Abstract

In this work we report experimental results on optimizing the refractive index (RI) sensitivity of long-period gratings (LPGs) by fiber cladding etching and thin aluminum oxide (Al2O3) overlay deposition. The presented LPG takes advantage of work in the dispersion turning point (DTP) regime as well as the mode transition (MT) effect for higher-order cladding modes (LP09 and LP010). The MT was obtained by depositing Al2O3 overlays with single-nanometer precision using the Atomic Layer Deposition method (ALD). Etching of both the overlay and the fiber cladding was performed using hydrofluoric acid (HF). For shallow etching of the cladding, i.e., DTP observed at next = 1.429 and 1.439 RIU for an LPG with no overlay, followed by deposition of an overlay of up to 167 nm in thickness, HF etching allowed for post-deposition fine-tuning of the overlay thickness resulting in a significant increase in RI sensitivity mainly at the DTP of the LP09 cladding mode. However, at an external RI (next) above 1.39 RIU, the DTP of LP010 was noticed, and its RI sensitivity exceeded 9,000 nm/RIU. Deeper etching of the cladding, i.e., DTP observed for next above 1.45 RIU, followed by the deposition of thicker overlays (up to 201 nm in thickness) allowed the sensitivity to reach values of over 40,000 nm/RIU in a narrow RI range. Sensitivity exceeding 20,000 nm/RIU was obtained in an RI range suitable for label-free biosensing applications.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  5. X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sensitivity characteristics of long period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(2), 255–266 (2002).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

M. Śmietana, M. Koba, P. Mikulic, and W. J. Bock, “Combined plasma-based fiber etching and diamond-like carbon nanooverlay deposition for enhancing sensitivity of long-period gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 99, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

M. Smietana, M. Mysliwiec, P. Mikulic, B. S. Witkowski, and W. J. Bock, “Capability for fine tuning of the refractive index sensing properties of long-period gratings by atomic layer deposited Al2O3 overlays,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 13(12), 16372–16383 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

C.-L. Lee, Z.-Y. Weng, C.-J. Lin, and Y. Lin, “Leakage coupling of ultrasensitive periodical silica thin-film long-period grating coated on tapered fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(24), 4172–4174 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Abe, J. Oliveira, E. Simões, P. Caldas, and O. Frazão, “Monitoring the quality of frying oils using a nanolayer coated optical fiber refractometer,” Talanta 83(1), 291–293 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

Z. Gu and Y. Xu, “Design optimization of a long-period grating with sol-gel coating for a gas sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(11), 3530–3536 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Smietana, J. Szmidt, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J. Bock, and J. Grabarczyk, “Application of diamond-like carbon films in optical fibre sensors based on long-period gratings,” Diamond Related Materials 16(4–7), 1374–1377 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, Q. Chen, Q. Zhang, K. Reichard, D. Ditto, J. Mazurowski, M. Hackert, and S. Yin, “Enhancing the tuning range of a single resonant band LPG while maintaining the resonant peak depth by using an optimized high index ITO overlay,” Appl. Opt. 46(28), 6984–6989 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2002 (2)

2001 (1)

K. Zhou, H. Liu, and X. Hu, “Tuning the resonant wavelength of long period fiber gratings by etching the fiber’s cladding,” Opt. Commun. 197(4–6), 295–299 (2001).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[Crossref]

Abe, I.

I. Abe, J. Oliveira, E. Simões, P. Caldas, and O. Frazão, “Monitoring the quality of frying oils using a nanolayer coated optical fiber refractometer,” Talanta 83(1), 291–293 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arregui, F.

Ashwell, G. J.

Baldini, F.

Bennion, I.

Bhatia, V.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bock, W. J.

M. Śmietana, M. Koba, P. Mikulic, and W. J. Bock, “Combined plasma-based fiber etching and diamond-like carbon nanooverlay deposition for enhancing sensitivity of long-period gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 99, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Brzozowska, M. Śmietana, M. Koba, S. Górska, K. Pawlik, A. Gamian, and W. J. Bock, “Recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharide using bacteriophage-adhesin-coated long-period gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 67, 93–99 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Smietana, M. Koba, E. Brzozowska, K. Krogulski, J. Nakonieczny, L. Wachnicki, P. Mikulic, M. Godlewski, and W. J. Bock, “Label-free sensitivity of long-period gratings enhanced by atomic layer deposited TiO(2) nano-overlays,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8441–8453 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Śmietana, M. Koba, P. Mikulic, and W. J. Bock, “Measurements of reactive ion etching process effect using long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5986–5994 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Smietana, M. Mysliwiec, P. Mikulic, B. S. Witkowski, and W. J. Bock, “Capability for fine tuning of the refractive index sensing properties of long-period gratings by atomic layer deposited Al2O3 overlays,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 13(12), 16372–16383 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Smietana, W. J. Bock, P. Mikulic, A. Ng, R. Chinnappan, and M. Zourob, “Detection of bacteria using bacteriophages as recognition elements immobilized on long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Express 19(9), 7971–7978 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Smietana, J. Szmidt, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J. Bock, and J. Grabarczyk, “Application of diamond-like carbon films in optical fibre sensors based on long-period gratings,” Diamond Related Materials 16(4–7), 1374–1377 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brzozowska, E.

