Abstract

We present an experimental method for the generation of amplitude squeezed high-order vector beams. The light is modified twice by a spatial light modulator such that the vector beam is created by means of a collinear interferometric technique. A major advantage of this approach is that it avoids systematic losses, which are detrimental as they cause decoherence in continuous-variable quantum systems. The utilisation of a spatial light modulator (SLM) gives the flexibility to switch between arbitrary mode orders. The conversion efficiency with our setup is only limited by the efficiency of the SLM. We show the experimental generation of Laguerre-Gauss (LG) modes with radial indices 0 or 1 and azimuthal indices up to 3 with complex polarization structures and a quantum noise reduction up to −0.9dB±0.1dB. The corresponding polarization structures are studied in detail by measuring the spatial distribution of the Stokes parameters.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

2015 (3)

A. Aiello, F. Töppel, Ch. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Quantum-like nonseparable structures in optical beams,” New J. Phys. 17, 043024 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Berg-Johansen, F. Töppel, B. Stiller, P. Banzer, M. Ornigotti, E. Giacobino, G. Leuchs, A. Aiello, and C. Marquardt, “Classically entangled optical beams for high-speed kinematic sensing,” Optica 2(10), 864 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Wozniak, P. Banzer, and G. Leuchs, “Selective switching of individual multipole resonances in single dielectric nanoparticles,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(2), 231–240 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

K. Liu, J. Guo, C. Cai, S. Guo, and J. Gao, “Experimental generation of continuous-variable hyperentanglement in an optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 170501 (2014)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. J. Pereira, A. Z. Khoury, and K. Dechoum, “Quantum and classical separability of spin-orbit laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 053842 (2014)
[Crossref]

F. Töppel, A. Aiello, Ch. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Classical entanglement in polarization metrology,” New J. Phys. 16, 073019 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Neo, S. J. Tan, X. Zambrana-Puyalto, S. Leon-Saval, J. Bland-Hawthorn, and G. Molina-Terriza, “Correcting vortex splitting in higher order vortex beams,” Opt. Express 22, 9920–9931 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

2012 (4)

F. Cardano, E. Karimi, S. Slussarenko, L. Marrucci, C. de Lisio, and E. Santamato, “Polarization pattern of vector vortex beams generated by q-plates with different topological charges,” Appl. Opt. 51, C1–C6 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Gabriel, A. Aiello, S. Berg-Johansen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Tools for detecting entanglement between different degrees of freedom in quadrature squeezed cylindrically polarized modes,” Eur. Phys. J. D 66, 172 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Ricci, W. Löffler, and M.P. van Exter, “Instability of higher-order optical vortices analyzed with a multi-pinhole interferometer,” Opt. Express 20, 22961–22975 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

C. Gabriel, A. Aiello, W. Zhong, T. G. Euser, N. Y. Joly, P. Banzer, M. Förtsch, D. Elser, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Leuchs, “Entangling different degrees of freedom by quadrature squeezing cylindrically polarized modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 060502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

J. Morizur, L. Nicholls, P. Jian, S. Armstrong, N. Treps, B. Hage, M. Hsu, W. Bowen, J. Janousek, and H. Bachor, “Programmable unitary spatial mode manipulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27(11), 2524–2531 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

B. Coutinho dos Santos, K. Dechoum, and A. Z. Khoury, “Continuous-Variable Hyperentanglement in a Parametric Oscillator with Orbital Angular Momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 230503 (2009)
[Crossref]

Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1, 1–57 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

T. Züchner, A. V. Failla, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “A novel approach to detect and characterize the scattering patterns of single Au nanoparticles using confocal microscopy,” J. Microsc. 229, 337343 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

B. Schaefer, E. Collett, R. Smyth, D. Barrett, and B. Fraher, “Measuring the Stokes polarization parameters,” Am. J. Phys. 75, 163–168 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Sondermann, R. Maiwald, H. Kronermann, N. Lindlein, U. Peschel, and G. Leuchs, “Design of a mode converter for efficient light-atom coupling in free space,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 489–492 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Müller, P. Banzer, S. Quabis, U. Peschel, and G. Leuchs, “Waveguide properties of single subwavelength holes demonstrated with radially and azimuthally polarized light,” Appl. Phys. B 89(4), 517–520 (2007).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

