Abstract

We experimentally characterize the mode dependent characteristics of Rayleigh backscattering (RB) arising in various two-mode fibers (TMFs). With the help of an all-fiber photonic lantern, we are able to measure the RB power at individual modes. Consequently, mode dependent power distribution of RB light caused by arbitrary forward propagation mode superposition can be obtained. The total RB power of the TMFs under test is higher than that of single mode fiber by at least 2 dB over the C band. Meanwhile, the RB light occurs among all guided modes in the TMFs with specific power ratios. The experimental characterization agrees well with the theoretical calculations.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2016 (1)

Y. Shang, Y. Yang, C. Wang, X. Liu, C. Wang, and G. Peng, “Optical fiber distributed acoustic sensing based on the self-interference of Rayleigh backscattering,” Measurement 79, 222–227 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (4)

2013 (1)

B. Yan, F. Dong, X. Zhang, X. Chen, J. Li, G. Tu, X. Chen, and B. Culshaw, “Application of pipeline safety real-time monitoring with distributed optical fiber sensing technique based on coherent Rayleigh backscattering,” Chinese J. Quantum Electron. 30(3), 341–347 (2013).

2012 (2)

2010 (1)

2008 (1)

X. Zhu and S. Kumar, “Effects of Rayleigh backscattering in single-source bidirectional fiber-optic systems using different modulation formats for downstream and upstream transmission,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 14(3), 185–195 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

G. Talli, D. Cotter, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh backscattering impairments in access networks with centralised light source,” Electron. Lett. 42(15), 877–878 (2006).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

S.-K. Liaw, S.-L. Tzeng, and Y.-J. Hung, “Rayleigh backscattering induced power penalty on bidirectional wavelength-reuse fiber systems,” Opt. Commun. 188(1-4), 63–67 (2001).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

1982 (2)

1981 (2)

R. Payne, “Modal distribution of backscattered light in a step-index multimode fibre,” Electron. Lett. 17(16), 568–570 (1981).
[Crossref]

K. I. Aoyama, K. Nakagawa, and T. Itoh, “Optical time domain reflectometry in a single-mode fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 862–868 (1981).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

Achten, F.

P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, K. D. Jongh, and F. Achten, “Low-differential-mode-group-delay 9-LP-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper M2C.2.

Alam, S.

V. A. Sleiffer, P. Leoni, Y. Jung, H. Chen, M. Kuschnerov, S. Alam, M. Petrovich, F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, N. Baddela, J. Hayes, E. Numkam Fokoua, D. J. Richardson, L. E. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and H. de Waardt, “Ultra-high capacity transmission with few-mode silica and hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu2J.3.
[Crossref]

Alam, S. U.

Alvarado, J. C.

Amezcua-Correa, R.

Amin, A. A.

A. Li, A. A. Amin, X. Chen, and W. Shieh, “Reception of mode and polarization multiplexed 107-Gb/s CO-OFDM signal over a two-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB8.

Antonio-Lopez, E.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30×30 MIMO transmission over 15 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5C.1.
[Crossref]

Antonio-Lopez, J. E.

Aoyama, K. I.

K. I. Aoyama, K. Nakagawa, and T. Itoh, “Optical time domain reflectometry in a single-mode fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 862–868 (1981).
[Crossref]

Baddela, N.

V. A. Sleiffer, P. Leoni, Y. Jung, H. Chen, M. Kuschnerov, S. Alam, M. Petrovich, F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, N. Baddela, J. Hayes, E. Numkam Fokoua, D. J. Richardson, L. E. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and H. de Waardt, “Ultra-high capacity transmission with few-mode silica and hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu2J.3.
[Crossref]

Benitez, A. V.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30×30 MIMO transmission over 15 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5C.1.
[Crossref]

Bigot-Astruc, M.

P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, K. D. Jongh, and F. Achten, “Low-differential-mode-group-delay 9-LP-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper M2C.2.

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

Brinkmeyer, E.

Chand, N.

Chen, H.

V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, Y. Jung, V. Veljanovski, R. G. H. van Uden, M. Kuschnerov, H. Chen, B. Inan, L. G. Nielsen, Y. Sun, D. J. Richardson, S. U. Alam, F. Poletti, J. K. Sahu, A. Dhar, A. M. J. Koonen, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, A. D. Ellis, and H. de Waardt, “73.7 Tb/s (96 x 3 x 256-Gb/s) mode-division-multiplexed DP-16QAM transmission with inline MM-EDFA,” Opt. Express 20(26), B428–B438 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30×30 MIMO transmission over 15 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5C.1.
[Crossref]

V. A. Sleiffer, P. Leoni, Y. Jung, H. Chen, M. Kuschnerov, S. Alam, M. Petrovich, F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, N. Baddela, J. Hayes, E. Numkam Fokoua, D. J. Richardson, L. E. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and H. de Waardt, “Ultra-high capacity transmission with few-mode silica and hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu2J.3.
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

B. Yan, F. Dong, X. Zhang, X. Chen, J. Li, G. Tu, X. Chen, and B. Culshaw, “Application of pipeline safety real-time monitoring with distributed optical fiber sensing technique based on coherent Rayleigh backscattering,” Chinese J. Quantum Electron. 30(3), 341–347 (2013).

