Abstract

Quantum communication, and more specifically Quantum Key Distribution (QKD), enables the transmission of information in a theoretically secure way, guaranteed by the laws of quantum physics. Although fiber-based QKD has been readily available since several years ago, a global quantum communication network will require the development of space links, which remains to be demonstrated. NICT launched a LEO satellite in 2014 carrying a lasercom terminal (SOTA), designed for in-orbit technological demonstrations. In this paper, we present the results of the campaign to measure the polarization characteristics of the SOTA laser sources after propagating from LEO to ground. The most-widely used property for encoding information in free-space QKD is the polarization, and especially the linear polarization. Therefore, studying its behavior in a realistic link is a fundamental step for proving the feasibility of space quantum communications. The results of the polarization preservation of two highly-polarized lasers are presented here, including the first-time measurement of a linearly-polarized source at λ = 976 nm and a circularly-polarized source at λ = 1549 nm from space using a realistic QKD-like receiver, installed in the Optical Ground Station at the NICT Headquarters, in Tokyo, Japan.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (1)

G. Vallone, D. Bacco, D. Dequal, S. Gaiarin, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, and P. Villoresi, “Experimental satellite quantum communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(4), 040502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yin, Y. Cao, S.-B. Liu, G.-S. Pan, J.-H. Wang, T. Yang, Z.-P. Zhang, F.-M. Yang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental quasi-single-photon transmission from satellite to earth,” Opt. Express 21(17), 20032–20040 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Huebel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of LEO satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023006 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

Z. Merali, “Data teleportation: The quantum space race,” Nature 492(7427), 22–25 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Toyoshima, T. Sasaki, H. Takenaka, Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, M. Fujiwara, and M. Sasaki, “Verification plan of basic quantum key distribution experiments by using a small satellite,” Trans. JSASS Aerospace Tech. Jpn. 10(28), 9–15 (2012).

H. Kunimori, M. Toyoshima, and Y. Takayama, “Overview of optical ground station with 1.5 m diameter,” Special Issue on the Optical Inter-orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite 59(1–2), 43–52 (2012).

2009 (4)

M. Toyoshima, H. Takenaka, Y. Shoji, Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, and H. Kunimori, “Polarization measurements through space-to-ground atmospheric propagation paths by using a highly polarized laser source in space,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22333–22340 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Moli-Sanchez, A. Rodriguez-Alonso, and G. Seco-Granados, “Performance analysis of quantum cryptography protocols in optical earth-satellite and intersatellite links,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 27(9), 1582–1590 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. Bonato, A. Tomaello, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045017 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

P. Villoresi, T. Jennewein, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, C. Bonato, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Experimental verification of the feasibility of a quantum channel between space and Earth,” New J. Phys. 10(3), 033038 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

C. Bonato, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, C. Pernechele, P. Villoresi, and A. Zeilinger, “Influence of satellite motion on polarization qubits in a space-Earth quantum communication link,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10050–10059 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Jono, Y. Takayama, N. Kura, K. Ohinata, Y. Koyama, K. Shiratama, Z. Sodnik, B. Demelenne, A. Bird, and K. Arai, “OICETS on-orbit laser communication experiments,” Proc. SPIE 6105, 610503 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. Er-long, H. Zheng-fu, G. Shun-sheng, Z. Tao, D. Da-sheng, and G. Guang-can, “Background noise of satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 7(1), 215 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. R. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, “Long distance quantum communication with entangled photons using satellites,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(6), 1541–1551 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

P. W. Shor, “Polynomial-time algorithms for prime factorization and discrete logarithms on a quantum computer,” SIAM J. Comput. 26(5), 1484–1509 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, M. Shikatani, M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, S. Kanda, and K. Shiratama, “Performance evaluation of laser communication equipment onboard the ETS-VI satellite,” Proc. SPIE 2699, 52–59 (1996).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

C. H. Bennett, “Quantum cryptography using any two nonorthogonal states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(21), 3121–3124 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, and R. Stone, “Observation by lidar depolarization ratio for hydrometeors,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 23(5), 1011–1017 (1971).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

Akioka, M.

Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, H. Takenaka, Y. Munemasa, M. Akioka, and M. Toyoshima, “Preparative demonstration of optical link establishment by using Small Optical Transponder,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications (ICSOS, 2014), pp. 1–4.

Arai, K.

T. Jono, Y. Takayama, N. Kura, K. Ohinata, Y. Koyama, K. Shiratama, Z. Sodnik, B. Demelenne, A. Bird, and K. Arai, “OICETS on-orbit laser communication experiments,” Proc. SPIE 6105, 610503 (2006).
[Crossref]

Araki, K.

K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, M. Shikatani, M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, S. Kanda, and K. Shiratama, “Performance evaluation of laser communication equipment onboard the ETS-VI satellite,” Proc. SPIE 2699, 52–59 (1996).
[Crossref]

Arimoto, Y.

K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, M. Shikatani, M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, S. Kanda, and K. Shiratama, “Performance evaluation of laser communication equipment onboard the ETS-VI satellite,” Proc. SPIE 2699, 52–59 (1996).
[Crossref]

Aspelmeyer, M.

P. Villoresi, T. Jennewein, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, C. Bonato, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Experimental verification of the feasibility of a quantum channel between space and Earth,” New J. Phys. 10(3), 033038 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Bonato, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, C. Pernechele, P. Villoresi, and A. Zeilinger, “Influence of satellite motion on polarization qubits in a space-Earth quantum communication link,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10050–10059 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. R. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, “Long distance quantum communication with entangled photons using satellites,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(6), 1541–1551 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bacco, D.

G. Vallone, D. Bacco, D. Dequal, S. Gaiarin, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, and P. Villoresi, “Experimental satellite quantum communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(4), 040502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbieri, C.

P. Villoresi, T. Jennewein, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, C. Bonato, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Experimental verification of the feasibility of a quantum channel between space and Earth,” New J. Phys. 10(3), 033038 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, “Quantum cryptography using any two nonorthogonal states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(21), 3121–3124 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (IEEE, 1984), pp. 175–179.

Bianco, G.

G. Vallone, D. Bacco, D. Dequal, S. Gaiarin, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, and P. Villoresi, “Experimental satellite quantum communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(4), 040502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Villoresi, T. Jennewein, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, C. Bonato, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Experimental verification of the feasibility of a quantum channel between space and Earth,” New J. Phys. 10(3), 033038 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bird, A.

T. Jono, Y. Takayama, N. Kura, K. Ohinata, Y. Koyama, K. Shiratama, Z. Sodnik, B. Demelenne, A. Bird, and K. Arai, “OICETS on-orbit laser communication experiments,” Proc. SPIE 6105, 610503 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bonato, C.

C. Bonato, A. Tomaello, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045017 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Villoresi, T. Jennewein, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, C. Bonato, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Experimental verification of the feasibility of a quantum channel between space and Earth,” New J. Phys. 10(3), 033038 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Bonato, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, C. Pernechele, P. Villoresi, and A. Zeilinger, “Influence of satellite motion on polarization qubits in a space-Earth quantum communication link,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10050–10059 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bourgoin, J.-P.

J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Huebel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of LEO satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023006 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (IEEE, 1984), pp. 175–179.

Cao, Y.

Cerf, N. J.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-A.

D’Souza, I.

J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Huebel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of LEO satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023006 (2013).
[Crossref]

Da Deppo, V.

C. Bonato, A. Tomaello, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045017 (2009).
[Crossref]

Da-sheng, D.

M. Er-long, H. Zheng-fu, G. Shun-sheng, Z. Tao, D. Da-sheng, and G. Guang-can, “Background noise of satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 7(1), 215 (2005).
[Crossref]

Demelenne, B.