K. Youngworth and T. Brown, “Focusing of high numerical aperture cylindrical-vector beams,” Opt. Express 7(2), 77–87 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glöckl, and G. Leuchs, “Focusing light to a tighter spot,” Opt. Commun. 179, 1–7 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. Schmitt, J. Ficker, M. Wolff, F. König, A. Sizmann, and G. Leuchs, “Photon-number squeezed solitons from an asymmetric fiber-optic sagnac interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2446 (1998).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

I. V. Basistiy, V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Optics of light beams with screw dislocations,” Opt. Commun. 103, 422–428 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, and J. A. Jordan, “The kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction device,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 13(2), 150–155 (1969).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, N.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aiello, A.

M. Semmler, S. Berg-Johansen, V. Chille, Ch. Gabriel, P. Banzer, A. Aiello, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Single-mode squeezing in arbitrary spatial modes,” Opt. Express 24, 7633–7642 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Berg-Johansen, F. Töppel, B. Stiller, P. Banzer, M. Ornigotti, E. Giacobino, G. Leuchs, A. Aiello, and C. Marquardt, “Classically entangled optical beams for high-speed kinematic sensing,” Optica 2(10), 864 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Aiello, F. Töppel, Ch. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Quantum-like nonseparable structures in optical beams,” New J. Phys. 17, 043024 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Töppel, A. Aiello, Ch. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Classical entanglement in polarization metrology,” New J. Phys. 16, 073019 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Gabriel, A. Aiello, S. Berg-Johansen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Tools for detecting entanglement between different degrees of freedom in quadrature squeezed cylindrically polarized modes,” Eur. Phys. J. D 66, 172 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Gabriel, A. Aiello, W. Zhong, T. G. Euser, N. Y. Joly, P. Banzer, M. Förtsch, D. Elser, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Leuchs, “Entangling different degrees of freedom by quadrature squeezing cylindrically polarized modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 060502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Rigas, C. Gabriel, S. Berg-Johansen, A. Aiello, P. van Loock, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Compact generation of easy-to-access continuous-variable cluster states,” arXiv:1210.5188v3 (2012).

Allen, L.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersen, U. L.

C. Gabriel, A. Aiello, W. Zhong, T. G. Euser, N. Y. Joly, P. Banzer, M. Förtsch, D. Elser, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Leuchs, “Entangling different degrees of freedom by quadrature squeezing cylindrically polarized modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 060502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Rigas, C. Gabriel, S. Berg-Johansen, A. Aiello, P. van Loock, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Compact generation of easy-to-access continuous-variable cluster states,” arXiv:1210.5188v3 (2012).

Armstrong, S.

J. Morizur, L. Nicholls, P. Jian, S. Armstrong, N. Treps, B. Hage, M. Hsu, W. Bowen, J. Janousek, and H. Bachor, “Programmable unitary spatial mode manipulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27(11), 2524–2531 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bachor, H.

J. Morizur, L. Nicholls, P. Jian, S. Armstrong, N. Treps, B. Hage, M. Hsu, W. Bowen, J. Janousek, and H. Bachor, “Programmable unitary spatial mode manipulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27(11), 2524–2531 (2010).
[Crossref]

Banzer, P.

M. Semmler, S. Berg-Johansen, V. Chille, Ch. Gabriel, P. Banzer, A. Aiello, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Single-mode squeezing in arbitrary spatial modes,” Opt. Express 24, 7633–7642 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Berg-Johansen, F. Töppel, B. Stiller, P. Banzer, M. Ornigotti, E. Giacobino, G. Leuchs, A. Aiello, and C. Marquardt, “Classically entangled optical beams for high-speed kinematic sensing,” Optica 2(10), 864 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Wozniak, P. Banzer, and G. Leuchs, “Selective switching of individual multipole resonances in single dielectric nanoparticles,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(2), 231–240 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Gabriel, A. Aiello, W. Zhong, T. G. Euser, N. Y. Joly, P. Banzer, M. Förtsch, D. Elser, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Leuchs, “Entangling different degrees of freedom by quadrature squeezing cylindrically polarized modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 060502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Müller, P. Banzer, S. Quabis, U. Peschel, and G. Leuchs, “Waveguide properties of single subwavelength holes demonstrated with radially and azimuthally polarized light,” Appl. Phys. B 89(4), 517–520 (2007).
[Crossref]

Barrett, D.