B. Yan, F. Dong, X. Zhang, X. Chen, J. Li, G. Tu, X. Chen, and B. Culshaw, “Application of pipeline safety real-time monitoring with distributed optical fiber sensing technique based on coherent Rayleigh backscattering,” Chinese J. Quantum Electron. 30(3), 341–347 (2013).

A. Li, A. A. Amin, X. Chen, and W. Shieh, “Reception of mode and polarization multiplexed 107-Gb/s CO-OFDM signal over a two-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB8.

Chen, Z.

T. Hu, J. Li, P. Zhu, Q. Mo, Y. Ke, C. Du, Z. Liu, Y. He, Z. Li, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of passive optical network based on mode-division-multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th2A.63.
[Crossref]

Cincotti, G.

Corbett, B.

Correa, R. A.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Costa, B.

Cotter, D.

G. Talli, D. Cotter, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh backscattering impairments in access networks with centralised light source,” Electron. Lett. 42(15), 877–878 (2006).
[Crossref]

Culshaw, B.

B. Yan, F. Dong, X. Zhang, X. Chen, J. Li, G. Tu, X. Chen, and B. Culshaw, “Application of pipeline safety real-time monitoring with distributed optical fiber sensing technique based on coherent Rayleigh backscattering,” Chinese J. Quantum Electron. 30(3), 341–347 (2013).

de Waardt, H.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, Y. Jung, V. Veljanovski, R. G. H. van Uden, M. Kuschnerov, H. Chen, B. Inan, L. G. Nielsen, Y. Sun, D. J. Richardson, S. U. Alam, F. Poletti, J. K. Sahu, A. Dhar, A. M. J. Koonen, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, A. D. Ellis, and H. de Waardt, “73.7 Tb/s (96 x 3 x 256-Gb/s) mode-division-multiplexed DP-16QAM transmission with inline MM-EDFA,” Opt. Express 20(26), B428–B438 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. Sleiffer, P. Leoni, Y. Jung, H. Chen, M. Kuschnerov, S. Alam, M. Petrovich, F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, N. Baddela, J. Hayes, E. Numkam Fokoua, D. J. Richardson, L. E. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and H. de Waardt, “Ultra-high capacity transmission with few-mode silica and hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu2J.3.
[Crossref]

Dhar, A.

Di Vita, P.

Dong, F.

B. Yan, F. Dong, X. Zhang, X. Chen, J. Li, G. Tu, X. Chen, and B. Culshaw, “Application of pipeline safety real-time monitoring with distributed optical fiber sensing technique based on coherent Rayleigh backscattering,” Chinese J. Quantum Electron. 30(3), 341–347 (2013).

Du, C.

T. Hu, J. Li, P. Zhu, Q. Mo, Y. Ke, C. Du, Z. Liu, Y. He, Z. Li, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of passive optical network based on mode-division-multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th2A.63.
[Crossref]

Effenberger, F.

Ellis, A. D.

Ercan, B.

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, J. R. Salazar-Gil, B. Ercan, R. Ryf, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1036–1044 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30×30 MIMO transmission over 15 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5C.1.
[Crossref]

Eriksrud, M.

Fontaine, N. K.

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, J. R. Salazar-Gil, B. Ercan, R. Ryf, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1036–1044 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30×30 MIMO transmission over 15 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5C.1.
[Crossref]

Fu, S.

D. Yu, S. Fu, M. Tang, and D. Liu, “Mode-dependent characteristics of Rayleigh backscattering in weakly-coupled few-mode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 346, 15–20 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gruner-Nielsen, L. E.

V. A. Sleiffer, P. Leoni, Y. Jung, H. Chen, M. Kuschnerov, S. Alam, M. Petrovich, F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, N. Baddela, J. Hayes, E. Numkam Fokoua, D. J. Richardson, L. E. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and H. de Waardt, “Ultra-high capacity transmission with few-mode silica and hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu2J.3.
[Crossref]

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

R. V. Jensen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, N. H. Wong, Y. Sun, Y. Jung, and D. J. Richardson, “Demonstration of a 9 LP-mode transmission fiber with low DMD and loss,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W2A.34.
[Crossref]

Grüner-Nielsen, L. E.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30×30 MIMO transmission over 15 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5C.1.
[Crossref]

Guan, B.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30×30 MIMO transmission over 15 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5C.1.
[Crossref]

Hanzawa, N.

N. Hanzawa, K. Saitoh, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, S. Tomita, and M. Koshiba, “Demonstration of mode-division multiplexing transmission over 10 km two-mode fiber with mode coupler,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWA4.
[Crossref]

Hayes, J.

V. A. Sleiffer, P. Leoni, Y. Jung, H. Chen, M. Kuschnerov, S. Alam, M. Petrovich, F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, N. Baddela, J. Hayes, E. Numkam Fokoua, D. J. Richardson, L. E. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and H. de Waardt, “Ultra-high capacity transmission with few-mode silica and hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu2J.3.
[Crossref]

He, Y.

T. Hu, J. Li, P. Zhu, Q. Mo, Y. Ke, C. Du, Z. Liu, Y. He, Z. Li, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of passive optical network based on mode-division-multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th2A.63.
[Crossref]

Hernández-Cordero, J.

