Abstract

We propose a new methodology to measure gas concentration by light-absorption spectroscopy when the light source spectrum is larger than the spectral width of one or several molecular gas absorption lines. We named it optical similitude absorption spectroscopy (OSAS), as the gas concentration is derived from a similitude between the light source and the target gas spectra. The main OSAS-novelty lies in the development of a robust inversion methodology, based on the Newton-Raphson algorithm, which allows retrieving the target gas concentration from spectrally-integrated differential light-absorption measurements. As a proof, OSAS is applied in laboratory to the 2ν3 methane absorption band at 1.66 µm with uncertainties revealed by the Allan variance. OSAS has also been applied to non-dispersive infra-red and the optical correlation spectroscopy arrangements. This all-optics gas concentration retrieval does not require the use of a gas calibration cell and opens new tracks to atmospheric gas pollution and greenhouse gases sources monitoring.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (3)

2014 (2)

D. J. Hoch, J. Buxmann, H. Sihler, D. Pöhler, C. Zetzsch, and U. Platt, “An instrument for measurements of BrO with LED-based cavity-enhanced differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(1), 199–214 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. B. Rieker, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, J. Kofler, A. M. Zolot, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, C. Cromer, G. Petron, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Frequency-comb-based remote sensing of greenhouse gases over kilometer air paths,” Optica 1(5), 290 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

B. Thomas, G. David, C. Anselmo, J.-P. P. Cariou, A. Miffre, and P. Rairoux, “Remote sensing of atmospheric gases with optical correlation spectroscopy and lidar: First experimental results on water vapor profile measurements,” Appl. Phys. B. 113(2), 265–275 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, “Optical gas sensing: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(1), 012004 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Thomas, G. David, C. Anselmo, E. Coillet, K. Rieth, A. Miffre, J.-P. Cariou, and P. Rairoux, “Remote sensing of methane with broadband laser and optical correlation spectroscopy on the Q-branch of the 2ν3 band,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 291, 3–8 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

Y. Sun, W. Liu, S. Wang, S. Huang, and X. Yu, “Method of sensitivity improving in the non-dispersive infrared gas analysis system,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(6), 8–11 (2011).

C. Stephan, M. Alpers, B. Millet, G. Ehret, P. Flamant, and C. Deniel, “MERLIN: a space-based methane monitor,” Proc. SPIE 8159, 815908 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

E. Vargas-Rodríguez and H. N. Rutt, “Design of CO, CO2 and CH4 gas sensors based on correlation spectroscopy using a Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 137(2), 410–419 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

C. Massie, G. Stewart, G. McGregor, and J. R. Gilchrist, “Design of a portable optical sensor for methane gas detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 113(2), 830–836 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

P. Chambers, E. A. D. Austin, and J. P. Dakin, “Theoretical analysis of a methane gas detection system, using the complementary source modulation method of correlation spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(8), 1629–1636 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. L. Korb and C. Y. Weng, “Effective frequency technique for finite spectral bandwidth effects,” Appl. Opt. 43(18), 3747–3751 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

B. L. Fawcett, A. M. Parkes, D. E. Shallcross, and A. J. Orr-Ewing, “Trace detection of methane using continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy at 1.65 μm,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4(24), 5960–5965 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B. 71(4), 573–580 (2000).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. Dakin, H. Edwards, and B. Weigl, “Progress with optical gas sensors using correlation spectroscopy,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 29(1), 87–93 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

P. Werle, R. Miicke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57(2), 131–139 (1993).
[Crossref]

Aiuppa, A.

Allen, S. K.

T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, G. K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, B. Bex, and B. M. Midgley, “IPCC, 2013: climate change 2013: the physical science basis. contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change” (2013).

Alpers, M.

C. Stephan, M. Alpers, B. Millet, G. Ehret, P. Flamant, and C. Deniel, “MERLIN: a space-based methane monitor,” Proc. SPIE 8159, 815908 (2011).
[Crossref]

Anselmo, C.

B. Thomas, G. David, C. Anselmo, J.-P. P. Cariou, A. Miffre, and P. Rairoux, “Remote sensing of atmospheric gases with optical correlation spectroscopy and lidar: First experimental results on water vapor profile measurements,” Appl. Phys. B. 113(2), 265–275 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Thomas, G. David, C. Anselmo, E. Coillet, K. Rieth, A. Miffre, J.-P. Cariou, and P. Rairoux, “Remote sensing of methane with broadband laser and optical correlation spectroscopy on the Q-branch of the 2ν3 band,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 291, 3–8 (2013).
[Crossref]

Austin, E. A. D.