T. Jono, Y. Takayama, N. Kura, K. Ohinata, Y. Koyama, K. Shiratama, Z. Sodnik, B. Demelenne, A. Bird, and K. Arai, “OICETS on-orbit laser communication experiments,” Proc. SPIE 6105, 610503 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dequal, D.

G. Vallone, D. Bacco, D. Dequal, S. Gaiarin, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, and P. Villoresi, “Experimental satellite quantum communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(4), 040502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dusek, M.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
[Crossref]

Er-long, M.

M. Er-long, H. Zheng-fu, G. Shun-sheng, Z. Tao, D. Da-sheng, and G. Guang-can, “Background noise of satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 7(1), 215 (2005).
[Crossref]

Erven, C.

J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Huebel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of LEO satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023006 (2013).
[Crossref]

Frick, S.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fuchs, C.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, M.

M. Toyoshima, T. Sasaki, H. Takenaka, Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, M. Fujiwara, and M. Sasaki, “Verification plan of basic quantum key distribution experiments by using a small satellite,” Trans. JSASS Aerospace Tech. Jpn. 10(28), 9–15 (2012).

Gaiarin, S.

G. Vallone, D. Bacco, D. Dequal, S. Gaiarin, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, and P. Villoresi, “Experimental satellite quantum communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(4), 040502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Girard, R.

J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Huebel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of LEO satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023006 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gisin, N.

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

Guang-can, G.

M. Er-long, H. Zheng-fu, G. Shun-sheng, Z. Tao, D. Da-sheng, and G. Guang-can, “Background noise of satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 7(1), 215 (2005).
[Crossref]

Helou, B.

J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Huebel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of LEO satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023006 (2013).
[Crossref]

Higgins, B. L.

J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Huebel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of LEO satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023006 (2013).
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Höhn, D. H.

Horwath, J.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
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Hu, X.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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Hu, Y.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Huebel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of LEO satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023006 (2013).
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J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Huebel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of LEO satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023006 (2013).
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J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Huebel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of LEO satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023006 (2013).
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P. Villoresi, T. Jennewein, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, C. Bonato, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Experimental verification of the feasibility of a quantum channel between space and Earth,” New J. Phys. 10(3), 033038 (2008).
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C. Bonato, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, C. Pernechele, P. Villoresi, and A. Zeilinger, “Influence of satellite motion on polarization qubits in a space-Earth quantum communication link,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10050–10059 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. R. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, “Long distance quantum communication with entangled photons using satellites,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(6), 1541–1551 (2003).
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J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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T. Jono, Y. Takayama, N. Kura, K. Ohinata, Y. Koyama, K. Shiratama, Z. Sodnik, B. Demelenne, A. Bird, and K. Arai, “OICETS on-orbit laser communication experiments,” Proc. SPIE 6105, 610503 (2006).
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M. Toyoshima, T. Sasaki, H. Takenaka, Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, M. Fujiwara, and M. Sasaki, “Verification plan of basic quantum key distribution experiments by using a small satellite,” Trans. JSASS Aerospace Tech. Jpn. 10(28), 9–15 (2012).

M. Toyoshima, H. Takenaka, Y. Shoji, Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, and H. Kunimori, “Polarization measurements through space-to-ground atmospheric propagation paths by using a highly polarized laser source in space,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22333–22340 (2009).
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T. Jono, Y. Takayama, N. Kura, K. Ohinata, Y. Koyama, K. Shiratama, Z. Sodnik, B. Demelenne, A. Bird, and K. Arai, “OICETS on-orbit laser communication experiments,” Proc. SPIE 6105, 610503 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, H. Takenaka, Y. Munemasa, M. Akioka, and M. Toyoshima, “Preparative demonstration of optical link establishment by using Small Optical Transponder,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications (ICSOS, 2014), pp. 1–4.

Kumar, B.

J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Huebel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of LEO satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023006 (2013).
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H. Kunimori, M. Toyoshima, and Y. Takayama, “Overview of optical ground station with 1.5 m diameter,” Special Issue on the Optical Inter-orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite 59(1–2), 43–52 (2012).