Hirooka, T.

Hu, T.

T. Hu, J. Li, P. Zhu, Q. Mo, Y. Ke, C. Du, Z. Liu, Y. He, Z. Li, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of passive optical network based on mode-division-multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th2A.63.
[Crossref]

Hu, X.

Z. Wang, H. Wu, X. Hu, N. Zhao, Z. Yang, F. Tan, J. Zhao, Q. Mo, and G. Li, “Rayleigh backscattering in few-mode optical fibers,” In Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper W4F.6.
[Crossref]

Huijskens, F. M.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hung, Y.-J.

S.-K. Liaw, S.-L. Tzeng, and Y.-J. Hung, “Rayleigh backscattering induced power penalty on bidirectional wavelength-reuse fiber systems,” Opt. Commun. 188(1-4), 63–67 (2001).
[Crossref]

Inan, B.

Isoda, T.

Itoh, T.

K. I. Aoyama, K. Nakagawa, and T. Itoh, “Optical time domain reflectometry in a single-mode fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 862–868 (1981).
[Crossref]

Jensen, R. V.

R. V. Jensen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, N. H. Wong, Y. Sun, Y. Jung, and D. J. Richardson, “Demonstration of a 9 LP-mode transmission fiber with low DMD and loss,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W2A.34.
[Crossref]

Jongh, K. D.

P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, K. D. Jongh, and F. Achten, “Low-differential-mode-group-delay 9-LP-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper M2C.2.

Jung, Y.

V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, Y. Jung, V. Veljanovski, R. G. H. van Uden, M. Kuschnerov, H. Chen, B. Inan, L. G. Nielsen, Y. Sun, D. J. Richardson, S. U. Alam, F. Poletti, J. K. Sahu, A. Dhar, A. M. J. Koonen, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, A. D. Ellis, and H. de Waardt, “73.7 Tb/s (96 x 3 x 256-Gb/s) mode-division-multiplexed DP-16QAM transmission with inline MM-EDFA,” Opt. Express 20(26), B428–B438 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. Sleiffer, P. Leoni, Y. Jung, H. Chen, M. Kuschnerov, S. Alam, M. Petrovich, F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, N. Baddela, J. Hayes, E. Numkam Fokoua, D. J. Richardson, L. E. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and H. de Waardt, “Ultra-high capacity transmission with few-mode silica and hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu2J.3.
[Crossref]

R. V. Jensen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, N. H. Wong, Y. Sun, Y. Jung, and D. J. Richardson, “Demonstration of a 9 LP-mode transmission fiber with low DMD and loss,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W2A.34.
[Crossref]

Ke, Y.

T. Hu, J. Li, P. Zhu, Q. Mo, Y. Ke, C. Du, Z. Liu, Y. He, Z. Li, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of passive optical network based on mode-division-multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th2A.63.
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Kodama, T.

Koonen, A. M. J.

Koshiba, M.

N. Hanzawa, K. Saitoh, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, S. Tomita, and M. Koshiba, “Demonstration of mode-division multiplexing transmission over 10 km two-mode fiber with mode coupler,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWA4.
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X. Zhu and S. Kumar, “Effects of Rayleigh backscattering in single-source bidirectional fiber-optic systems using different modulation formats for downstream and upstream transmission,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 14(3), 185–195 (2008).
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V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, Y. Jung, V. Veljanovski, R. G. H. van Uden, M. Kuschnerov, H. Chen, B. Inan, L. G. Nielsen, Y. Sun, D. J. Richardson, S. U. Alam, F. Poletti, J. K. Sahu, A. Dhar, A. M. J. Koonen, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, A. D. Ellis, and H. de Waardt, “73.7 Tb/s (96 x 3 x 256-Gb/s) mode-division-multiplexed DP-16QAM transmission with inline MM-EDFA,” Opt. Express 20(26), B428–B438 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. Sleiffer, P. Leoni, Y. Jung, H. Chen, M. Kuschnerov, S. Alam, M. Petrovich, F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, N. Baddela, J. Hayes, E. Numkam Fokoua, D. J. Richardson, L. E. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and H. de Waardt, “Ultra-high capacity transmission with few-mode silica and hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu2J.3.
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Kuwaki, N.

Leoni, P.

V. A. Sleiffer, P. Leoni, Y. Jung, H. Chen, M. Kuschnerov, S. Alam, M. Petrovich, F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, N. Baddela, J. Hayes, E. Numkam Fokoua, D. J. Richardson, L. E. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and H. de Waardt, “Ultra-high capacity transmission with few-mode silica and hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu2J.3.
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Li, A.

A. Li, A. A. Amin, X. Chen, and W. Shieh, “Reception of mode and polarization multiplexed 107-Gb/s CO-OFDM signal over a two-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB8.

Li, G.

C. Xia, N. Chand, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, Z. Yang, X. Liu, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, H. Wen, B. Zhu, N. Zhao, F. Effenberger, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “Time-division-multiplexed few-mode passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1151–1158 (2015).
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R. G. H. van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
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Z. Wang, H. Wu, X. Hu, N. Zhao, Z. Yang, F. Tan, J. Zhao, Q. Mo, and G. Li, “Rayleigh backscattering in few-mode optical fibers,” In Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper W4F.6.
[Crossref]

Li, J.

