopy: Probing the mid-infrared,” Nat. Photonics 6, 412 (2012).
[Crossref]

Benabid, F.

T. Balčiūnas, C. Fourcade-Dutin, G. Fan, T. Witting, A. Voronin, A. Zheltikov, F. Gerome, G. Paulus, A. Baltuška, and F. Benabid, “A strong-field driver in the single-cycle regime based on self-compression in a kagome fibre,” Nat. Communications 6, 6117 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Y. Wang, N. V. Wheeler, F. Couny, P. J. Roberts, and F. Benabid, “Low loss broadband transmission in hypocycloid-core Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 36, 669–671 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, N. V. Wheeler, F. Couny, P. Roberts, and F. Benabid, “Low loss broadband transmission in hypocycloid-core kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 36, 669–671 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. Light, “Large-pitch kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3574–3576 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. S. Light, “Large-pitch kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3574–3576 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. Knight, T. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434, 488–491 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. S. J. Russell, “Stimulated raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298, 399–402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhardwaj, S.

S.-W. Huang, G. Cirmi, J. Moses, K.-H. Hong, S. Bhardwaj, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-energy pulse synthesis with sub-cycle waveform control for strong-field physics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 475–479 (2011).
[Crossref]

Biegert, J.

P. Bates, O. Chalus, and J. Biegert, “Ultrashort pulse characterization in the mid-infrared,” Optics letters 35, 1377–1379 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birge, J. R.

S.-W. Huang, G. Cirmi, J. Moses, K.-H. Hong, S. Bhardwaj, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-energy pulse synthesis with sub-cycle waveform control for strong-field physics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 475–479 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. R. Birge, R. Ell, and F. X. Kärtner, “Two-dimensional spectral shearing interferometry for few-cycle pulse characterization,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2063–2065 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birks, T.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. Knight, T. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434, 488–491 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blaga, C. I.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Physics 4, 386–389 (2008).
[Crossref]

Brida, D.

Bucksbaum, P. H.

Catoire, F.

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Suguro, A.

Tan, L. H.

Tate, J.

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Physics 4, 386–389 (2008).
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Th,

A. Wirth, Th, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized Light Transients,” Science 334, 195–200 (2011).
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Tisch, J. W.

Travers, J. C.

Trebino, R.

E. Zeek, A. Shreenath, P. O’Shea, M. Kimmel, and R. Trebino, “Simultaneous automatic calibration and direction-of-time removal in frequency-resolved optical gating,” Appl. Phys. B 74, s265–s271 (2014).
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J. Ratner, G. Steinmeyer, T. C. Wong, R. Bartels, and R. Trebino, “Coherent artifact in modern pulse measurements,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2874–2876 (2012).
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D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 29, 571–579 (1993).
[Crossref]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
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Verhoef, A. J.

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T. Balčiūnas, C. Fourcade-Dutin, G. Fan, T. Witting, A. Voronin, A. Zheltikov, F. Gerome, G. Paulus, A. Baltuška, and F. Benabid, “A strong-field driver in the single-cycle regime based on self-compression in a kagome fibre,” Nat. Communications 6, 6117 (2015).
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[Crossref]

Walmsley, I. A.

Wang, Y.

Wang, Y. Y.

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Weigand, R.

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P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Physics 4, 386–389 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wheeler, N. V.

Wiersma, D. A.

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A. Wirth, Th, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized Light Transients,” Science 334, 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Witting, T.

Wong, T. C.

Wyatt, A. S.

Yakovlev, V. S.

A. Wirth, Th, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized Light Transients,” Science 334, 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
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M. Hirasawa, N. Nakagawa, K. Yamamoto, R. Morita, H. Shigekawa, and M. Yamashita, “Sensitivity improvement of spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction for the characterization of low-intensity femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74, s225–s229 (2014).
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Yamane, K.

Yamashita, M.

M. Hirasawa, N. Nakagawa, K. Yamamoto, R. Morita, H. Shigekawa, and M. Yamashita, “Sensitivity improvement of spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction for the characterization of low-intensity femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74, s225–s229 (2014).
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K. Yamane, Z. Zhang, K. Oka, R. Morita, M. Yamashita, and A. Suguro, “Optical pulse compression to 3.4 fs in the monocycle region by feedback phase compensation,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2258–2260 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

You, D.

