Abstract

The emergence of cloud computing and big data has rapidly increased the deployment of small and mid-sized data centers. Enterprises and cloud providers require an agile network among these data centers to empower application reliability and flexible scalability. We present a software-defined inter data center network to enable on-demand scale out of data centers on a metro-scale optical network. The architecture consists of a combined space/wavelength switching platform and a Software-Defined Networking (SDN) control plane equipped with a wavelength and routing assignment module. It enables establishing transparent and bandwidth-selective connections from L2/L3 switches, on-demand. The architecture is evaluated in a testbed consisting of 3 data centers, 5–25 km apart. We successfully demonstrated end-to-end bulk data transfer and Virtual Machine (VM) migrations across data centers with less than 100 ms connection setup time and close to full link capacity utilization.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Kachris, K. Bergman, and I. Tomkos, Optical Interconnects for Future Data Center Networks, (Springer, 2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. Bell Labs, “Metro network traffic growth: an architecture impact study,” Strategic White Paper 1–12, (2013).
  3. Cisco, “Cisco visual networking index: forecast and methodology, 2014–2019,” White paper 1–14, (2015).
  4. P. Samadi, J. Xu, K. Wen, H. Guan, Z. Li, and K. Bergman, “Experimental demonstration of converged inter/intra data center network architecture,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Transport Optical Networks (ICTON), (2015), paper We.B3.3.
  5. N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, S. Shenker, and J. Turner, “Open-flow: enabling innovation in campus networks,” SIGCOMM Comp. Commu. Rev. 38(2), 69–74, (2008).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Yang, Y. Ji, H. Li, Y. Lin, G. Li, J. Han, Y. Lee, and T. Ma, “First demonstration of enhanced software defined networking (eSDN) over elastic grid (eGrid) optical networks for data center service migration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5B.1.
  7. S. Yan, E. Hugues-Salas, V. J. F. Rancao, Y. Shu, G. M. Saridis, B. Rahimzadeh Rofoee, Y. Yan, A. Peters, S. Jain, T. May-Smith, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, G. Zervas, and D. Simeonidou, “Archon: a function programmable optical interconnect architecture for transparent intra and inter data center SDM/TDM/WDM networking,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33(8), 1586–1595, (2015).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. Samadi, J. Xu, and K. Bergman, “Virtual machine migration over optical circuit switching network in a converged inter/intra data center architecture,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th4G.6.
  9. P. Samadi, H. Guan, K. Wen, and K. Bergman, “A software-defined optical gateway for converged inter/intra data center networks,” IEEE Optical Interconnect Conference (OI), (2015), paper MB4.
  10. T. S. El-Bawab, Optical Switching, (Springer, 2008).
  11. Polatis 384×384 Optical Space Switch, http://www.polatis.com/ .
  12. The OpenDayLight Platform, https://www.opendaylight.org/ .
  13. RYU SDN Platform, https://osrg.github.io/ryu/ .
  14. H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Optical Networks Magazine 1, 47–60, (2000).
  15. S. Sanfilippo and P. Noordhuis, “Redis”, http://redis.io .
  16. Iperf, https://iperf.fr/ .
  17. S. Han, T. J. Seok, N. Quack, B. Yoo, and M. C. Wu, “Monolithic 50×50 MEMS silicon photonic switches with microsecond response time,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper M2K.2.
    [Crossref]
  18. T. A. Strasser and J. L. Wagener, “Wavelength-selective switches for ROADM applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1150–1157, (2010).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. Biberman, H. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506, (2011).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

2011 (1)

A. Biberman, H. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506, (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

T. A. Strasser and J. L. Wagener, “Wavelength-selective switches for ROADM applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1150–1157, (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, S. Shenker, and J. Turner, “Open-flow: enabling innovation in campus networks,” SIGCOMM Comp. Commu. Rev. 38(2), 69–74, (2008).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Optical Networks Magazine 1, 47–60, (2000).

Anderson, T.

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, S. Shenker, and J. Turner, “Open-flow: enabling innovation in campus networks,” SIGCOMM Comp. Commu. Rev. 38(2), 69–74, (2008).
[Crossref]

Balakrishnan, H.

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, S. Shenker, and J. Turner, “Open-flow: enabling innovation in campus networks,” SIGCOMM Comp. Commu. Rev. 38(2), 69–74, (2008).
[Crossref]

Bergman, K.

A. Biberman, H. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506, (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Samadi, J. Xu, and K. Bergman, “Virtual machine migration over optical circuit switching network in a converged inter/intra data center architecture,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th4G.6.