B. Yan, F. Dong, X. Zhang, X. Chen, J. Li, G. Tu, X. Chen, and B. Culshaw, “Application of pipeline safety real-time monitoring with distributed optical fiber sensing technique based on coherent Rayleigh backscattering,” Chinese J. Quantum Electron. 30(3), 341–347 (2013).

T. Hu, J. Li, P. Zhu, Q. Mo, Y. Ke, C. Du, Z. Liu, Y. He, Z. Li, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of passive optical network based on mode-division-multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th2A.63.
[Crossref]

Li, Z.

T. Hu, J. Li, P. Zhu, Q. Mo, Y. Ke, C. Du, Z. Liu, Y. He, Z. Li, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of passive optical network based on mode-division-multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th2A.63.
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Liaw, S.-K.

S.-K. Liaw, S.-L. Tzeng, and Y.-J. Hung, “Rayleigh backscattering induced power penalty on bidirectional wavelength-reuse fiber systems,” Opt. Commun. 188(1-4), 63–67 (2001).
[Crossref]

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N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30×30 MIMO transmission over 15 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5C.1.
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Liu, B.

Liu, D.

D. Yu, S. Fu, M. Tang, and D. Liu, “Mode-dependent characteristics of Rayleigh backscattering in weakly-coupled few-mode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 346, 15–20 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Y. Shang, Y. Yang, C. Wang, X. Liu, C. Wang, and G. Peng, “Optical fiber distributed acoustic sensing based on the self-interference of Rayleigh backscattering,” Measurement 79, 222–227 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Xia, N. Chand, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, Z. Yang, X. Liu, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, H. Wen, B. Zhu, N. Zhao, F. Effenberger, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “Time-division-multiplexed few-mode passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1151–1158 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

T. Hu, J. Li, P. Zhu, Q. Mo, Y. Ke, C. Du, Z. Liu, Y. He, Z. Li, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of passive optical network based on mode-division-multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th2A.63.
[Crossref]

Lopez, E. A.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
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Lopez-Galmiche, G.

Maruta, A.

Maruyama, R.

Matsui, T.

N. Hanzawa, K. Saitoh, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, S. Tomita, and M. Koshiba, “Demonstration of mode-division multiplexing transmission over 10 km two-mode fiber with mode coupler,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWA4.
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Matsuo, S.

Mickelson, A. R.

Mo, Q.

T. Hu, J. Li, P. Zhu, Q. Mo, Y. Ke, C. Du, Z. Liu, Y. He, Z. Li, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of passive optical network based on mode-division-multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th2A.63.
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, H. Wu, X. Hu, N. Zhao, Z. Yang, F. Tan, J. Zhao, Q. Mo, and G. Li, “Rayleigh backscattering in few-mode optical fibers,” In Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper W4F.6.
[Crossref]

Molin, D.

P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, K. D. Jongh, and F. Achten, “Low-differential-mode-group-delay 9-LP-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper M2C.2.

Mori, T.

T. Mori, T. Sakamoto, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, and F. Yamamoto, “Low DMD four LP mode transmission fiber for wide-band WDM-MIMO system,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh3K.1.
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Morita, K.

Morra, P.

Nakagawa, K.

K. I. Aoyama, K. Nakagawa, and T. Itoh, “Optical time domain reflectometry in a single-mode fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17(6), 862–868 (1981).
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Nakazawa, M.

Nielsen, L. G.

Numkam Fokoua, E.

V. A. Sleiffer, P. Leoni, Y. Jung, H. Chen, M. Kuschnerov, S. Alam, M. Petrovich, F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, N. Baddela, J. Hayes, E. Numkam Fokoua, D. J. Richardson, L. E. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and H. de Waardt, “Ultra-high capacity transmission with few-mode silica and hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu2J.3.
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Okonkwo, C. M.

A. M. Velazquez-Benitez, J. C. Alvarado, G. Lopez-Galmiche, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, J. Hernández-Cordero, J. Sanchez-Mondragon, P. Sillard, C. M. Okonkwo, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Six mode selective fiber optic spatial multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40(8), 1663–1666 (2015).
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R. G. H. van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
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R. Payne, “Modal distribution of backscattered light in a step-index multimode fibre,” Electron. Lett. 17(16), 568–570 (1981).
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Y. Shang, Y. Yang, C. Wang, X. Liu, C. Wang, and G. Peng, “Optical fiber distributed acoustic sensing based on the self-interference of Rayleigh backscattering,” Measurement 79, 222–227 (2016).
[Crossref]

Petrovich, M.

V. A. Sleiffer, P. Leoni, Y. Jung, H. Chen, M. Kuschnerov, S. Alam, M. Petrovich, F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, N. Baddela, J. Hayes, E. Numkam Fokoua, D. J. Richardson, L. E. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and H. de Waardt, “Ultra-high capacity transmission with few-mode silica and hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu2J.3.
[Crossref]

Poletti, F.