Zeek, E.

E. Zeek, A. Shreenath, P. O’Shea, M. Kimmel, and R. Trebino, “Simultaneous automatic calibration and direction-of-time removal in frequency-resolved optical gating,” Appl. Phys. B 74, s265–s271 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

Zheltikov, A.

T. Balčiūnas, C. Fourcade-Dutin, G. Fan, T. Witting, A. Voronin, A. Zheltikov, F. Gerome, G. Paulus, A. Baltuška, and F. Benabid, “A strong-field driver in the single-cycle regime based on self-compression in a kagome fibre,” Nat. Communications 6, 6117 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (4)

M. Anderson, L. de Araujo, E. Kosik, and I. Walmsley, “The effects of noise on ultrashort-optical-pulse measurement using spider,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S85–S93 (2000).
[Crossref]

E. Zeek, A. Shreenath, P. O’Shea, M. Kimmel, and R. Trebino, “Simultaneous automatic calibration and direction-of-time removal in frequency-resolved optical gating,” Appl. Phys. B 74, s265–s271 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Kacprowicz, W. Wasilewski, and K. Banaszek, “Complete characterization of weak ultra-short near-uv pulses by spectral interferometry,” Appl. Phys. B 91, 283–286 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Hirasawa, N. Nakagawa, K. Yamamoto, R. Morita, H. Shigekawa, and M. Yamashita, “Sensitivity improvement of spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction for the characterization of low-intensity femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 74, s225–s229 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Baltuska, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Second-harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating in the single-cycle regime,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 459–478 (1999).
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IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics (1)

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 29, 571–579 (1993).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

JOSA B (1)

S. Akturk, C. D’Amico, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Measuring ultrashort pulses in the single-cycle regime using frequency-resolved optical gating,” JOSA B 25, A63–A69 (2008).
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Journal of Modern Optics (1)

P. Londero, M. E. Anderson, C. Radzewicz, C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Measuring ultrafast pulses in the near-ultraviolet using spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” Journal of Modern Optics 50, 179–184 (2003).
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Nat. Communications (1)

T. Balčiūnas, C. Fourcade-Dutin, G. Fan, T. Witting, A. Voronin, A. Zheltikov, F. Gerome, G. Paulus, A. Baltuška, and F. Benabid, “A strong-field driver in the single-cycle regime based on self-compression in a kagome fibre,” Nat. Communications 6, 6117 (2015).
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Nat. Photonics (2)

S.-W. Huang, G. Cirmi, J. Moses, K.-H. Hong, S. Bhardwaj, J. R. Birge, L.-J. Chen, E. Li, B. J. Eggleton, G. Cerullo, and F. X. Kärtner, “High-energy pulse synthesis with sub-cycle waveform control for strong-field physics,” Nat. Photonics 5, 475–479 (2011).
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J. Baxter, “Spectroscopy: Probing the mid-infrared,” Nat. Photonics 6, 412 (2012).
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Nat. Physics (1)

P. Colosimo, G. Doumy, C. I. Blaga, J. Wheeler, C. Hauri, F. Catoire, J. Tate, R. Chirla, A. M. March, G. G. Paulus, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “Scaling strong-field interactions towards the classical limit,” Nat. Physics 4, 386–389 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. Knight, T. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 434, 488–491 (2005).
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Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (15)