B. Schaefer, E. Collett, R. Smyth, D. Barrett, and B. Fraher, “Measuring the Stokes polarization parameters,” Am. J. Phys. 75, 163–168 (2007).
[Crossref]

Basistiy, I. V.

I. V. Basistiy, V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Optics of light beams with screw dislocations,” Opt. Commun. 103, 422–428 (1993).
[Crossref]

Bazhenov, V. Yu.

I. V. Basistiy, V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Optics of light beams with screw dislocations,” Opt. Commun. 103, 422–428 (1993).
[Crossref]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bent, N.

Berg-Johansen, S.

M. Semmler, S. Berg-Johansen, V. Chille, Ch. Gabriel, P. Banzer, A. Aiello, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Single-mode squeezing in arbitrary spatial modes,” Opt. Express 24, 7633–7642 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Berg-Johansen, F. Töppel, B. Stiller, P. Banzer, M. Ornigotti, E. Giacobino, G. Leuchs, A. Aiello, and C. Marquardt, “Classically entangled optical beams for high-speed kinematic sensing,” Optica 2(10), 864 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Gabriel, A. Aiello, S. Berg-Johansen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Tools for detecting entanglement between different degrees of freedom in quadrature squeezed cylindrically polarized modes,” Eur. Phys. J. D 66, 172 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. Rigas, C. Gabriel, S. Berg-Johansen, A. Aiello, P. van Loock, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Compact generation of easy-to-access continuous-variable cluster states,” arXiv:1210.5188v3 (2012).

Bernet, S.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

Bolduc, E.

Bowen, W.

J. Morizur, L. Nicholls, P. Jian, S. Armstrong, N. Treps, B. Hage, M. Hsu, W. Bowen, J. Janousek, and H. Bachor, “Programmable unitary spatial mode manipulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27(11), 2524–2531 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

Brown, T.

Cai, C.

K. Liu, J. Guo, C. Cai, S. Guo, and J. Gao, “Experimental generation of continuous-variable hyperentanglement in an optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 170501 (2014)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cardano, F.

Cheng, W.

Chille, V.

Collett, E.

B. Schaefer, E. Collett, R. Smyth, D. Barrett, and B. Fraher, “Measuring the Stokes polarization parameters,” Am. J. Phys. 75, 163–168 (2007).
[Crossref]

Coutinho dos Santos, B.

B. Coutinho dos Santos, K. Dechoum, and A. Z. Khoury, “Continuous-Variable Hyperentanglement in a Parametric Oscillator with Orbital Angular Momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 230503 (2009)
[Crossref]

de Lisio, C.

Dechoum, K.

L. J. Pereira, A. Z. Khoury, and K. Dechoum, “Quantum and classical separability of spin-orbit laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 053842 (2014)
[Crossref]

B. Coutinho dos Santos, K. Dechoum, and A. Z. Khoury, “Continuous-Variable Hyperentanglement in a Parametric Oscillator with Orbital Angular Momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 230503 (2009)
[Crossref]

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glöckl, and G. Leuchs, “Focusing light to a tighter spot,” Opt. Commun. 179, 1–7 (2000).
[Crossref]

Eberler, M.

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glöckl, and G. Leuchs, “Focusing light to a tighter spot,” Opt. Commun. 179, 1–7 (2000).
[Crossref]

Elser, D.

C. Gabriel, A. Aiello, W. Zhong, T. G. Euser, N. Y. Joly, P. Banzer, M. Förtsch, D. Elser, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Leuchs, “Entangling different degrees of freedom by quadrature squeezing cylindrically polarized modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 060502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Euser, T. G.

C. Gabriel, A. Aiello, W. Zhong, T. G. Euser, N. Y. Joly, P. Banzer, M. Förtsch, D. Elser, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Leuchs, “Entangling different degrees of freedom by quadrature squeezing cylindrically polarized modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 060502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Failla, A. V.