V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, Y. Jung, V. Veljanovski, R. G. H. van Uden, M. Kuschnerov, H. Chen, B. Inan, L. G. Nielsen, Y. Sun, D. J. Richardson, S. U. Alam, F. Poletti, J. K. Sahu, A. Dhar, A. M. J. Koonen, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, A. D. Ellis, and H. de Waardt, “73.7 Tb/s (96 x 3 x 256-Gb/s) mode-division-multiplexed DP-16QAM transmission with inline MM-EDFA,” Opt. Express 20(26), B428–B438 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. Sleiffer, P. Leoni, Y. Jung, H. Chen, M. Kuschnerov, S. Alam, M. Petrovich, F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, N. Baddela, J. Hayes, E. Numkam Fokoua, D. J. Richardson, L. E. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and H. de Waardt, “Ultra-high capacity transmission with few-mode silica and hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu2J.3.
[Crossref]

Richardson, D. J.

V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, Y. Jung, V. Veljanovski, R. G. H. van Uden, M. Kuschnerov, H. Chen, B. Inan, L. G. Nielsen, Y. Sun, D. J. Richardson, S. U. Alam, F. Poletti, J. K. Sahu, A. Dhar, A. M. J. Koonen, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, A. D. Ellis, and H. de Waardt, “73.7 Tb/s (96 x 3 x 256-Gb/s) mode-division-multiplexed DP-16QAM transmission with inline MM-EDFA,” Opt. Express 20(26), B428–B438 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. V. Jensen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, N. H. Wong, Y. Sun, Y. Jung, and D. J. Richardson, “Demonstration of a 9 LP-mode transmission fiber with low DMD and loss,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W2A.34.
[Crossref]

V. A. Sleiffer, P. Leoni, Y. Jung, H. Chen, M. Kuschnerov, S. Alam, M. Petrovich, F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, N. Baddela, J. Hayes, E. Numkam Fokoua, D. J. Richardson, L. E. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and H. de Waardt, “Ultra-high capacity transmission with few-mode silica and hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu2J.3.
[Crossref]

Rossi, U.

Ryf, R.

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, J. R. Salazar-Gil, B. Ercan, R. Ryf, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1036–1044 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30×30 MIMO transmission over 15 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5C.1.
[Crossref]

Sahu, J. K.

Saitoh, K.

N. Hanzawa, K. Saitoh, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, S. Tomita, and M. Koshiba, “Demonstration of mode-division multiplexing transmission over 10 km two-mode fiber with mode coupler,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWA4.
[Crossref]

Sakamoto, T.

N. Hanzawa, K. Saitoh, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, S. Tomita, and M. Koshiba, “Demonstration of mode-division multiplexing transmission over 10 km two-mode fiber with mode coupler,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWA4.
[Crossref]

T. Mori, T. Sakamoto, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, and F. Yamamoto, “Low DMD four LP mode transmission fiber for wide-band WDM-MIMO system,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh3K.1.
[Crossref]

Salazar-Gil, J. R.

Sanchez-Mondragon, J.

Schülzgen, A.

R. G. H. van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Scott, R.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30×30 MIMO transmission over 15 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5C.1.
[Crossref]

Shang, Y.

Y. Shang, Y. Yang, C. Wang, X. Liu, C. Wang, and G. Peng, “Optical fiber distributed acoustic sensing based on the self-interference of Rayleigh backscattering,” Measurement 79, 222–227 (2016).
[Crossref]

Shieh, W.

A. Li, A. A. Amin, X. Chen, and W. Shieh, “Reception of mode and polarization multiplexed 107-Gb/s CO-OFDM signal over a two-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB8.

Sillard, P.

A. M. Velazquez-Benitez, J. C. Alvarado, G. Lopez-Galmiche, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, J. Hernández-Cordero, J. Sanchez-Mondragon, P. Sillard, C. M. Okonkwo, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “Six mode selective fiber optic spatial multiplexer,” Opt. Lett. 40(8), 1663–1666 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, K. D. Jongh, and F. Achten, “Low-differential-mode-group-delay 9-LP-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper M2C.2.

Sleiffer, V. A.

V. A. Sleiffer, P. Leoni, Y. Jung, H. Chen, M. Kuschnerov, S. Alam, M. Petrovich, F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, N. Baddela, J. Hayes, E. Numkam Fokoua, D. J. Richardson, L. E. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and H. de Waardt, “Ultra-high capacity transmission with few-mode silica and hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu2J.3.
[Crossref]

Sleiffer, V. A. J. M.

Sordo, B.

Sun, Y.

V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, Y. Jung, V. Veljanovski, R. G. H. van Uden, M. Kuschnerov, H. Chen, B. Inan, L. G. Nielsen, Y. Sun, D. J. Richardson, S. U. Alam, F. Poletti, J. K. Sahu, A. Dhar, A. M. J. Koonen, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, A. D. Ellis, and H. de Waardt, “73.7 Tb/s (96 x 3 x 256-Gb/s) mode-division-multiplexed DP-16QAM transmission with inline MM-EDFA,” Opt. Express 20(26), B428–B438 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30×30 MIMO transmission over 15 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5C.1.
[Crossref]

V. A. Sleiffer, P. Leoni, Y. Jung, H. Chen, M. Kuschnerov, S. Alam, M. Petrovich, F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, N. Baddela, J. Hayes, E. Numkam Fokoua, D. J. Richardson, L. E. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and H. de Waardt, “Ultra-high capacity transmission with few-mode silica and hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu2J.3.
[Crossref]

R. V. Jensen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, N. H. Wong, Y. Sun, Y. Jung, and D. J. Richardson, “Demonstration of a 9 LP-mode transmission fiber with low DMD and loss,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W2A.34.
[Crossref]

Talli, G.

