Abstract

A more than 1.5 octave-spanning mid-infrared supercontinuum (1.2 to 3.6 μm) is generated by pumping a As2S3-silica “double-nanospike” waveguide via a femtosecond Cr:ZnS laser at 2.35 μm. The combination of the optimized group velocity dispersion and extremely high nonlinearity provided by the As2S3-silica hybrid waveguide enables a ~100 pJ level pump pulse energy threshold for octave-spanning spectral broadening at a repetition rate of 90 MHz. Numerical simulations show that the generated supercontinuum is highly coherent over the entire spanning wavelength range. The results are important for realization of a high repetition rate octave-spanning frequency comb in the mid-infrared spectral region.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  4. K. Luke, Y. Okawachi, M. R. Lamont, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Broadband mid-infrared frequency comb generation in a Si(3)N(4) microresonator,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4823–4826 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. N. Tolstik, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, “Gigahertz Femtosecond Cr:ZnS Laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers 2014, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper AM3A.1.

2015 (6)

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picqué, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6310 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. T. Sorokina and E. Sorokin, “Femtosecond Cr2+ based lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 273–291 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, F. Di Teodoro, P. M. Belden, W. T. Lotshaw, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Generation of Kerr combs centered at 4.5 μm in crystalline microresonators pumped with quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3468–3471 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Luke, Y. Okawachi, M. R. Lamont, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Broadband mid-infrared frequency comb generation in a Si(3)N(4) microresonator,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4823–4826 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. R. Johnson, A. S. Mayer, A. Klenner, K. Luke, E. S. Lamb, M. R. Lamont, C. Joshi, Y. Okawachi, F. W. Wise, M. Lipson, U. Keller, and A. L. Gaeta, “Octave-spanning coherent supercontinuum generation in a silicon nitride waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 5117–5120 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

2006 (1)

P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, and P. D. Natale, “Mid-infrared fibre-based optical comb,” New J. Phys. 8(11), 262 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

Baets, R.

B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picqué, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6310 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belden, P. M.

Byer, R. L.

Caillaud, C.

Cardenas, J.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

Coen, S.

B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picqué, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6310 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Dudley and S. Coen, “Coherence properties of supercontinuum spectra generated in photonic crystal and tapered optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1180–1182 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coulombier, Q.

Di Teodoro, F.

Dianov, E. M.

Dudley, J. M.

Fain, R.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fejer, M. M.

Fermann, M. E.

Gaeta, A. L.

Gagliardi, G.

P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, and P. D. Natale, “Mid-infrared fibre-based optical comb,” New J. Phys. 8(11), 262 (2006).
[Crossref]

Granzow, N.

Griffith, A. G.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picqué, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6310 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hartl, I.

Holzner, S.

B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picqué, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6310 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ideguchi, T.

B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picqué, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6310 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ilchenko, V. S.

Jiang, J.

Johnson, A. R.

Joshi, C.

Keller, U.

Klenner, A.

Kuyken, B.

B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picqué, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6310 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lamb, E. S.

Lamont, M. R.

Langrock, C.

Lau, R. K. W.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K. F.

Lee, Y. H. D.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leindecker, N.

Leo, F.

B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picqué, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6310 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Lotshaw, W. T.

Luke, K.

Maddaloni, P.

P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, and P. D. Natale, “Mid-infrared fibre-based optical comb,” New J. Phys. 8(11), 262 (2006).
[Crossref]

Malara, P.

P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, and P. D. Natale, “Mid-infrared fibre-based optical comb,” New J. Phys. 8(11), 262 (2006).
[Crossref]

Maleki, L.

Marandi, A.

Matsko, A. B.

Mayer, A. S.

Mohanty, A.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Natale, P. D.

P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, and P. D. Natale, “Mid-infrared fibre-based optical comb,” New J. Phys. 8(11), 262 (2006).
[Crossref]

Okawachi, Y.

Pelc, J. S.

Phare, C. T.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phillips, C. R.

Picqué, N.

B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picqué, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6310 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

Plotnichenko, V. G.

Poitras, C. B.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pospischil, A.

Roelkens, G.

B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picqué, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6310 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rudy, C. W.

Russell, P. S. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

Savchenkov, A. A.

Schliesser, A.

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, M. A.

Schunemann, P. G.

Sorokin, E.

Sorokina, I. T.

Stark, S. P.

Tani, F.

Tolstik, N.

Toupin, P.

Travers, J. C.

Troles, J.

Tverjanovich, A. S.

Uebel, P.

Van Campenhout, J.

B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picqué, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6310 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verheyen, P.