T. Züchner, A. V. Failla, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “A novel approach to detect and characterize the scattering patterns of single Au nanoparticles using confocal microscopy,” J. Microsc. 229, 337343 (2008).
[Crossref]

Fazal, I.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ficker, J.

S. Schmitt, J. Ficker, M. Wolff, F. König, A. Sizmann, and G. Leuchs, “Photon-number squeezed solitons from an asymmetric fiber-optic sagnac interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2446 (1998).
[Crossref]

Förtsch, M.

C. Gabriel, A. Aiello, W. Zhong, T. G. Euser, N. Y. Joly, P. Banzer, M. Förtsch, D. Elser, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Leuchs, “Entangling different degrees of freedom by quadrature squeezing cylindrically polarized modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 060502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fraher, B.

B. Schaefer, E. Collett, R. Smyth, D. Barrett, and B. Fraher, “Measuring the Stokes polarization parameters,” Am. J. Phys. 75, 163–168 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fürhapter, S.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gabriel, C.

C. Gabriel, A. Aiello, S. Berg-Johansen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Tools for detecting entanglement between different degrees of freedom in quadrature squeezed cylindrically polarized modes,” Eur. Phys. J. D 66, 172 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Gabriel, A. Aiello, W. Zhong, T. G. Euser, N. Y. Joly, P. Banzer, M. Förtsch, D. Elser, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Leuchs, “Entangling different degrees of freedom by quadrature squeezing cylindrically polarized modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 060502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Rigas, C. Gabriel, S. Berg-Johansen, A. Aiello, P. van Loock, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Compact generation of easy-to-access continuous-variable cluster states,” arXiv:1210.5188v3 (2012).

Gabriel, Ch.

Gao, J.

K. Liu, J. Guo, C. Cai, S. Guo, and J. Gao, “Experimental generation of continuous-variable hyperentanglement in an optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 170501 (2014)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giacobino, E.

A. Aiello, F. Töppel, Ch. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Quantum-like nonseparable structures in optical beams,” New J. Phys. 17, 043024 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Berg-Johansen, F. Töppel, B. Stiller, P. Banzer, M. Ornigotti, E. Giacobino, G. Leuchs, A. Aiello, and C. Marquardt, “Classically entangled optical beams for high-speed kinematic sensing,” Optica 2(10), 864 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Töppel, A. Aiello, Ch. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Classical entanglement in polarization metrology,” New J. Phys. 16, 073019 (2014).
[Crossref]

Glöckl, O.

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glöckl, and G. Leuchs, “Focusing light to a tighter spot,” Opt. Commun. 179, 1–7 (2000).
[Crossref]

Guo, J.

K. Liu, J. Guo, C. Cai, S. Guo, and J. Gao, “Experimental generation of continuous-variable hyperentanglement in an optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 170501 (2014)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, S.

K. Liu, J. Guo, C. Cai, S. Guo, and J. Gao, “Experimental generation of continuous-variable hyperentanglement in an optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 170501 (2014)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hage, B.

J. Morizur, L. Nicholls, P. Jian, S. Armstrong, N. Treps, B. Hage, M. Hsu, W. Bowen, J. Janousek, and H. Bachor, “Programmable unitary spatial mode manipulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27(11), 2524–2531 (2010).
[Crossref]

Han, W.

Hartschuh, A.

T. Züchner, A. V. Failla, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “A novel approach to detect and characterize the scattering patterns of single Au nanoparticles using confocal microscopy,” J. Microsc. 229, 337343 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hirsch, P. M.

L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, and J. A. Jordan, “The kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction device,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 13(2), 150–155 (1969).
[Crossref]

Hsu, M.

J. Morizur, L. Nicholls, P. Jian, S. Armstrong, N. Treps, B. Hage, M. Hsu, W. Bowen, J. Janousek, and H. Bachor, “Programmable unitary spatial mode manipulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27(11), 2524–2531 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Janousek, J.

J. Morizur, L. Nicholls, P. Jian, S. Armstrong, N. Treps, B. Hage, M. Hsu, W. Bowen, J. Janousek, and H. Bachor, “Programmable unitary spatial mode manipulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27(11), 2524–2531 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jesacher, A.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jian, P.