G. Talli, D. Cotter, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh backscattering impairments in access networks with centralised light source,” Electron. Lett. 42(15), 877–878 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tan, F.

Z. Wang, H. Wu, X. Hu, N. Zhao, Z. Yang, F. Tan, J. Zhao, Q. Mo, and G. Li, “Rayleigh backscattering in few-mode optical fibers,” In Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper W4F.6.
[Crossref]

Tang, M.

D. Yu, S. Fu, M. Tang, and D. Liu, “Mode-dependent characteristics of Rayleigh backscattering in weakly-coupled few-mode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 346, 15–20 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tomita, S.

N. Hanzawa, K. Saitoh, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, S. Tomita, and M. Koshiba, “Demonstration of mode-division multiplexing transmission over 10 km two-mode fiber with mode coupler,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWA4.
[Crossref]

Townsend, P. D.

G. Talli, D. Cotter, and P. D. Townsend, “Rayleigh backscattering impairments in access networks with centralised light source,” Electron. Lett. 42(15), 877–878 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tu, G.

B. Yan, F. Dong, X. Zhang, X. Chen, J. Li, G. Tu, X. Chen, and B. Culshaw, “Application of pipeline safety real-time monitoring with distributed optical fiber sensing technique based on coherent Rayleigh backscattering,” Chinese J. Quantum Electron. 30(3), 341–347 (2013).

Tzeng, S.-L.

S.-K. Liaw, S.-L. Tzeng, and Y.-J. Hung, “Rayleigh backscattering induced power penalty on bidirectional wavelength-reuse fiber systems,” Opt. Commun. 188(1-4), 63–67 (2001).
[Crossref]

van Uden, R. G. H.

Velazquez-Benitez, A. M.

Velázquez-Benítez, A. M.

Veljanovski, V.

Wada, M.

T. Mori, T. Sakamoto, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, and F. Yamamoto, “Low DMD four LP mode transmission fiber for wide-band WDM-MIMO system,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh3K.1.
[Crossref]

Wada, N.

Wang, C.

Y. Shang, Y. Yang, C. Wang, X. Liu, C. Wang, and G. Peng, “Optical fiber distributed acoustic sensing based on the self-interference of Rayleigh backscattering,” Measurement 79, 222–227 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Shang, Y. Yang, C. Wang, X. Liu, C. Wang, and G. Peng, “Optical fiber distributed acoustic sensing based on the self-interference of Rayleigh backscattering,” Measurement 79, 222–227 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, H. Wu, X. Hu, N. Zhao, Z. Yang, F. Tan, J. Zhao, Q. Mo, and G. Li, “Rayleigh backscattering in few-mode optical fibers,” In Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper W4F.6.
[Crossref]

Wen, H.

Wheeler, N. V.

V. A. Sleiffer, P. Leoni, Y. Jung, H. Chen, M. Kuschnerov, S. Alam, M. Petrovich, F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, N. Baddela, J. Hayes, E. Numkam Fokoua, D. J. Richardson, L. E. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and H. de Waardt, “Ultra-high capacity transmission with few-mode silica and hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu2J.3.
[Crossref]

Winfield, R.

Wong, N. H.

R. V. Jensen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, N. H. Wong, Y. Sun, Y. Jung, and D. J. Richardson, “Demonstration of a 9 LP-mode transmission fiber with low DMD and loss,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W2A.34.
[Crossref]

Wu, H.

Z. Wang, H. Wu, X. Hu, N. Zhao, Z. Yang, F. Tan, J. Zhao, Q. Mo, and G. Li, “Rayleigh backscattering in few-mode optical fibers,” In Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper W4F.6.
[Crossref]

Xia, C.

C. Xia, N. Chand, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, Z. Yang, X. Liu, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, H. Wen, B. Zhu, N. Zhao, F. Effenberger, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “Time-division-multiplexed few-mode passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1151–1158 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. G. H. van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xin, X.

Yamamoto, F.

T. Mori, T. Sakamoto, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, and F. Yamamoto, “Low DMD four LP mode transmission fiber for wide-band WDM-MIMO system,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh3K.1.
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, T.

T. Mori, T. Sakamoto, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, and F. Yamamoto, “Low DMD four LP mode transmission fiber for wide-band WDM-MIMO system,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh3K.1.
[Crossref]

Yan, B.

B. Yan, F. Dong, X. Zhang, X. Chen, J. Li, G. Tu, X. Chen, and B. Culshaw, “Application of pipeline safety real-time monitoring with distributed optical fiber sensing technique based on coherent Rayleigh backscattering,” Chinese J. Quantum Electron. 30(3), 341–347 (2013).

Yang, Y.

Y. Shang, Y. Yang, C. Wang, X. Liu, C. Wang, and G. Peng, “Optical fiber distributed acoustic sensing based on the self-interference of Rayleigh backscattering,” Measurement 79, 222–227 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

C. Xia, N. Chand, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, Z. Yang, X. Liu, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, H. Wen, B. Zhu, N. Zhao, F. Effenberger, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “Time-division-multiplexed few-mode passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1151–1158 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, H. Wu, X. Hu, N. Zhao, Z. Yang, F. Tan, J. Zhao, Q. Mo, and G. Li, “Rayleigh backscattering in few-mode optical fibers,” In Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper W4F.6.
[Crossref]

Yoo, S. J. B.