E. Brzozowska, M. Śmietana, M. Koba, S. Górska, K. Pawlik, A. Gamian, and W. J. Bock, “Recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharide using bacteriophage-adhesin-coated long-period gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 67, 93–99 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Smietana, M. Koba, E. Brzozowska, K. Krogulski, J. Nakonieczny, L. Wachnicki, P. Mikulic, M. Godlewski, and W. J. Bock, “Label-free sensitivity of long-period gratings enhanced by atomic layer deposited TiO(2) nano-overlays,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8441–8453 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caldas, P.

I. Abe, J. Oliveira, E. Simões, P. Caldas, and O. Frazão, “Monitoring the quality of frying oils using a nanolayer coated optical fiber refractometer,” Talanta 83(1), 291–293 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campopiano, S.

Chen, Q.

Chiavaioli, F.

Chinnappan, R.

Contessa, L.

Cusano, A.

Cutolo, A.

Del Villar, I.

Ditto, D.

Erdogan, T.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[Crossref]

Frazão, O.

I. Abe, J. Oliveira, E. Simões, P. Caldas, and O. Frazão, “Monitoring the quality of frying oils using a nanolayer coated optical fiber refractometer,” Talanta 83(1), 291–293 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gamian, A.

E. Brzozowska, M. Śmietana, M. Koba, S. Górska, K. Pawlik, A. Gamian, and W. J. Bock, “Recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharide using bacteriophage-adhesin-coated long-period gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 67, 93–99 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giordano, M.

Godlewski, M.

Górska, S.

E. Brzozowska, M. Śmietana, M. Koba, S. Górska, K. Pawlik, A. Gamian, and W. J. Bock, “Recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharide using bacteriophage-adhesin-coated long-period gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 67, 93–99 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grabarczyk, J.

M. Smietana, J. Szmidt, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J. Bock, and J. Grabarczyk, “Application of diamond-like carbon films in optical fibre sensors based on long-period gratings,” Diamond Related Materials 16(4–7), 1374–1377 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gu, Z.

Z. Gu and Y. Xu, “Design optimization of a long-period grating with sol-gel coating for a gas sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(11), 3530–3536 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hackert, M.

Heflin, J.

Hu, X.

K. Zhou, H. Liu, and X. Hu, “Tuning the resonant wavelength of long period fiber gratings by etching the fiber’s cladding,” Opt. Commun. 197(4–6), 295–299 (2001).
[Crossref]

Iadicicco, A.

James, S. W.

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[Crossref]

Koba, M.

M. Śmietana, M. Koba, P. Mikulic, and W. J. Bock, “Combined plasma-based fiber etching and diamond-like carbon nanooverlay deposition for enhancing sensitivity of long-period gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 99, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Brzozowska, M. Śmietana, M. Koba, S. Górska, K. Pawlik, A. Gamian, and W. J. Bock, “Recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharide using bacteriophage-adhesin-coated long-period gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 67, 93–99 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Smietana, M. Koba, E. Brzozowska, K. Krogulski, J. Nakonieczny, L. Wachnicki, P. Mikulic, M. Godlewski, and W. J. Bock, “Label-free sensitivity of long-period gratings enhanced by atomic layer deposited TiO(2) nano-overlays,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8441–8453 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Śmietana, M. Koba, P. Mikulic, and W. J. Bock, “Measurements of reactive ion etching process effect using long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5986–5994 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Korposh, S.

Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.

M. Smietana, J. Szmidt, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J. Bock, and J. Grabarczyk, “Application of diamond-like carbon films in optical fibre sensors based on long-period gratings,” Diamond Related Materials 16(4–7), 1374–1377 (2007).
[Crossref]

Krogulski, K.

Lalanne, P.

Lee, C.-L.

Lee, J.

Lee, S.-W.

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.-J.

Lin, Y.

Liu, H.