J. Morizur, L. Nicholls, P. Jian, S. Armstrong, N. Treps, B. Hage, M. Hsu, W. Bowen, J. Janousek, and H. Bachor, “Programmable unitary spatial mode manipulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27(11), 2524–2531 (2010).
[Crossref]

Joly, N. Y.

C. Gabriel, A. Aiello, W. Zhong, T. G. Euser, N. Y. Joly, P. Banzer, M. Förtsch, D. Elser, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Leuchs, “Entangling different degrees of freedom by quadrature squeezing cylindrically polarized modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 060502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jordan, J. A.

L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, and J. A. Jordan, “The kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction device,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 13(2), 150–155 (1969).
[Crossref]

Karimi, E.

Khoury, A. Z.

L. J. Pereira, A. Z. Khoury, and K. Dechoum, “Quantum and classical separability of spin-orbit laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 053842 (2014)
[Crossref]

B. Coutinho dos Santos, K. Dechoum, and A. Z. Khoury, “Continuous-Variable Hyperentanglement in a Parametric Oscillator with Orbital Angular Momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 230503 (2009)
[Crossref]

König, F.

S. Schmitt, J. Ficker, M. Wolff, F. König, A. Sizmann, and G. Leuchs, “Photon-number squeezed solitons from an asymmetric fiber-optic sagnac interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2446 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kronermann, H.

M. Sondermann, R. Maiwald, H. Kronermann, N. Lindlein, U. Peschel, and G. Leuchs, “Design of a mode converter for efficient light-atom coupling in free space,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 489–492 (2007).
[Crossref]

Leon-Saval, S.

Lesem, L. B.

L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, and J. A. Jordan, “The kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction device,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 13(2), 150–155 (1969).
[Crossref]

Leuchs, G.

M. Semmler, S. Berg-Johansen, V. Chille, Ch. Gabriel, P. Banzer, A. Aiello, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Single-mode squeezing in arbitrary spatial modes,” Opt. Express 24, 7633–7642 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Berg-Johansen, F. Töppel, B. Stiller, P. Banzer, M. Ornigotti, E. Giacobino, G. Leuchs, A. Aiello, and C. Marquardt, “Classically entangled optical beams for high-speed kinematic sensing,” Optica 2(10), 864 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Wozniak, P. Banzer, and G. Leuchs, “Selective switching of individual multipole resonances in single dielectric nanoparticles,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(2), 231–240 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Aiello, F. Töppel, Ch. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Quantum-like nonseparable structures in optical beams,” New J. Phys. 17, 043024 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Töppel, A. Aiello, Ch. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Classical entanglement in polarization metrology,” New J. Phys. 16, 073019 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Gabriel, A. Aiello, S. Berg-Johansen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Tools for detecting entanglement between different degrees of freedom in quadrature squeezed cylindrically polarized modes,” Eur. Phys. J. D 66, 172 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Gabriel, A. Aiello, W. Zhong, T. G. Euser, N. Y. Joly, P. Banzer, M. Förtsch, D. Elser, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Leuchs, “Entangling different degrees of freedom by quadrature squeezing cylindrically polarized modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 060502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sondermann, R. Maiwald, H. Kronermann, N. Lindlein, U. Peschel, and G. Leuchs, “Design of a mode converter for efficient light-atom coupling in free space,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 489–492 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Müller, P. Banzer, S. Quabis, U. Peschel, and G. Leuchs, “Waveguide properties of single subwavelength holes demonstrated with radially and azimuthally polarized light,” Appl. Phys. B 89(4), 517–520 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glöckl, and G. Leuchs, “Focusing light to a tighter spot,” Opt. Commun. 179, 1–7 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Schmitt, J. Ficker, M. Wolff, F. König, A. Sizmann, and G. Leuchs, “Photon-number squeezed solitons from an asymmetric fiber-optic sagnac interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2446 (1998).
[Crossref]

I. Rigas, C. Gabriel, S. Berg-Johansen, A. Aiello, P. van Loock, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Compact generation of easy-to-access continuous-variable cluster states,” arXiv:1210.5188v3 (2012).

Lindlein, N.

M. Sondermann, R. Maiwald, H. Kronermann, N. Lindlein, U. Peschel, and G. Leuchs, “Design of a mode converter for efficient light-atom coupling in free space,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 489–492 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liu, K.