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30×30 MIMO transmission over 15 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5C.1.
[Crossref]

Yoshida, M.

Yu, C.

Yu, D.

D. Yu, S. Fu, M. Tang, and D. Liu, “Mode-dependent characteristics of Rayleigh backscattering in weakly-coupled few-mode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 346, 15–20 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, Q.

Zhang, X.

B. Yan, F. Dong, X. Zhang, X. Chen, J. Li, G. Tu, X. Chen, and B. Culshaw, “Application of pipeline safety real-time monitoring with distributed optical fiber sensing technique based on coherent Rayleigh backscattering,” Chinese J. Quantum Electron. 30(3), 341–347 (2013).

Zhao, J.

Z. Wang, H. Wu, X. Hu, N. Zhao, Z. Yang, F. Tan, J. Zhao, Q. Mo, and G. Li, “Rayleigh backscattering in few-mode optical fibers,” In Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper W4F.6.
[Crossref]

Zhao, N.

C. Xia, N. Chand, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, Z. Yang, X. Liu, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, H. Wen, B. Zhu, N. Zhao, F. Effenberger, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “Time-division-multiplexed few-mode passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1151–1158 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, H. Wu, X. Hu, N. Zhao, Z. Yang, F. Tan, J. Zhao, Q. Mo, and G. Li, “Rayleigh backscattering in few-mode optical fibers,” In Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper W4F.6.
[Crossref]

Zhu, B.

Zhu, P.

T. Hu, J. Li, P. Zhu, Q. Mo, Y. Ke, C. Du, Z. Liu, Y. He, Z. Li, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of passive optical network based on mode-division-multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th2A.63.
[Crossref]

Zhu, X.

X. Zhu and S. Kumar, “Effects of Rayleigh backscattering in single-source bidirectional fiber-optic systems using different modulation formats for downstream and upstream transmission,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 14(3), 185–195 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Chinese J. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Yan, F. Dong, X. Zhang, X. Chen, J. Li, G. Tu, X. Chen, and B. Culshaw, “Application of pipeline safety real-time monitoring with distributed optical fiber sensing technique based on coherent Rayleigh backscattering,” Chinese J. Quantum Electron. 30(3), 341–347 (2013).

Electron. Lett. (2)

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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

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[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Measurement (1)

Y. Shang, Y. Yang, C. Wang, X. Liu, C. Wang, and G. Peng, “Optical fiber distributed acoustic sensing based on the self-interference of Rayleigh backscattering,” Measurement 79, 222–227 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. G. H. van Uden, R. A. Correa, E. A. Lopez, F. M. Huijskens, C. Xia, G. Li, A. Schülzgen, H. de Waardt, A. M. J. Koonen, and C. M. Okonkwo, “Ultra-high-density spatial division multiplexing with a few-mode multicore fibre,” Nat. Photonics 8(11), 865–870 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

S.-K. Liaw, S.-L. Tzeng, and Y.-J. Hung, “Rayleigh backscattering induced power penalty on bidirectional wavelength-reuse fiber systems,” Opt. Commun. 188(1-4), 63–67 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. Yu, S. Fu, M. Tang, and D. Liu, “Mode-dependent characteristics of Rayleigh backscattering in weakly-coupled few-mode fiber,” Opt. Commun. 346, 15–20 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

B. Liu, L. Zhang, X. Xin, and J. Yu, “Symmetric Terabit WDM Pre-DFT OFDM access network using PCF-supercontinuum,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24356–24363 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Leon-Saval, N. K. Fontaine, J. R. Salazar-Gil, B. Ercan, R. Ryf, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Mode-selective photonic lanterns for space-division multiplexing,” Opt. Express 22(1), 1036–1044 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nakazawa, M. Yoshida, and T. Hirooka, “Measurement of mode coupling distribution along a few-mode fiber using a synchronous multi-channel OTDR,” Opt. Express 22(25), 31299–31309 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kodama, T. Isoda, K. Morita, A. Maruta, R. Maruyama, N. Kuwaki, S. Matsuo, N. Wada, G. Cincotti, and K. Kitayama, “First demonstration of a scalable MDM/CDM optical access system,” Opt. Express 22(10), 12060–12069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Xia, N. Chand, A. M. Velázquez-Benítez, Z. Yang, X. Liu, J. E. Antonio-Lopez, H. Wen, B. Zhu, N. Zhao, F. Effenberger, R. Amezcua-Correa, and G. Li, “Time-division-multiplexed few-mode passive optical network,” Opt. Express 23(2), 1151–1158 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. J. M. Sleiffer, Y. Jung, V. Veljanovski, R. G. H. van Uden, M. Kuschnerov, H. Chen, B. Inan, L. G. Nielsen, Y. Sun, D. J. Richardson, S. U. Alam, F. Poletti, J. K. Sahu, A. Dhar, A. M. J. Koonen, B. Corbett, R. Winfield, A. D. Ellis, and H. de Waardt, “73.7 Tb/s (96 x 3 x 256-Gb/s) mode-division-multiplexed DP-16QAM transmission with inline MM-EDFA,” Opt. Express 20(26), B428–B438 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Liu, X. Xin, L. Zhang, J. Yu, Q. Zhang, and C. Yu, “A WDM-OFDM-PON architecture with centralized lightwave and PolSK-modulated multicast overlay,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2137–2143 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