P. Samadi, H. Guan, K. Wen, and K. Bergman, “A software-defined optical gateway for converged inter/intra data center networks,” IEEE Optical Interconnect Conference (OI), (2015), paper MB4.

C. Kachris, K. Bergman, and I. Tomkos, Optical Interconnects for Future Data Center Networks, (Springer, 2013).
[Crossref]

P. Samadi, J. Xu, K. Wen, H. Guan, Z. Li, and K. Bergman, “Experimental demonstration of converged inter/intra data center network architecture,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Transport Optical Networks (ICTON), (2015), paper We.B3.3.

Biberman, A.

A. Biberman, H. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506, (2011).
[Crossref]

Chan, J.

A. Biberman, H. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506, (2011).
[Crossref]

El-Bawab, T. S.

T. S. El-Bawab, Optical Switching, (Springer, 2008).

Guan, H.

P. Samadi, H. Guan, K. Wen, and K. Bergman, “A software-defined optical gateway for converged inter/intra data center networks,” IEEE Optical Interconnect Conference (OI), (2015), paper MB4.

P. Samadi, J. Xu, K. Wen, H. Guan, Z. Li, and K. Bergman, “Experimental demonstration of converged inter/intra data center network architecture,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Transport Optical Networks (ICTON), (2015), paper We.B3.3.

Han, J.

J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Yang, Y. Ji, H. Li, Y. Lin, G. Li, J. Han, Y. Lee, and T. Ma, “First demonstration of enhanced software defined networking (eSDN) over elastic grid (eGrid) optical networks for data center service migration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5B.1.

Han, S.

S. Han, T. J. Seok, N. Quack, B. Yoo, and M. C. Wu, “Monolithic 50×50 MEMS silicon photonic switches with microsecond response time,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper M2K.2.
[Crossref]

Hugues-Salas, E.

Jain, S.

Ji, Y.

J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Yang, Y. Ji, H. Li, Y. Lin, G. Li, J. Han, Y. Lee, and T. Ma, “First demonstration of enhanced software defined networking (eSDN) over elastic grid (eGrid) optical networks for data center service migration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5B.1.

Jue, J. P.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Optical Networks Magazine 1, 47–60, (2000).

Kachris, C.

C. Kachris, K. Bergman, and I. Tomkos, Optical Interconnects for Future Data Center Networks, (Springer, 2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.

J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Yang, Y. Ji, H. Li, Y. Lin, G. Li, J. Han, Y. Lee, and T. Ma, “First demonstration of enhanced software defined networking (eSDN) over elastic grid (eGrid) optical networks for data center service migration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5B.1.

Li, G.

J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Yang, Y. Ji, H. Li, Y. Lin, G. Li, J. Han, Y. Lee, and T. Ma, “First demonstration of enhanced software defined networking (eSDN) over elastic grid (eGrid) optical networks for data center service migration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5B.1.

Li, H.

J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Yang, Y. Ji, H. Li, Y. Lin, G. Li, J. Han, Y. Lee, and T. Ma, “First demonstration of enhanced software defined networking (eSDN) over elastic grid (eGrid) optical networks for data center service migration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5B.1.

Li, Z.

P. Samadi, J. Xu, K. Wen, H. Guan, Z. Li, and K. Bergman, “Experimental demonstration of converged inter/intra data center network architecture,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Transport Optical Networks (ICTON), (2015), paper We.B3.3.

Lin, Y.

J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Yang, Y. Ji, H. Li, Y. Lin, G. Li, J. Han, Y. Lee, and T. Ma, “First demonstration of enhanced software defined networking (eSDN) over elastic grid (eGrid) optical networks for data center service migration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5B.1.

Lipson, M.

A. Biberman, H. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506, (2011).
[Crossref]

Lira, H.

A. Biberman, H. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506, (2011).
[Crossref]

Ma, T.

J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Yang, Y. Ji, H. Li, Y. Lin, G. Li, J. Han, Y. Lee, and T. Ma, “First demonstration of enhanced software defined networking (eSDN) over elastic grid (eGrid) optical networks for data center service migration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5B.1.

May-Smith, T.

McKeown, N.

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, S. Shenker, and J. Turner, “Open-flow: enabling innovation in campus networks,” SIGCOMM Comp. Commu. Rev. 38(2), 69–74, (2008).
[Crossref]

Mukherjee, B.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Optical Networks Magazine 1, 47–60, (2000).

Ophir, N.

A. Biberman, H. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506, (2011).
[Crossref]

Padmaraju, K.

A. Biberman, H. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506, (2011).
[Crossref]

Parulkar, G.