M. Toyoshima, H. Takenaka, Y. Shoji, Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, and H. Kunimori, “Polarization measurements through space-to-ground atmospheric propagation paths by using a highly polarized laser source in space,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22333–22340 (2009).
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T. Jono, Y. Takayama, N. Kura, K. Ohinata, Y. Koyama, K. Shiratama, Z. Sodnik, B. Demelenne, A. Bird, and K. Arai, “OICETS on-orbit laser communication experiments,” Proc. SPIE 6105, 610503 (2006).
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J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Huebel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of LEO satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023006 (2013).
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M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. R. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, “Long distance quantum communication with entangled photons using satellites,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(6), 1541–1551 (2003).
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J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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Liu, W.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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P. Villoresi, T. Jennewein, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, C. Bonato, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Experimental verification of the feasibility of a quantum channel between space and Earth,” New J. Phys. 10(3), 033038 (2008).
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V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
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L. Moli-Sanchez, A. Rodriguez-Alonso, and G. Seco-Granados, “Performance analysis of quantum cryptography protocols in optical earth-satellite and intersatellite links,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 27(9), 1582–1590 (2009).
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S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
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Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, H. Takenaka, Y. Munemasa, M. Akioka, and M. Toyoshima, “Preparative demonstration of optical link establishment by using Small Optical Transponder,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications (ICSOS, 2014), pp. 1–4.

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C. Bonato, A. Tomaello, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045017 (2009).
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S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
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T. Jono, Y. Takayama, N. Kura, K. Ohinata, Y. Koyama, K. Shiratama, Z. Sodnik, B. Demelenne, A. Bird, and K. Arai, “OICETS on-orbit laser communication experiments,” Proc. SPIE 6105, 610503 (2006).
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J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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Pan, J.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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Peev, M.

V. Scarani, H. Bechmann-Pasquinucci, N. J. Cerf, M. Dusek, N. Lutkenhaus, and M. Peev, “The security of practical quantum key distribution,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(3), 1301–1350 (2009).
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J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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P. Villoresi, T. Jennewein, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, C. Bonato, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Experimental verification of the feasibility of a quantum channel between space and Earth,” New J. Phys. 10(3), 033038 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Bonato, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, C. Pernechele, P. Villoresi, and A. Zeilinger, “Influence of satellite motion on polarization qubits in a space-Earth quantum communication link,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10050–10059 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. R. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, “Long distance quantum communication with entangled photons using satellites,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(6), 1541–1551 (2003).
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J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
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J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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L. Moli-Sanchez, A. Rodriguez-Alonso, and G. Seco-Granados, “Performance analysis of quantum cryptography protocols in optical earth-satellite and intersatellite links,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 27(9), 1582–1590 (2009).
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M. Toyoshima, T. Sasaki, H. Takenaka, Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, M. Fujiwara, and M. Sasaki, “Verification plan of basic quantum key distribution experiments by using a small satellite,” Trans. JSASS Aerospace Tech. Jpn. 10(28), 9–15 (2012).

Sasaki, T.

M. Toyoshima, T. Sasaki, H. Takenaka, Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, M. Fujiwara, and M. Sasaki, “Verification plan of basic quantum key distribution experiments by using a small satellite,” Trans. JSASS Aerospace Tech. Jpn. 10(28), 9–15 (2012).

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R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, and R. Stone, “Observation by lidar depolarization ratio for hydrometeors,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 23(5), 1011–1017 (1971).
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L. Moli-Sanchez, A. Rodriguez-Alonso, and G. Seco-Granados, “Performance analysis of quantum cryptography protocols in optical earth-satellite and intersatellite links,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 27(9), 1582–1590 (2009).
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J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, M. Shikatani, M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, S. Kanda, and K. Shiratama, “Performance evaluation of laser communication equipment onboard the ETS-VI satellite,” Proc. SPIE 2699, 52–59 (1996).
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Shiratama, K.