P. Chambers, E. A. D. Austin, and J. P. Dakin, “Theoretical analysis of a methane gas detection system, using the complementary source modulation method of correlation spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(8), 1629–1636 (2004).
[Crossref]

Babikov, Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baumann, E.

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bex, B.

T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, G. K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, B. Bex, and B. M. Midgley, “IPCC, 2013: climate change 2013: the physical science basis. contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change” (2013).

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bizzocchi, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boschung, J.

T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, G. K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, B. Bex, and B. M. Midgley, “IPCC, 2013: climate change 2013: the physical science basis. contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change” (2013).

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Buxmann, J.

D. J. Hoch, J. Buxmann, H. Sihler, D. Pöhler, C. Zetzsch, and U. Platt, “An instrument for measurements of BrO with LED-based cavity-enhanced differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(1), 199–214 (2014).
[Crossref]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cariou, J.-P.

B. Thomas, G. David, C. Anselmo, E. Coillet, K. Rieth, A. Miffre, J.-P. Cariou, and P. Rairoux, “Remote sensing of methane with broadband laser and optical correlation spectroscopy on the Q-branch of the 2ν3 band,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 291, 3–8 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cariou, J.-P. P.

B. Thomas, G. David, C. Anselmo, J.-P. P. Cariou, A. Miffre, and P. Rairoux, “Remote sensing of atmospheric gases with optical correlation spectroscopy and lidar: First experimental results on water vapor profile measurements,” Appl. Phys. B. 113(2), 265–275 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chambers, P.

P. Chambers, E. A. D. Austin, and J. P. Dakin, “Theoretical analysis of a methane gas detection system, using the complementary source modulation method of correlation spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(8), 1629–1636 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chance, K.

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Drouin, B. J.

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J. Dakin, H. Edwards, and B. Weigl, “Progress with optical gas sensors using correlation spectroscopy,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 29(1), 87–93 (1995).
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C. Stephan, M. Alpers, B. Millet, G. Ehret, P. Flamant, and C. Deniel, “MERLIN: a space-based methane monitor,” Proc. SPIE 8159, 815908 (2011).
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Flamant, P.

C. Stephan, M. Alpers, B. Millet, G. Ehret, P. Flamant, and C. Deniel, “MERLIN: a space-based methane monitor,” Proc. SPIE 8159, 815908 (2011).
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Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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J. Lelieveld, J. S. Evans, M. Fnais, D. Giannadaki, and A. Pozzer, “The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale,” Nature 525(7569), 367–371 (2015).
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Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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J. Lelieveld, J. S. Evans, M. Fnais, D. Giannadaki, and A. Pozzer, “The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale,” Nature 525(7569), 367–371 (2015).
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Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Gross, B.

Harrison, J. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Hodges, J. T.

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J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, “Optical gas sensing: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(1), 012004 (2013).
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Hughes, L. C.

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Jolly, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Kofler, J.

Korb, C. L.

Lamouroux, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Le Roy, R. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Lelieveld, J.

J. Lelieveld, J. S. Evans, M. Fnais, D. Giannadaki, and A. Pozzer, “The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale,” Nature 525(7569), 367–371 (2015).
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B. Thomas, G. David, C. Anselmo, J.-P. P. Cariou, A. Miffre, and P. Rairoux, “Remote sensing of atmospheric gases with optical correlation spectroscopy and lidar: First experimental results on water vapor profile measurements,” Appl. Phys. B. 113(2), 265–275 (2013).
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Rieth, K.

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B. L. Fawcett, A. M. Parkes, D. E. Shallcross, and A. J. Orr-Ewing, “Trace detection of methane using continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy at 1.65 μm,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4(24), 5960–5965 (2002).
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Sinclair, L. C.

Slemr, F.

P. Werle, R. Miicke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57(2), 131–139 (1993).
[Crossref]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Starikova, E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stein, B.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B. 71(4), 573–580 (2000).
[Crossref]

Stephan, C.

C. Stephan, M. Alpers, B. Millet, G. Ehret, P. Flamant, and C. Deniel, “MERLIN: a space-based methane monitor,” Proc. SPIE 8159, 815908 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stewart, G.

C. Massie, G. Stewart, G. McGregor, and J. R. Gilchrist, “Design of a portable optical sensor for methane gas detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 113(2), 830–836 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stocker, T. F.

T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, G. K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, B. Bex, and B. M. Midgley, “IPCC, 2013: climate change 2013: the physical science basis. contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change” (2013).

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, W. Liu, S. Wang, S. Huang, and X. Yu, “Method of sensitivity improving in the non-dispersive infrared gas analysis system,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(6), 8–11 (2011).