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, S. Shenker, and J. Turner, “Open-flow: enabling innovation in campus networks,” SIGCOMM Comp. Commu. Rev. 38(2), 69–74, (2008).
[Crossref]

Peters, A.

Peterson, L.

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, S. Shenker, and J. Turner, “Open-flow: enabling innovation in campus networks,” SIGCOMM Comp. Commu. Rev. 38(2), 69–74, (2008).
[Crossref]

Petropoulos, P.

Quack, N.

S. Han, T. J. Seok, N. Quack, B. Yoo, and M. C. Wu, “Monolithic 50×50 MEMS silicon photonic switches with microsecond response time,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper M2K.2.
[Crossref]

Rahimzadeh Rofoee, B.

Rancao, V. J. F.

Rexford, J.

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, S. Shenker, and J. Turner, “Open-flow: enabling innovation in campus networks,” SIGCOMM Comp. Commu. Rev. 38(2), 69–74, (2008).
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

Samadi, P.

P. Samadi, H. Guan, K. Wen, and K. Bergman, “A software-defined optical gateway for converged inter/intra data center networks,” IEEE Optical Interconnect Conference (OI), (2015), paper MB4.

P. Samadi, J. Xu, and K. Bergman, “Virtual machine migration over optical circuit switching network in a converged inter/intra data center architecture,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th4G.6.

P. Samadi, J. Xu, K. Wen, H. Guan, Z. Li, and K. Bergman, “Experimental demonstration of converged inter/intra data center network architecture,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Transport Optical Networks (ICTON), (2015), paper We.B3.3.

Saridis, G. M.

Seok, T. J.

S. Han, T. J. Seok, N. Quack, B. Yoo, and M. C. Wu, “Monolithic 50×50 MEMS silicon photonic switches with microsecond response time,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper M2K.2.
[Crossref]

Shenker, S.

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, S. Shenker, and J. Turner, “Open-flow: enabling innovation in campus networks,” SIGCOMM Comp. Commu. Rev. 38(2), 69–74, (2008).
[Crossref]

Shu, Y.

Simeonidou, D.

Strasser, T. A.

T. A. Strasser and J. L. Wagener, “Wavelength-selective switches for ROADM applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1150–1157, (2010).
[Crossref]

Tomkos, I.

C. Kachris, K. Bergman, and I. Tomkos, Optical Interconnects for Future Data Center Networks, (Springer, 2013).
[Crossref]

Turner, J.

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, S. Shenker, and J. Turner, “Open-flow: enabling innovation in campus networks,” SIGCOMM Comp. Commu. Rev. 38(2), 69–74, (2008).
[Crossref]

Wagener, J. L.

T. A. Strasser and J. L. Wagener, “Wavelength-selective switches for ROADM applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1150–1157, (2010).
[Crossref]

Wen, K.

P. Samadi, H. Guan, K. Wen, and K. Bergman, “A software-defined optical gateway for converged inter/intra data center networks,” IEEE Optical Interconnect Conference (OI), (2015), paper MB4.

P. Samadi, J. Xu, K. Wen, H. Guan, Z. Li, and K. Bergman, “Experimental demonstration of converged inter/intra data center network architecture,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Transport Optical Networks (ICTON), (2015), paper We.B3.3.

Wu, M. C.

S. Han, T. J. Seok, N. Quack, B. Yoo, and M. C. Wu, “Monolithic 50×50 MEMS silicon photonic switches with microsecond response time,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper M2K.2.
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

P. Samadi, J. Xu, and K. Bergman, “Virtual machine migration over optical circuit switching network in a converged inter/intra data center architecture,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th4G.6.

P. Samadi, J. Xu, K. Wen, H. Guan, Z. Li, and K. Bergman, “Experimental demonstration of converged inter/intra data center network architecture,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Transport Optical Networks (ICTON), (2015), paper We.B3.3.

Yan, S.

Yan, Y.

Yang, H.

J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Yang, Y. Ji, H. Li, Y. Lin, G. Li, J. Han, Y. Lee, and T. Ma, “First demonstration of enhanced software defined networking (eSDN) over elastic grid (eGrid) optical networks for data center service migration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5B.1.

Yoo, B.

S. Han, T. J. Seok, N. Quack, B. Yoo, and M. C. Wu, “Monolithic 50×50 MEMS silicon photonic switches with microsecond response time,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper M2K.2.
[Crossref]

Zang, H.

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Optical Networks Magazine 1, 47–60, (2000).

Zervas, G.