T. Jono, Y. Takayama, N. Kura, K. Ohinata, Y. Koyama, K. Shiratama, Z. Sodnik, B. Demelenne, A. Bird, and K. Arai, “OICETS on-orbit laser communication experiments,” Proc. SPIE 6105, 610503 (2006).
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K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, M. Shikatani, M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, S. Kanda, and K. Shiratama, “Performance evaluation of laser communication equipment onboard the ETS-VI satellite,” Proc. SPIE 2699, 52–59 (1996).
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Shor, P. W.

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T. Jono, Y. Takayama, N. Kura, K. Ohinata, Y. Koyama, K. Shiratama, Z. Sodnik, B. Demelenne, A. Bird, and K. Arai, “OICETS on-orbit laser communication experiments,” Proc. SPIE 6105, 610503 (2006).
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M. Toyoshima, T. Sasaki, H. Takenaka, Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, M. Fujiwara, and M. Sasaki, “Verification plan of basic quantum key distribution experiments by using a small satellite,” Trans. JSASS Aerospace Tech. Jpn. 10(28), 9–15 (2012).

H. Kunimori, M. Toyoshima, and Y. Takayama, “Overview of optical ground station with 1.5 m diameter,” Special Issue on the Optical Inter-orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite 59(1–2), 43–52 (2012).

M. Toyoshima, H. Takenaka, Y. Shoji, Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, and H. Kunimori, “Polarization measurements through space-to-ground atmospheric propagation paths by using a highly polarized laser source in space,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22333–22340 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Jono, Y. Takayama, N. Kura, K. Ohinata, Y. Koyama, K. Shiratama, Z. Sodnik, B. Demelenne, A. Bird, and K. Arai, “OICETS on-orbit laser communication experiments,” Proc. SPIE 6105, 610503 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, H. Takenaka, Y. Munemasa, M. Akioka, and M. Toyoshima, “Preparative demonstration of optical link establishment by using Small Optical Transponder,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications (ICSOS, 2014), pp. 1–4.

Takenaka, H.

M. Toyoshima, T. Sasaki, H. Takenaka, Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, M. Fujiwara, and M. Sasaki, “Verification plan of basic quantum key distribution experiments by using a small satellite,” Trans. JSASS Aerospace Tech. Jpn. 10(28), 9–15 (2012).

M. Toyoshima, H. Takenaka, Y. Shoji, Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, and H. Kunimori, “Polarization measurements through space-to-ground atmospheric propagation paths by using a highly polarized laser source in space,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22333–22340 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, H. Takenaka, Y. Munemasa, M. Akioka, and M. Toyoshima, “Preparative demonstration of optical link establishment by using Small Optical Transponder,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications (ICSOS, 2014), pp. 1–4.

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P. Villoresi, T. Jennewein, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, C. Bonato, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Experimental verification of the feasibility of a quantum channel between space and Earth,” New J. Phys. 10(3), 033038 (2008).
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J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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M. Er-long, H. Zheng-fu, G. Shun-sheng, Z. Tao, D. Da-sheng, and G. Guang-can, “Background noise of satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 7(1), 215 (2005).
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N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
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C. Bonato, A. Tomaello, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045017 (2009).
[Crossref]

Toyoda, M.

K. Araki, Y. Arimoto, M. Shikatani, M. Toyoda, M. Toyoshima, T. Takahashi, S. Kanda, and K. Shiratama, “Performance evaluation of laser communication equipment onboard the ETS-VI satellite,” Proc. SPIE 2699, 52–59 (1996).
[Crossref]

Toyoshima, M.

M. Toyoshima, T. Sasaki, H. Takenaka, Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, M. Fujiwara, and M. Sasaki, “Verification plan of basic quantum key distribution experiments by using a small satellite,” Trans. JSASS Aerospace Tech. Jpn. 10(28), 9–15 (2012).