X. Zhu and S. Kumar, “Effects of Rayleigh backscattering in single-source bidirectional fiber-optic systems using different modulation formats for downstream and upstream transmission,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 14(3), 185–195 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (9)

P. Sillard, D. Molin, M. Bigot-Astruc, K. D. Jongh, and F. Achten, “Low-differential-mode-group-delay 9-LP-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper M2C.2.

R. V. Jensen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, N. H. Wong, Y. Sun, Y. Jung, and D. J. Richardson, “Demonstration of a 9 LP-mode transmission fiber with low DMD and loss,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper W2A.34.
[Crossref]

T. Mori, T. Sakamoto, M. Wada, T. Yamamoto, and F. Yamamoto, “Low DMD four LP mode transmission fiber for wide-band WDM-MIMO system,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh3K.1.
[Crossref]

V. A. Sleiffer, P. Leoni, Y. Jung, H. Chen, M. Kuschnerov, S. Alam, M. Petrovich, F. Poletti, N. V. Wheeler, N. Baddela, J. Hayes, E. Numkam Fokoua, D. J. Richardson, L. E. Gruner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, and H. de Waardt, “Ultra-high capacity transmission with few-mode silica and hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu2J.3.
[Crossref]

N. K. Fontaine, R. Ryf, H. Chen, A. V. Benitez, B. Guan, R. Scott, B. Ercan, S. J. B. Yoo, L. E. Grüner-Nielsen, Y. Sun, R. Lingle, E. Antonio-Lopez, and R. Amezcua-Correa, “30×30 MIMO transmission over 15 spatial modes,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th5C.1.
[Crossref]

T. Hu, J. Li, P. Zhu, Q. Mo, Y. Ke, C. Du, Z. Liu, Y. He, Z. Li, and Z. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of passive optical network based on mode-division-multiplexing,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th2A.63.
[Crossref]

A. Li, A. A. Amin, X. Chen, and W. Shieh, “Reception of mode and polarization multiplexed 107-Gb/s CO-OFDM signal over a two-mode fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPB8.

N. Hanzawa, K. Saitoh, T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, S. Tomita, and M. Koshiba, “Demonstration of mode-division multiplexing transmission over 10 km two-mode fiber with mode coupler,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper OWA4.
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, H. Wu, X. Hu, N. Zhao, Z. Yang, F. Tan, J. Zhao, Q. Mo, and G. Li, “Rayleigh backscattering in few-mode optical fibers,” In Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper W4F.6.
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup. OPM: optical power meter; TMF: two-mode fiber; PC: polarization controller; PL: photonic lantern.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Captured output mode patterns. (a)-(c) are for 2-m long TMF; (d)-(f) are for 29.98-km long TMF.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Total RB power ratios in the TMF with positive DMGD. (a) with respect to the input power, (b) with repect to the operation wavelength.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Total RB power ratio of various TMFs. (a) under condition of LP01 mode forward propogation, (b) under condition of LP11 mode forward propagation.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 RMDP of three TMFs under test.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison of experimental characterization and theoretical calculations. (a), (c), and (e) are total RB power ratios for the TMF with positive DMGD, negative DMGD, large effective area, respectively; (b), (d), and (f) are RMDPs for the TMF with positive DMGD, negative DMGD, large effective area, respectively.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Parameters of TMFs Under Test.

Equations (7)

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T 3 P L = [ R 1 _ 01 R 2 _ 01 R 3 _ 01 R 1 _ 11 a R 2 _ 11 a R 3 _ 11 a R 1 _ 11 b R 2 _ 11 b R 3 _ 11 b ]
P d _ i = [ P d _ i _ 1 P d _ i _ 2 P d _ i _ 3 ] T , ( i = 1 , 2 )
{ P in _ i _ 01 = R i _ 01 P i n P in _ i _ 11 = R i _ 11 a P i n + R i _ 11 b P i n = R i _ 11 P i n ( i = 1 , 2 )
P R B _ i = ( T 3 P L T ) 1 P d _ i = [ P R B _ i _ 01 P R B _ i _ 11 a P R B _ i _ 11 b ] T , ( i = 1 , 2 )
[ R 1 _ 01 R 1 _ 11 0 0 R 2 _ 01 R 2 _ 11 0 0 0 0 R 1 _ 01 R 1 _ 11 0 0 R 2 _ 01 R 2 _ 11 ] [ t 01 _ 01 t 11 _ 01 t 01 _ 11 t 11 _ 11 ] P i n = [ P R B _ 1 _ 01 P R B _ 2 _ 01 P R B _ 1 _ 11 P R B _ 2 _ 11 ]
total RB power ratio m = 10 log 10 ( n t m _ n ) , ( m = 01 , 11 ; n = 01 , 11 )
RMDP m = t m _ 01 t m _ 11 , ( m = 01 , 11 )

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