K. Zhou, H. Liu, and X. Hu, “Tuning the resonant wavelength of long period fiber gratings by etching the fiber’s cladding,” Opt. Commun. 197(4–6), 295–299 (2001).
[Crossref]

Matías, I.

Mazurowski, J.

Mikulic, P.

Mysliwiec, M.

M. Smietana, M. Mysliwiec, P. Mikulic, B. S. Witkowski, and W. J. Bock, “Capability for fine tuning of the refractive index sensing properties of long-period gratings by atomic layer deposited Al2O3 overlays,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 13(12), 16372–16383 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nakonieczny, J.

Ng, A.

Oliveira, J.

I. Abe, J. Oliveira, E. Simões, P. Caldas, and O. Frazão, “Monitoring the quality of frying oils using a nanolayer coated optical fiber refractometer,” Talanta 83(1), 291–293 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pawlik, K.

E. Brzozowska, M. Śmietana, M. Koba, S. Górska, K. Pawlik, A. Gamian, and W. J. Bock, “Recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharide using bacteriophage-adhesin-coated long-period gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 67, 93–99 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pilla, P.

Ramachandran, S.

Rees, N. D.

Reichard, K.

Shu, X.

Simões, E.

I. Abe, J. Oliveira, E. Simões, P. Caldas, and O. Frazão, “Monitoring the quality of frying oils using a nanolayer coated optical fiber refractometer,” Talanta 83(1), 291–293 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[Crossref]

Smietana, M.

M. Śmietana, M. Koba, P. Mikulic, and W. J. Bock, “Combined plasma-based fiber etching and diamond-like carbon nanooverlay deposition for enhancing sensitivity of long-period gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 99, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Brzozowska, M. Śmietana, M. Koba, S. Górska, K. Pawlik, A. Gamian, and W. J. Bock, “Recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharide using bacteriophage-adhesin-coated long-period gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 67, 93–99 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Smietana, M. Koba, E. Brzozowska, K. Krogulski, J. Nakonieczny, L. Wachnicki, P. Mikulic, M. Godlewski, and W. J. Bock, “Label-free sensitivity of long-period gratings enhanced by atomic layer deposited TiO(2) nano-overlays,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8441–8453 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Śmietana, M. Koba, P. Mikulic, and W. J. Bock, “Measurements of reactive ion etching process effect using long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5986–5994 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Smietana, M. Mysliwiec, P. Mikulic, B. S. Witkowski, and W. J. Bock, “Capability for fine tuning of the refractive index sensing properties of long-period gratings by atomic layer deposited Al2O3 overlays,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 13(12), 16372–16383 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Smietana, W. J. Bock, P. Mikulic, A. Ng, R. Chinnappan, and M. Zourob, “Detection of bacteria using bacteriophages as recognition elements immobilized on long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Express 19(9), 7971–7978 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Smietana, J. Szmidt, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J. Bock, and J. Grabarczyk, “Application of diamond-like carbon films in optical fibre sensors based on long-period gratings,” Diamond Related Materials 16(4–7), 1374–1377 (2007).
[Crossref]

Stolen, R.

Szmidt, J.

M. Smietana, J. Szmidt, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J. Bock, and J. Grabarczyk, “Application of diamond-like carbon films in optical fibre sensors based on long-period gratings,” Diamond Related Materials 16(4–7), 1374–1377 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tatam, R. P.

Trono, C.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wachnicki, L.

Wang, Z.

Weng, Z.-Y.

Witkowski, B. S.

M. Smietana, M. Mysliwiec, P. Mikulic, B. S. Witkowski, and W. J. Bock, “Capability for fine tuning of the refractive index sensing properties of long-period gratings by atomic layer deposited Al2O3 overlays,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 13(12), 16372–16383 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

Z. Gu and Y. Xu, “Design optimization of a long-period grating with sol-gel coating for a gas sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(11), 3530–3536 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yin, S.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, Q.

Zhou, K.

K. Zhou, H. Liu, and X. Hu, “Tuning the resonant wavelength of long period fiber gratings by etching the fiber’s cladding,” Opt. Commun. 197(4–6), 295–299 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zourob, M.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

E. Brzozowska, M. Śmietana, M. Koba, S. Górska, K. Pawlik, A. Gamian, and W. J. Bock, “Recognition of bacterial lipopolysaccharide using bacteriophage-adhesin-coated long-period gratings,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 67, 93–99 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diamond Related Materials (1)

M. Smietana, J. Szmidt, M. L. Korwin-Pawlowski, W. J. Bock, and J. Grabarczyk, “Application of diamond-like carbon films in optical fibre sensors based on long-period gratings,” Diamond Related Materials 16(4–7), 1374–1377 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[Crossref]