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P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, “Zero-additional-phase SPIDER: full characterization of visible and sub-20-fs ultraviolet pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29, 210–212 (2004).
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J. R. Birge, R. Ell, and F. X. Kärtner, “Two-dimensional spectral shearing interferometry for few-cycle pulse characterization,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2063–2065 (2006).
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E. M. Kosik, A. S. Radunsky, I. A. Walmsley, and C. Dorrer, “Interferometric technique for measuring broadband ultrashort pulsesat the sampling limit,” Opt. Lett. 30, 326–328 (2005).
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A. S. Wyatt, I. A. Walmsley, G. Stibenz, and G. Steinmeyer, “Sub-10 fs pulse characterization using spatially encoded arrangement for spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1914–1916 (2006).
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T. Witting, D. R. Austin, and I. A. Walmsley, “Improved ancilla preparation in spectral shearing interferometry for accurate ultrafast pulse characterization,” Opt. Lett. 34, 881–883 (2009).
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K. F. Mak, J. C. Travers, N. Y. Joly, A. Abdolvand, and P. S. J. Russell, “Two techniques for temporal pulse compression in gas-filled hollow-core kagomé photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3592–3595 (2013).
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F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. S. Light, “Large-pitch kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3574–3576 (2006).
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Y. Y. Wang, N. V. Wheeler, F. Couny, P. J. Roberts, and F. Benabid, “Low loss broadband transmission in hypocycloid-core Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 36, 669–671 (2011).
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F. Junginger, A. Sell, O. Schubert, B. Mayer, D. Brida, M. Marangoni, G. Cerullo, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Huber, “Single-cycle multiterahertz transients with peak fields above 10 mv/cm,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2645–2647 (2010).
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P. Malevich, G. Andriukaitis, T. Flöry, A. J. Verhoef, A. Fernández, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, L. H. Tan, C. F. Chua, and P. B. Phua, “High energy and average power femtosecond laser for driving mid-infrared optical parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 38, 2746–2749 (2013).
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J. Ratner, G. Steinmeyer, T. C. Wong, R. Bartels, and R. Trebino, “Coherent artifact in modern pulse measurements,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2874–2876 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Yamane, Z. Zhang, K. Oka, R. Morita, M. Yamashita, and A. Suguro, “Optical pulse compression to 3.4 fs in the monocycle region by feedback phase compensation,” Opt. Lett. 28, 2258–2260 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, and P. Light, “Large-pitch kagome-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3574–3576 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, N. V. Wheeler, F. Couny, P. Roberts, and F. Benabid, “Low loss broadband transmission in hypocycloid-core kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 36, 669–671 (2011).
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P. Bates, O. Chalus, and J. Biegert, “Ultrashort pulse characterization in the mid-infrared,” Optics letters 35, 1377–1379 (2010).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

T. Popmintchev, M.-C. Chen, A. Bahabad, M. Gerrity, P. Sidorenko, O. Cohen, I. P. Christov, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase matching of high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 10516–10521 (2009).
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Science (3)

A. Wirth, Th, I. Grguraš, J. Gagnon, A. Moulet, T. T. Luu, S. Pabst, R. Santra, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, V. S. Yakovlev, V. Pervak, F. Krausz, and E. Goulielmakis, “Synthesized Light Transients,” Science 334, 195–200 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-Cycle Nonlinear Optics,” Science 320, 1614–1617 (2008).
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Other (1)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2007).

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Figures (10)

Figure 1
Figure 1

(a) Scheme of the experimental setup for IR pulse self-compression in Kagome fiber and pulse characterization using X-SEA-F-SPIDER. IF - interference filter, BS - beam splitter, M - mirror, ωa1,a2 are ancillae pulse frequencies, ωt is the test pulse central frequency, and ωt + ωa1,a2 are the sum-frequency beams. Note that the lens after the Kagome fiber is shown in order to simplify the drawing, the actual setup uses dispersionless spherical focusing mirror for re-imaging the beam onto the crystal; (b) input pulse profile; (c) measured single-cycle self-compressed pulses. Black curve denotes the pulse envelope, the blue curve - square of the instantaneous electric field; (d) spectra of narrowband ancillae pulses at different interference filter angles, spectra are individually normalized.

Figure 2
Figure 2

Scheme of pulse reconstruction via Fourier analysis of the captured interferogram. IF, interference filter, TP, test pulse; (a) geometry of the experiment and the 2D imaging spectrometer; (b) reconstructed spatio-temproal profile evolution with increasing input pulse energy; (c) X-SEA-F-SPIDER trace with frequency-sheared ancillae pair; (d) X-SEA-F-SPIDER calibration trace with the same frequency ancillae pair; (e) and (f) are the 2D Fourier transforms of (c) and (d) and illustrates the separation of the AC and DC terms; (e) and (f) are the reconstructed spectral intensity and phase across the spatial coordinate x.

Figure 3
Figure 3

The sub-cycle transient structure can be reconstructed using a re-imaging geometry. SCT, sub-cycle transient, PL-FCP, phase locked few cycle pulses, AP1 and AP2 are the ancillae pairs, FO, focusing optics, NL, nonlinear crystal, SCT+AP1 and SCT+AP2 are sum-frequency beams between sub-cycle test pulse and the ancillae.