H. Kunimori, M. Toyoshima, and Y. Takayama, “Overview of optical ground station with 1.5 m diameter,” Special Issue on the Optical Inter-orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite 59(1–2), 43–52 (2012).

M. Toyoshima, H. Takenaka, Y. Shoji, Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, and H. Kunimori, “Polarization measurements through space-to-ground atmospheric propagation paths by using a highly polarized laser source in space,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22333–22340 (2009).
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[Crossref]

Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, H. Takenaka, Y. Munemasa, M. Akioka, and M. Toyoshima, “Preparative demonstration of optical link establishment by using Small Optical Transponder,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications (ICSOS, 2014), pp. 1–4.

Ursin, R.

P. Villoresi, T. Jennewein, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, C. Bonato, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Experimental verification of the feasibility of a quantum channel between space and Earth,” New J. Phys. 10(3), 033038 (2008).
[Crossref]

Vallone, G.

G. Vallone, D. Bacco, D. Dequal, S. Gaiarin, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, and P. Villoresi, “Experimental satellite quantum communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(4), 040502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

G. Vallone, D. Bacco, D. Dequal, S. Gaiarin, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, and P. Villoresi, “Experimental satellite quantum communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(4), 040502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Bonato, A. Tomaello, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045017 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Villoresi, T. Jennewein, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, C. Bonato, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Experimental verification of the feasibility of a quantum channel between space and Earth,” New J. Phys. 10(3), 033038 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Bonato, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, C. Pernechele, P. Villoresi, and A. Zeilinger, “Influence of satellite motion on polarization qubits in a space-Earth quantum communication link,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10050–10059 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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Wang, J.-H.

Weinfurter, H.

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
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J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, F.-M.

Yang, S.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, T.

Yin, J.

J. Yin, Y. Cao, S.-B. Liu, G.-S. Pan, J.-H. Wang, T. Yang, Z.-P. Zhang, F.-M. Yang, Y.-A. Chen, C.-Z. Peng, and J.-W. Pan, “Experimental quasi-single-photon transmission from satellite to earth,” Opt. Express 21(17), 20032–20040 (2013).
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P. Villoresi, T. Jennewein, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, C. Bonato, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Experimental verification of the feasibility of a quantum channel between space and Earth,” New J. Phys. 10(3), 033038 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Bonato, M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, C. Pernechele, P. Villoresi, and A. Zeilinger, “Influence of satellite motion on polarization qubits in a space-Earth quantum communication link,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10050–10059 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. R. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, “Long distance quantum communication with entangled photons using satellites,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(6), 1541–1551 (2003).
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Zhang, L.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.-P.

Zheng-fu, H.

M. Er-long, H. Zheng-fu, G. Shun-sheng, Z. Tao, D. Da-sheng, and G. Guang-can, “Background noise of satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 7(1), 215 (2005).
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Zhong, B.

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. (1)

L. Moli-Sanchez, A. Rodriguez-Alonso, and G. Seco-Granados, “Performance analysis of quantum cryptography protocols in optical earth-satellite and intersatellite links,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 27(9), 1582–1590 (2009).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Aspelmeyer, T. Jennewein, M. Pfennigbauer, W. R. Leeb, and A. Zeilinger, “Long distance quantum communication with entangled photons using satellites,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(6), 1541–1551 (2003).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (2)

S. Nauerth, F. Moll, M. Rau, C. Fuchs, J. Horwath, S. Frick, and H. Weinfurter, “Air-to-ground quantum communication,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 382–386 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Wang, B. Yang, S. Liao, L. Zhang, Q. Shen, X. Hu, J. Wu, S. Yang, H. Jiang, Y. Tang, B. Zhong, H. Liang, W. Liu, Y. Hu, Y. Huang, B. Qi, J. Ren, G. Pan, J. Yin, J. Jia, Y. Chen, K. Chen, C. Peng, and J. Pan, “Direct and full-scale experimental verifications towards ground-satellite quantum key distribution,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 387–393 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