B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picqué, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6310 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vodopyanov, K. L.

Wang, L.

Wise, F. W.

Wondraczek, L.

Xie, S.

Yan, M.

B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picqué, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6310 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, M.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

I. T. Sorokina and E. Sorokin, “Femtosecond Cr2+ based lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 273–291 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (2)

B. Kuyken, T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, M. Yan, T. W. Hänsch, J. Van Campenhout, P. Verheyen, S. Coen, F. Leo, R. Baets, G. Roelkens, and N. Picqué, “An octave-spanning mid-infrared frequency comb generated in a silicon nanophotonic wire waveguide,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6310 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. Schliesser, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Mid-infrared frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 440–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

P. Maddaloni, P. Malara, G. Gagliardi, and P. D. Natale, “Mid-infrared fibre-based optical comb,” New J. Phys. 8(11), 262 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (7)

S. Xie, F. Tani, J. C. Travers, P. Uebel, C. Caillaud, J. Troles, M. A. Schmidt, and P. S. J. Russell, “As2S3-silica double-nanospike waveguide for mid-infrared supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Lett. 39(17), 5216–5219 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. R. Johnson, A. S. Mayer, A. Klenner, K. Luke, E. S. Lamb, M. R. Lamont, C. Joshi, Y. Okawachi, F. W. Wise, M. Lipson, U. Keller, and A. L. Gaeta, “Octave-spanning coherent supercontinuum generation in a silicon nitride waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 5117–5120 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Dudley and S. Coen, “Coherence properties of supercontinuum spectra generated in photonic crystal and tapered optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 27(13), 1180–1182 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. Lee, N. Granzow, M. A. Schmidt, W. Chang, L. Wang, Q. Coulombier, J. Troles, N. Leindecker, K. L. Vodopyanov, P. G. Schunemann, M. E. Fermann, P. St. J. Russell, and I. Hartl, “Midinfrared frequency combs from coherent supercontinuum in chalcogenide and optical parametric oscillation,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 2056–2059 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, F. Di Teodoro, P. M. Belden, W. T. Lotshaw, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Generation of Kerr combs centered at 4.5 μm in crystalline microresonators pumped with quantum-cascade lasers,” Opt. Lett. 40(15), 3468–3471 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. R. Phillips, C. Langrock, J. S. Pelc, M. M. Fejer, J. Jiang, M. E. Fermann, and I. Hartl, “Supercontinuum generation in quasi-phase-matched LiNbO3 waveguide pumped by a Tm-doped fiber laser system,” Opt. Lett. 36(19), 3912–3914 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Luke, Y. Okawachi, M. R. Lamont, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Broadband mid-infrared frequency comb generation in a Si(3)N(4) microresonator,” Opt. Lett. 40(21), 4823–4826 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

N. Tolstik, E. Sorokin, and I. T. Sorokina, “Gigahertz Femtosecond Cr:ZnS Laser,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers 2014, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper AM3A.1.

J. C. Travers, M. H. Frosz, and J. M. Dudley, Supercontinuum Generation in Optical Fibers (Cambridge University, 2010), Ch. 3.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic view of the experimental setup. FL, focusing lens; HR, high reflective mirror; SA, saturable absorber (graphene-based saturable absorber mirror); CM, chirped mirror; OC, output coupler; FI, Faraday isolator; λ/2, half-lambda waveplate; NS, nanospike; FTIR, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Typical optical spectrum and (b) interferometric autocorrelation of the mode-locked laser pulses from the femtosecond Cr:ZnS laser.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Simulated GVD curves and (b) propagation loss (solid curves) of the fundamental mode for the two double-nanospike As2S3-silica waveguides used in the experiment, calculated using the measured material losses for silica and As2S3 (grey and red dashed lines).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Measured SC spectra generated by the As2S3-silica double-nanospike waveguide at different pump pulse energies for the 5-mm-long waveguide with 3.2 μm core diameter. (b) Simulated SC spectrum at the output face of the waveguides. (c) Simulated SC spectral evolution along the waveguide. (d)(e)(f), Results for 3-mm-long waveguide with 1.3 μm core diameter. The dark-red solid curves in (b) and (e) plot the calculated degree of coherence of the SC spectrum at the output face of the waveguides.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured SC spectrum from a commercial As2S3 fiber pumped by the same Cr:ZnS femtosecond laser.

Equations (1)

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| g 12 ( 1 ) ( λ ) |=| A 1 * ( λ ) A 2 ( λ ) [ | A 1 ( λ ) | 2 | A 2 ( λ ) | 2 ] 1/2 |

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