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Yang, Y. Ji, H. Li, Y. Lin, G. Li, J. Han, Y. Lee, and T. Ma, “First demonstration of enhanced software defined networking (eSDN) over elastic grid (eGrid) optical networks for data center service migration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5B.1.

Zhao, Y.

J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Yang, Y. Ji, H. Li, Y. Lin, G. Li, J. Han, Y. Lee, and T. Ma, “First demonstration of enhanced software defined networking (eSDN) over elastic grid (eGrid) optical networks for data center service migration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5B.1.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. A. Strasser and J. L. Wagener, “Wavelength-selective switches for ROADM applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(5), 1150–1157, (2010).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Biberman, H. Lira, K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, J. Chan, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Broadband silicon photonic electrooptic switch for photonic interconnection networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(8), 504–506, (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Optical Networks Magazine (1)

H. Zang, J. P. Jue, and B. Mukherjee, “A review of routing and wavelength assignment approaches for wavelength-routed optical WDM networks,” Optical Networks Magazine 1, 47–60, (2000).

SIGCOMM Comp. Commu. Rev. (1)

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, S. Shenker, and J. Turner, “Open-flow: enabling innovation in campus networks,” SIGCOMM Comp. Commu. Rev. 38(2), 69–74, (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (14)

J. Zhang, Y. Zhao, H. Yang, Y. Ji, H. Li, Y. Lin, G. Li, J. Han, Y. Lee, and T. Ma, “First demonstration of enhanced software defined networking (eSDN) over elastic grid (eGrid) optical networks for data center service migration,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper PDP5B.1.

C. Kachris, K. Bergman, and I. Tomkos, Optical Interconnects for Future Data Center Networks, (Springer, 2013).
[Crossref]

Bell Labs, “Metro network traffic growth: an architecture impact study,” Strategic White Paper 1–12, (2013).

Cisco, “Cisco visual networking index: forecast and methodology, 2014–2019,” White paper 1–14, (2015).

P. Samadi, J. Xu, K. Wen, H. Guan, Z. Li, and K. Bergman, “Experimental demonstration of converged inter/intra data center network architecture,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Transport Optical Networks (ICTON), (2015), paper We.B3.3.

S. Sanfilippo and P. Noordhuis, “Redis”, http://redis.io .

Iperf, https://iperf.fr/ .

S. Han, T. J. Seok, N. Quack, B. Yoo, and M. C. Wu, “Monolithic 50×50 MEMS silicon photonic switches with microsecond response time,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper M2K.2.
[Crossref]

P. Samadi, J. Xu, and K. Bergman, “Virtual machine migration over optical circuit switching network in a converged inter/intra data center architecture,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th4G.6.

P. Samadi, H. Guan, K. Wen, and K. Bergman, “A software-defined optical gateway for converged inter/intra data center networks,” IEEE Optical Interconnect Conference (OI), (2015), paper MB4.

T. S. El-Bawab, Optical Switching, (Springer, 2008).

Polatis 384×384 Optical Space Switch, http://www.polatis.com/ .

The OpenDayLight Platform, https://www.opendaylight.org/ .

RYU SDN Platform, https://osrg.github.io/ryu/ .

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Hardware architecture of a bidirectional software-defined optical gateway in a mesh network.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Switching time of the optical gateway to add and drop a channel, requests are sent sequentially with 500 ms delay in between.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Architecture of the software-defined metro-scale inter data center optical network, each data center is equipped with an optical gateway and the metro network control plane manages the connection requests centrally. (b) The control plane workflow to make a connection between DC1 and DC2 via DC3.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Inter data center testbed: (a) Configuration, and (b) Picture. The testbed consist of 3 data centers in 5–25 km distance, each equipped with 3 racks and 3 servers. The data center and metro network control planes are running on separate SDN servers.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Measurement of link throughput on the testbed: Establishing 2 direct and 2 indirect (via DC3) connections between DC1 and DC2, WDM channels: C26, C28. (b, c) The transmission time and throughput for 1–10 GB bulk data transfer with direct and indirect connections. (d, e) The transmission time and throughput for 1–4 simultaneous VM migrations with direct and indirect connections. (f) Blocking probability of cross-data center connections in a 4 × 4 mesh network.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 End-to-End Delay to Establish a Connection Between Racks of Two Data Centers, Measured on the Testbed.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

min w max s . t .
w max w F i j s ^ d ^ w , i , j , w
i F i j s ^ d ^ w k F j k s ^ d ^ w = { 1 if j = s ^ 1 if j = d ^ 0 otherwise
F i j s ^ d ^ w = 0 or 1 , i , j , w
s , d F i j s d w 1 , i , j , w

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