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Swann, W. C.

Sweeney, C.

Tans, P. P.

Tashkun, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tatam, R. P.

J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, “Optical gas sensing: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(1), 012004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Thomas, B.

B. Thomas, G. David, C. Anselmo, E. Coillet, K. Rieth, A. Miffre, J.-P. Cariou, and P. Rairoux, “Remote sensing of methane with broadband laser and optical correlation spectroscopy on the Q-branch of the 2ν3 band,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 291, 3–8 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Thomas, G. David, C. Anselmo, J.-P. P. Cariou, A. Miffre, and P. Rairoux, “Remote sensing of atmospheric gases with optical correlation spectroscopy and lidar: First experimental results on water vapor profile measurements,” Appl. Phys. B. 113(2), 265–275 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tignor, M.

T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, G. K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, B. Bex, and B. M. Midgley, “IPCC, 2013: climate change 2013: the physical science basis. contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change” (2013).

Toon, G. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tyuterev, V. G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vargas-Rodríguez, E.

E. Vargas-Rodríguez and H. N. Rutt, “Design of CO, CO2 and CH4 gas sensors based on correlation spectroscopy using a Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 137(2), 410–419 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Waite, D.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B. 71(4), 573–580 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

Y. Sun, W. Liu, S. Wang, S. Huang, and X. Yu, “Method of sensitivity improving in the non-dispersive infrared gas analysis system,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(6), 8–11 (2011).

Wedekind, C.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B. 71(4), 573–580 (2000).
[Crossref]

Weigl, B.

J. Dakin, H. Edwards, and B. Weigl, “Progress with optical gas sensors using correlation spectroscopy,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 29(1), 87–93 (1995).
[Crossref]

Weng, C. Y.

Werle, P.

P. Werle, R. Miicke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57(2), 131–139 (1993).
[Crossref]

Wille, H.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B. 71(4), 573–580 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wöste, L.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B. 71(4), 573–580 (2000).
[Crossref]

Xia, Y.

T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, G. K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, B. Bex, and B. M. Midgley, “IPCC, 2013: climate change 2013: the physical science basis. contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change” (2013).

Xie, F.

Yu, X.

Y. Sun, W. Liu, S. Wang, S. Huang, and X. Yu, “Method of sensitivity improving in the non-dispersive infrared gas analysis system,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(6), 8–11 (2011).

Zah, C. E.

Zetzsch, C.

D. J. Hoch, J. Buxmann, H. Sihler, D. Pöhler, C. Zetzsch, and U. Platt, “An instrument for measurements of BrO with LED-based cavity-enhanced differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(1), 199–214 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ziener, C.

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B. 71(4), 573–580 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zolot, A. M.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

P. Werle, R. Miicke, and F. Slemr, “The limits of signal averaging in atmospheric trace-gas monitoring by tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS),” Appl. Phys. B 57(2), 131–139 (1993).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B. (2)

P. Rairoux, H. Schillinger, S. Niedermeier, M. Rodriguez, F. Ronneberger, R. Sauerbrey, B. Stein, D. Waite, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, L. Wöste, and C. Ziener, “Remote sensing of the atmosphere using ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B. 71(4), 573–580 (2000).
[Crossref]

B. Thomas, G. David, C. Anselmo, J.-P. P. Cariou, A. Miffre, and P. Rairoux, “Remote sensing of atmospheric gases with optical correlation spectroscopy and lidar: First experimental results on water vapor profile measurements,” Appl. Phys. B. 113(2), 265–275 (2013).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Meas. Tech. (1)

D. J. Hoch, J. Buxmann, H. Sihler, D. Pöhler, C. Zetzsch, and U. Platt, “An instrument for measurements of BrO with LED-based cavity-enhanced differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 7(1), 199–214 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

Y. Sun, W. Liu, S. Wang, S. Huang, and X. Yu, “Method of sensitivity improving in the non-dispersive infrared gas analysis system,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 9(6), 8–11 (2011).