K. Liu, J. Guo, C. Cai, S. Guo, and J. Gao, “Experimental generation of continuous-variable hyperentanglement in an optical parametric oscillator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 170501 (2014)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Löffler, W.

Maiwald, R.

M. Sondermann, R. Maiwald, H. Kronermann, N. Lindlein, U. Peschel, and G. Leuchs, “Design of a mode converter for efficient light-atom coupling in free space,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 489–492 (2007).
[Crossref]

Marquardt, C.

S. Berg-Johansen, F. Töppel, B. Stiller, P. Banzer, M. Ornigotti, E. Giacobino, G. Leuchs, A. Aiello, and C. Marquardt, “Classically entangled optical beams for high-speed kinematic sensing,” Optica 2(10), 864 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Gabriel, A. Aiello, S. Berg-Johansen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Tools for detecting entanglement between different degrees of freedom in quadrature squeezed cylindrically polarized modes,” Eur. Phys. J. D 66, 172 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Gabriel, A. Aiello, W. Zhong, T. G. Euser, N. Y. Joly, P. Banzer, M. Förtsch, D. Elser, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Leuchs, “Entangling different degrees of freedom by quadrature squeezing cylindrically polarized modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 060502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Rigas, C. Gabriel, S. Berg-Johansen, A. Aiello, P. van Loock, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Compact generation of easy-to-access continuous-variable cluster states,” arXiv:1210.5188v3 (2012).

Marquardt, Ch.

M. Semmler, S. Berg-Johansen, V. Chille, Ch. Gabriel, P. Banzer, A. Aiello, Ch. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Single-mode squeezing in arbitrary spatial modes,” Opt. Express 24, 7633–7642 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Aiello, F. Töppel, Ch. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Quantum-like nonseparable structures in optical beams,” New J. Phys. 17, 043024 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Töppel, A. Aiello, Ch. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Classical entanglement in polarization metrology,” New J. Phys. 16, 073019 (2014).
[Crossref]

Marrucci, L.

Maurer, C.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
[Crossref]

Meixner, A. J.

T. Züchner, A. V. Failla, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “A novel approach to detect and characterize the scattering patterns of single Au nanoparticles using confocal microscopy,” J. Microsc. 229, 337343 (2008).
[Crossref]

Molina-Terriza, G.

Morizur, J.

J. Morizur, L. Nicholls, P. Jian, S. Armstrong, N. Treps, B. Hage, M. Hsu, W. Bowen, J. Janousek, and H. Bachor, “Programmable unitary spatial mode manipulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27(11), 2524–2531 (2010).
[Crossref]

Müller, J.

J. Müller, P. Banzer, S. Quabis, U. Peschel, and G. Leuchs, “Waveguide properties of single subwavelength holes demonstrated with radially and azimuthally polarized light,” Appl. Phys. B 89(4), 517–520 (2007).
[Crossref]

Neo, R.

Nicholls, L.

J. Morizur, L. Nicholls, P. Jian, S. Armstrong, N. Treps, B. Hage, M. Hsu, W. Bowen, J. Janousek, and H. Bachor, “Programmable unitary spatial mode manipulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27(11), 2524–2531 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ornigotti, M.

Pereira, L. J.

L. J. Pereira, A. Z. Khoury, and K. Dechoum, “Quantum and classical separability of spin-orbit laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 053842 (2014)
[Crossref]

Peschel, U.

J. Müller, P. Banzer, S. Quabis, U. Peschel, and G. Leuchs, “Waveguide properties of single subwavelength holes demonstrated with radially and azimuthally polarized light,” Appl. Phys. B 89(4), 517–520 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Sondermann, R. Maiwald, H. Kronermann, N. Lindlein, U. Peschel, and G. Leuchs, “Design of a mode converter for efficient light-atom coupling in free space,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 489–492 (2007).
[Crossref]

Quabis, S.

J. Müller, P. Banzer, S. Quabis, U. Peschel, and G. Leuchs, “Waveguide properties of single subwavelength holes demonstrated with radially and azimuthally polarized light,” Appl. Phys. B 89(4), 517–520 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Quabis, R. Dorn, M. Eberler, O. Glöckl, and G. Leuchs, “Focusing light to a tighter spot,” Opt. Commun. 179, 1–7 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ren, Y.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ricci, F.