Z. Merali, “Data teleportation: The quantum space race,” Nature 492(7427), 22–25 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (4)

C. Bonato, A. Tomaello, V. Da Deppo, G. Naletto, and P. Villoresi, “Feasibility of satellite quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 11(4), 045017 (2009).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Bourgoin, E. Meyer-Scott, B. L. Higgins, B. Helou, C. Erven, H. Huebel, B. Kumar, D. Hudson, I. D’Souza, R. Girard, R. Laflamme, and T. Jennewein, “A comprehensive design and performance analysis of LEO satellite quantum communication,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023006 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Villoresi, T. Jennewein, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, C. Bonato, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Experimental verification of the feasibility of a quantum channel between space and Earth,” New J. Phys. 10(3), 033038 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Er-long, H. Zheng-fu, G. Shun-sheng, Z. Tao, D. Da-sheng, and G. Guang-can, “Background noise of satellite-to-ground quantum key distribution,” New J. Phys. 7(1), 215 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

G. Vallone, D. Bacco, D. Dequal, S. Gaiarin, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, and P. Villoresi, “Experimental satellite quantum communications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(4), 040502 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Bennett, “Quantum cryptography using any two nonorthogonal states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68(21), 3121–3124 (1992).
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Proc. SPIE (2)

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[Crossref]

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N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74(1), 145–195 (2002).
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Special Issue on the Optical Inter-orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite (1)

H. Kunimori, M. Toyoshima, and Y. Takayama, “Overview of optical ground station with 1.5 m diameter,” Special Issue on the Optical Inter-orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite 59(1–2), 43–52 (2012).

Trans. JSASS Aerospace Tech. Jpn. (1)

M. Toyoshima, T. Sasaki, H. Takenaka, Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, M. Fujiwara, and M. Sasaki, “Verification plan of basic quantum key distribution experiments by using a small satellite,” Trans. JSASS Aerospace Tech. Jpn. 10(28), 9–15 (2012).

Other (4)

C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (IEEE, 1984), pp. 175–179.

Y. Takayama, Y. Koyama, H. Takenaka, Y. Munemasa, M. Akioka, and M. Toyoshima, “Preparative demonstration of optical link establishment by using Small Optical Transponder,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Space Optical Systems and Applications (ICSOS, 2014), pp. 1–4.

M. Born and E. Wolf, “Refraction and reflection at a metal surface,” in Principles of Optics. Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Cambridge University, 1999).

JAXA Optical Inter-orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite, “Kirari” (OICETS) official website, http://www.satnavi.jaxa.jp/project/oicets/ .

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Image of the SOTA engineering flight model and its location in the SOCRATES satellite.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Different SOTA laser sources onboard SOCRATES and their characteristics.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarization characteristics of SOTA Tx1 (a) and Tx4 (b) from the point of view of the emitter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effects of space QKD on the polarization of the two B92 states: reference-frame change (a) and phase delay (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Size comparison between LUCE and SOTA (the picture is to scale) [24].

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of the Degree of Polarization (DOP) on the received optical power.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Receiving system for measuring the polarization of the SOTA laser sources.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Setup used for the characterization of the optical ground station: SOTA simulator, incoming-light rotating system, 1.5-m telescope, and receiving system in the Nasmyth bench.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Simulation and measurements of the response of the receiving system to the linear polarization.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Diagram of a lasercom link between SOTA and the NICT OGS in Koganei, Tokyo.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Reception of the Tx1 (λ = 976 nm) signal from SOTA in the NICT OGS (2016/01/20).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Reception of the Tx4 (λ = 1549 nm) signal from SOTA in the NICT OGS (2016/01/25).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Measurements of the SOTA Tx1 (a) and Tx4 (b) signals using the NICT OGS compared with their prediction. The color and the arrows indicate how the signals evolve in time according to the satellite motion.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Degree of Polarization (DOP) versus received power from SOTA signals received in the NICT OGS.

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