X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sensitivity characteristics of long period fiber gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(2), 255–266 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Śmietana, M. Koba, P. Mikulic, and W. J. Bock, “Combined plasma-based fiber etching and diamond-like carbon nanooverlay deposition for enhancing sensitivity of long-period gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 99, 1 (2016).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

Z. Gu and Y. Xu, “Design optimization of a long-period grating with sol-gel coating for a gas sensor,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(11), 3530–3536 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. Zhou, H. Liu, and X. Hu, “Tuning the resonant wavelength of long period fiber gratings by etching the fiber’s cladding,” Opt. Commun. 197(4–6), 295–299 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

M. Śmietana, M. Koba, P. Mikulic, and W. J. Bock, “Measurements of reactive ion etching process effect using long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5986–5994 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Smietana, W. J. Bock, P. Mikulic, A. Ng, R. Chinnappan, and M. Zourob, “Detection of bacteria using bacteriophages as recognition elements immobilized on long-period fiber gratings,” Opt. Express 19(9), 7971–7978 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. James, S. Korposh, S.-W. Lee, and R. P. Tatam, “A long period grating-based chemical sensor insensitive to the influence of interfering parameters,” Opt. Express 22(7), 8012–8023 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, J. Heflin, R. Stolen, and S. Ramachandran, “Analysis of optical response of long period fiber gratings to nm-thick thin-film coating,” Opt. Express 13(8), 2808–2813 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Del Villar, I. Matías, F. Arregui, and P. Lalanne, “Optimization of sensitivity in Long Period Fiber Gratings with overlay deposition,” Opt. Express 13(1), 56–69 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Del Villar, “Ultrahigh-sensitivity sensors based on thin-film coated long period gratings with reduced diameter, in transition mode and near the dispersion turning point,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8389–8398 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Cusano, A. Iadicicco, P. Pilla, L. Contessa, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, and M. Giordano, “Mode transition in high refractive index coated long period gratings,” Opt. Express 14(1), 19–34 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Smietana, M. Koba, E. Brzozowska, K. Krogulski, J. Nakonieczny, L. Wachnicki, P. Mikulic, M. Godlewski, and W. J. Bock, “Label-free sensitivity of long-period gratings enhanced by atomic layer deposited TiO(2) nano-overlays,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8441–8453 (2015).
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Opt. Lett. (3)

Sensors (Basel Switzerland) (1)

M. Smietana, M. Mysliwiec, P. Mikulic, B. S. Witkowski, and W. J. Bock, “Capability for fine tuning of the refractive index sensing properties of long-period gratings by atomic layer deposited Al2O3 overlays,” Sensors (Basel Switzerland) 13(12), 16372–16383 (2013).
[Crossref]

Talanta (1)

I. Abe, J. Oliveira, E. Simões, P. Caldas, and O. Frazão, “Monitoring the quality of frying oils using a nanolayer coated optical fiber refractometer,” Talanta 83(1), 291–293 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Effect of etching the fiber cladding on an LPG spectral response to next, where (a) shows results after shorter immersion in HF than in the case of (b).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Response of the etched LPG (coupling of LP09 cladding mode) shown in Fig. 1(a) to next after (a) deposition of 130 nm thick Al2O3 overlay, and (b) after post-deposition HF etching of the overlay down to DTP at next = 1.333 RIU.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Response of the etched LPG (coupling of LP09 and LP010 cladding modes) shown in Fig. 1(b) to next where (a) shows results after deposition of 167 nm thick Al2O3 overlay, and (b) after post-deposition HF fine-tuning up to DTP at next = 1.333 RIU.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Resonance wavelength shift vs. next for LPG coated with 130 and 167 nm thick Al2O3 overlays, as well as after its post-deposition fine-tuning. The effect produced by coupling of the LP09 and LP010 modes is shown.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Response to next for LPG etched deeper than for effect shown in Fig. 1(b): (a) spectrum evolution after 2nd deposition of 167 nm thick Al2O3 overlay, and (b) resonance wavelength shift after 1st and 2nd 167 nm deposition on shallower and deeper etched fiber cladding, respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Response to next for deeper etched LPG, where (a) shows the spectrum evolution after deposition of 182 nm thick Al2O3 overlay and (b) compares resonance wavelength shifts after 167, 182 and 201 nm depositions on the same LPG. Arrows show evolution of the response with increase of the overlay thickness. The response of a reference LPG before etching and deposition is shown for comparison.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Summary of the sensitivity of the LPG sample at all stages of the experiment calculated as a first derivative of polynomial fit of the measured results. Here, only resonances shifting towards shorter wavelengths were taken into account.

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