Rigas, I.

I. Rigas, C. Gabriel, S. Berg-Johansen, A. Aiello, P. van Loock, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Compact generation of easy-to-access continuous-variable cluster states,” arXiv:1210.5188v3 (2012).

Ritsch-Marte, M.

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Fürhapter, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Tailoring of arbitrary optical vector beams,” New J. Phys. 9, 78 (2007).
[Crossref]

Russell, P. S. J.

C. Gabriel, A. Aiello, W. Zhong, T. G. Euser, N. Y. Joly, P. Banzer, M. Förtsch, D. Elser, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Leuchs, “Entangling different degrees of freedom by quadrature squeezing cylindrically polarized modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 060502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Santamato, E.

Schaefer, B.

B. Schaefer, E. Collett, R. Smyth, D. Barrett, and B. Fraher, “Measuring the Stokes polarization parameters,” Am. J. Phys. 75, 163–168 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schmitt, S.

S. Schmitt, J. Ficker, M. Wolff, F. König, A. Sizmann, and G. Leuchs, “Photon-number squeezed solitons from an asymmetric fiber-optic sagnac interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2446 (1998).
[Crossref]

Semmler, M.

Sizmann, A.

S. Schmitt, J. Ficker, M. Wolff, F. König, A. Sizmann, and G. Leuchs, “Photon-number squeezed solitons from an asymmetric fiber-optic sagnac interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2446 (1998).
[Crossref]

Slussarenko, S.

Smyth, R.

B. Schaefer, E. Collett, R. Smyth, D. Barrett, and B. Fraher, “Measuring the Stokes polarization parameters,” Am. J. Phys. 75, 163–168 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sondermann, M.

M. Sondermann, R. Maiwald, H. Kronermann, N. Lindlein, U. Peschel, and G. Leuchs, “Design of a mode converter for efficient light-atom coupling in free space,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 489–492 (2007).
[Crossref]

Soskin, M. S.

I. V. Basistiy, V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Optics of light beams with screw dislocations,” Opt. Commun. 103, 422–428 (1993).
[Crossref]

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stiller, B.

Tan, S. J.

Töppel, F.

S. Berg-Johansen, F. Töppel, B. Stiller, P. Banzer, M. Ornigotti, E. Giacobino, G. Leuchs, A. Aiello, and C. Marquardt, “Classically entangled optical beams for high-speed kinematic sensing,” Optica 2(10), 864 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Aiello, F. Töppel, Ch. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Quantum-like nonseparable structures in optical beams,” New J. Phys. 17, 043024 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Töppel, A. Aiello, Ch. Marquardt, E. Giacobino, and G. Leuchs, “Classical entanglement in polarization metrology,” New J. Phys. 16, 073019 (2014).
[Crossref]

Treps, N.

J. Morizur, L. Nicholls, P. Jian, S. Armstrong, N. Treps, B. Hage, M. Hsu, W. Bowen, J. Janousek, and H. Bachor, “Programmable unitary spatial mode manipulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 27(11), 2524–2531 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tur, M.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

van Exter, M.P.

van Loock, P.

I. Rigas, C. Gabriel, S. Berg-Johansen, A. Aiello, P. van Loock, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Compact generation of easy-to-access continuous-variable cluster states,” arXiv:1210.5188v3 (2012).

Vasnetsov, M. V.

I. V. Basistiy, V. Yu. Bazhenov, M. S. Soskin, and M. V. Vasnetsov, “Optics of light beams with screw dislocations,” Opt. Commun. 103, 422–428 (1993).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Willner, A.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Woerdman, J. P.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 8185 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolff, M.

S. Schmitt, J. Ficker, M. Wolff, F. König, A. Sizmann, and G. Leuchs, “Photon-number squeezed solitons from an asymmetric fiber-optic sagnac interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2446 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wozniak, P.

P. Wozniak, P. Banzer, and G. Leuchs, “Selective switching of individual multipole resonances in single dielectric nanoparticles,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(2), 231–240 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xum, H.

Yan, Y.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

Yang, Y.