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (1)

B. Thomas, G. David, C. Anselmo, E. Coillet, K. Rieth, A. Miffre, J.-P. Cariou, and P. Rairoux, “Remote sensing of methane with broadband laser and optical correlation spectroscopy on the Q-branch of the 2ν3 band,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 291, 3–8 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

P. Chambers, E. A. D. Austin, and J. P. Dakin, “Theoretical analysis of a methane gas detection system, using the complementary source modulation method of correlation spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(8), 1629–1636 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Hodgkinson and R. P. Tatam, “Optical gas sensing: a review,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 24(1), 012004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

J. Lelieveld, J. S. Evans, M. Fnais, D. Giannadaki, and A. Pozzer, “The contribution of outdoor air pollution sources to premature mortality on a global scale,” Nature 525(7569), 367–371 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optica (1)

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

B. L. Fawcett, A. M. Parkes, D. E. Shallcross, and A. J. Orr-Ewing, “Trace detection of methane using continuous wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy at 1.65 μm,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 4(24), 5960–5965 (2002).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

C. Stephan, M. Alpers, B. Millet, G. Ehret, P. Flamant, and C. Deniel, “MERLIN: a space-based methane monitor,” Proc. SPIE 8159, 815908 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (3)

C. Massie, G. Stewart, G. McGregor, and J. R. Gilchrist, “Design of a portable optical sensor for methane gas detection,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 113(2), 830–836 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Vargas-Rodríguez and H. N. Rutt, “Design of CO, CO2 and CH4 gas sensors based on correlation spectroscopy using a Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 137(2), 410–419 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Dakin, H. Edwards, and B. Weigl, “Progress with optical gas sensors using correlation spectroscopy,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 29(1), 87–93 (1995).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

W. H. Press, Numerical Recipes: the Art of Scientific Computing (Cambridge University, 2007).

D. Kaplan and P. Tournois, “Acousto-optic spectral filtering of femtosecond laser pulses,” in Ultrafast Optics IV (Springer, 2004).

T. F. Stocker, D. Qin, G. K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S. K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, B. Bex, and B. M. Midgley, “IPCC, 2013: climate change 2013: the physical science basis. contribution of working group I to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change” (2013).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The OSAS-principle applied to the methane gas. The power spectral density (PSD, black curve) of a broadband light source is spectrally shaped to enfold (red curve) or not (blue curve) the methane absorption cross-section spectrum σCH4(λ). The 2ν3 absorption band is here considered (green lines), calculated from HITRAN 2012 database [16] for T = 294 K, p = 1013.25 mbar and air-broadening; a Voigt profile is used to model the line-shape. η(λ) is the spectrum of the opto-electronic efficiency of the OSAS detection part (orange curve).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) The iterative Newton-Raphson algorithm applied to a methane concentration of N = 2.5.1024 #.m−3 (black line). Its convergence is shown with successive iterations (labeled by the iteration number n) while the grey area represents the variation of g when considering ± 2% statistical errors on Si. b) Relative numerical error on N as a function of the iteration number n.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized weighted transmission Twi) as a function of the central wavelength λi and the amplitude modulation function M(λi, λ), as defined in Eq. (5). Two different modulation spectral widths are considered (δλ = 2.5 nm, blue curve; δλ = 5 nm, red curve) in the case study of a path-integrated concentration of 104 ppm.m of methane.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scheme of the experimental set-up. The SLED broadband PSD is shaped by an amplitude modulator generating the Mi(λ) function, either I or II or III. The Si-signals are measured with an Avalanche Photo-Diode (APD) after passing through a 1-meter-long gas cell. A removable mirror is added on the optical path for spectral characterizations. A quarter waveplate is used to avoid biases induced by the polarization dependent spectrograph grating efficiency. Each amplitude modulator is described in subsection 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Methane path-integrated concentrations retrieved from the OSAS-methodology depending on the reference channel AM function central wavelength λ2. The expected methane PIC is represented in dashed-lines.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Methane PIC retrieved by applying different AM-techniques. The expected PIC-values are indicated with the dotted lines for comparison.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

a) Temporal evolution of methane PIC retrieved with OSAS by using the AOPDF-modulator over 6000 seconds. At time t = 2000 s, the 1-meter-long measurement gas cell buffered with N2 is filled with a methane-air mixture (1.8% of methane). Then, methane is removed from the gas cell by flushing it with N2. The stability over time of P(λ) and η(λ) has been directly checked before and after the measurements. b) Allan deviation of the signal ratio S1/S2 between t = 2050 s and t = 5050 s.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S i =K Δλ P 0;i (λ) T TG (λ)η(λ) dλ
P 0;i (λ)= P 0 (λ) M i (λ)
g(x)= S 2 f 1 (x) S 1 f 2 (x)
f i (x)= Δλ P 0;i (λ)exp( xσ(λ) )η(λ) dλ
T w ( λ i )= Δλ P 0 (λ)M( λ i ,λ) T TG (λ) η(λ) dλ Δλ P 0 (λ)M( λ i ,λ) η(λ) dλ
η( λ i )= S( λ i ) Δλ P 0; i ( λ i ,λ) dλ

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