Figure 4
Figure 4

Spectral temporal characterization comparison between SHG-FROG and X-SEA-F-SPIDER from multi-cycle to single cycle regime. Left column: spectrum, middle column: temporal profile, right column: group delay. In case of SPIDER, frequency-shifted spectra obtained from the imaging spectrometer are shown.

Figure 5
Figure 5

Comparison of geometric time smearing effects between SHG-FROG and XSEA-F-SPIDER techniques in the IR single-cycle regime. (I) is the case of non-collinear SHG-FROG, TP are the two replicas of the short test pulses, D is the beam size, and H is the separation distance. Inset (a) shows pulse front overlap at −τ (where the pulses start to overlap), 0 and +τ time delays in the focal plane where the two beams cross. d is beam diameter at the focus, and θ is half of the intersection angle of the two beams. The spatial length of the fs pulse is p, c is speed of light and τp is pulse duration. (II) is the case of sum frequency generation in X-SEA-F-SPIDER. TP is the short test pulse, AP1 and AP2 are the two ps ancillae; inset (b) illustrates that the time smearing is absent in the focal plane due to the long durations of the ancillae pulses fully overlapping with the test pulse and no temporal scanning involved.

Figure 6
Figure 6

Up-conversion of pulse spectrum in X-SEA-F-SPIDER and comparison to the corresponding SHG spectrum in case of SHG-FROG measurement (dashed blue line). The SHG signal was calculated assuming perfect phase matching. The red curve is one measured over octave spanning spectrum at central wavelength of 1606 nm, frequency-sheared quasi-monochromatic ancillae pair is centered at 1040 nm (red) and 1020 nm (orange), the two sum-frequency spectra are shown with dark and light blue curves; the corresponding central wavelengths of the up-converted pulses are 631 nm and 624 nm respectively. Note that the SFG preserves fine spectral features of the test pulse, while SHG washes those out in case of Fourier-limited pulse.

Figure 7
Figure 7

Phase-matching calculation for SFG of mid-IR test pulses with quasi-monochromatic 1000 nm ancillae pulses using BBO and GaSe crystals in different spectral ranges; (a) response of a Si CCD detector for corresponding up-converted signal wavelengths in the visible range; (b) the phase matching filter curves in different spectral ranges for 20 μm BBO and 100 μm GaSe nonlinear crystals at different phase-matching angles θ. Dashed curves show the absorption of the two crystals. The vertical dashed lines indicate that the spectral range spans 3 octaves: 1000 nm–2000 nm, 2000 nm–4000 nm and 4000 nm–8000 nm.

Figure 8
Figure 8

Measured X-SEA-F-SPIDER traces for three different input pulse energies and corresponding pulse widths. Pulses were self-compressed in 20 cm long fiber filled with 3 bar xenon. The input energies correspond to different stages of pulse self-compression in Kagome fiber: (a) the lowest 7.5 μJ input energy case where the pulse spectrum broadening is negligible (b) the intermediate energy case of 26 μJ, where a short 16 fs transient is being formed, and (c) at the input energy of 35 μJ, the ultra-short 5 fs pulse is formed. The horizontal dashed line is a guide for the eye corresponding to the constant group delay. Spatial Fourier filtering was applied for removing the background from the data.

Figure 9
Figure 9

Soliton self-compression evolution as a function of input pulse energy, characterized using X-SEA-F-SPIDER. (a) spectrum, the second harmonic of the shaded area part of the spectrum is beyond the silicon detector working range (≈ 1100 nm) (b) temporal evolution, (c) pulse duration and energy fraction in the main pulse as defined in Eq. (1).

Figure 10
Figure 10

Spatio-temporal structure and pulse duration (FWHM), pulse fidelity [Eq. (1)] across the beam at single cycle (a), (b) and sub cycle regime (c), (d). The magnification factor of the re-imaging optics is ≈ 20.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Comparison of Common Techniques for IR Single-cycle Pulse Characterization

Equations (1)

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Q = E Gauss E pulse = P 0 + exp ( 4 ln 2 t 2 / τ fwhm 2 ) d t + P ( t ) d t = P 0 π τ fwhm / ( 2 ln 2 ) + P ( t ) d t

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