Youngworth, K.

Yue, Y

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6, 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zambrana-Puyalto, X.

Zhan, Q.

Zhong, W.

C. Gabriel, A. Aiello, W. Zhong, T. G. Euser, N. Y. Joly, P. Banzer, M. Förtsch, D. Elser, U. L. Andersen, C. Marquardt, P. S. J. Russell, and G. Leuchs, “Entangling different degrees of freedom by quadrature squeezing cylindrically polarized modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 060502 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Züchner, T.

T. Züchner, A. V. Failla, A. Hartschuh, and A. J. Meixner, “A novel approach to detect and characterize the scattering patterns of single Au nanoparticles using confocal microscopy,” J. Microsc. 229, 337343 (2008).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Photonics (1)

Q. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1, 1–57 (2009).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

B. Schaefer, E. Collett, R. Smyth, D. Barrett, and B. Fraher, “Measuring the Stokes polarization parameters,” Am. J. Phys. 75, 163–168 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

J. Müller, P. Banzer, S. Quabis, U. Peschel, and G. Leuchs, “Waveguide properties of single subwavelength holes demonstrated with radially and azimuthally polarized light,” Appl. Phys. B 89(4), 517–520 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Sondermann, R. Maiwald, H. Kronermann, N. Lindlein, U. Peschel, and G. Leuchs, “Design of a mode converter for efficient light-atom coupling in free space,” Appl. Phys. B 89, 489–492 (2007).
[Crossref]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

C. Gabriel, A. Aiello, S. Berg-Johansen, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, “Tools for detecting entanglement between different degrees of freedom in quadrature squeezed cylindrically polarized modes,” Eur. Phys. J. D 66, 172 (2012).
[Crossref]

IBM J. Res. Dev. (1)

L. B. Lesem, P. M. Hirsch, and J. A. Jordan, “The kinoform: a new wavefront reconstruction device,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 13(2), 150–155 (1969).
[Crossref]

J. Microsc. (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup for the generation of amplitude squeezed vector beams. The setup is divided into three main parts: The Sagnac loop (yellow) that performs the quantum noise reduction in the amplitude quadrature, the mode conversion setup (green) transforming the fundamental Gaussian mode into a higher-order Laguerre-Gauss mode and the mode analysis setup (blue). The output of the laser is divided into two beams. One of them enters the Sagnac loop and is amplitude squeezed (see text in Sec. 2.1 for details). The other one serves as a coherent reference beam which, by the help of a flip mirror, may be chosen to enter the mode conversion setup. We use it to evaluate the quantum noise reduction in front and behind the mode conversion setup via a direct detection scheme. The mode conversion is performed via two individual spatial modulations of the vertically and horizontally polarized parts of the light beam in a double-reflection technique (see text for details). Examples for the phase masks for the two modulations are depicted here. In practice, a kinoform is added to the theoretical pattern to improve the mode quality. By using the quarter-wave plate after the SLM, the states of polarization are transformed from linear to circular. The higher-order vectorial mode arises from the superposition of these two individual modes propagating in the same beam path.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Analysis of the experimentally generated, radially polarized mode with the spatial structure of a LG01 beam. For the total intensity, the characteristic doughnut shaped pattern is observed, see (a). The following images represent the intensity distributions behind a polarizer orientated according to the white arrow. One can see a slight asymmetry due to the imperfections of the mode. The results of the spatial Stokes measurements are depicted in (b). Comparing them to the theoretical expectations shown in (c), we see in particular that there is a circularly polarized component that should not be there in the ideal case. The amplitude squeezing in the experimentally generated mode amounts to −0.9dB ± 0.1dB and is thus significant.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Spatial distribution of the Stokes parameters of the experimentally generated higher-order modes with complex polarization structures The Stokes parameters give a complete description of the modes and demonstrate that we achieve a good mode quality also for very sophisticated polarization structures. The error given for the amplitude squeezing is the statistical error. Please see the main text in Sec. 2.1 for a detailed description of the error determination.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Direct observation by means of a CCD camera The first image in each row shows the intensity pattern of the mode, the very small pictures in the corners illustrate the respective theoretical prediction. The following images are taken behind a rotatable polarizer, the orientation of which is indicated by the white arrows.

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