Abstract

Global Positioning System (GPS) dissemination of frequency standards is ubiquitous at present, providing the most widespread time and frequency reference for the majority of industrial and research applications worldwide. On the other hand, the ultimate limits of the GPS presently curb further advances in high-precision, scientific and industrial applications relying on this dissemination scheme. Here, we demonstrate that these limits can be reliably overcome even in laboratories without a local atomic clock by replacing the GPS with a 642-km-long optical fiber link to a remote primary caesium frequency standard. Through this configuration we stably address the 1S03P0 clock transition in an ultracold gas of 173Yb, with a precision that exceeds the possibilities of a GPS-based measurement, dismissing the need for a local clock infrastructure to perform beyond-GPS high-precision tasks. We also report an improvement of two orders of magnitude in the accuracy on the transition frequency reported in literature.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (12)

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, and P. O. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87, 637–701 (2015).
[Crossref]

I. Ushijima, M. Takamoto, M. Das, T. Ohkubo, and H. Katori, “Cryogenic optical lattice clocks,” Nature Photon. 9, 185–189 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Calonico, M. Inguscio, and F. Levi, “Light and the distribution of time,” EPL 110, 40001 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, M. Zucco, R. Ambrosini, C. Bortolotti, F. Perini, M. Roma, and D. Calonico, “A coherent fiber link for very long baseline interferometry,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 62, 1907–1912 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Droste, C. Grebing, J. Leute, S. M. F. Raupach, A. Matveev, T. W. Hänsch, A. Bauch, R. Holzwarth, and G. Grosche, “Characterization of a 450-km baseline GPS carrier-phase link using an optical fiber link,” New J. Phys. 17, 083044 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Morzyński, M. Bober, D. Bartoszek-Bober, J. Nawrocki, P. Krehlik, and L. Sliwczyński, “Absolute measurement of the 1S0—3P0 clock transition in neutral 88Sr over the 330 km-long stabilized fibre optic link,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17495 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nature Photon. 9, 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Mancini, G. Pagano, G. Cappellini, L. Livi, M. Rider, J. Catani, C. Sias, P. Zoller, M. Inguscio, M. Dalmonte, and L. Fallani, “Observation of chiral edge states with neutral fermions in synthetic Hall ribbons,” Science 349, 1510–1513 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Pagano, M. Mancini, G. Cappellini, L. Livi, C. Sias, J. Catani, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “A strongly interacting gas of two-electron fermions at an orbital Feshbach resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 265301 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Höfer, L. Riegger, F. Scazza, C. Hofrichter, D. R. Fernandes, M. M. Parish, J. Levinsen, I. Bloch, and S. Fölling, “Observation of an orbital interaction-induced Feshbach resonance in 173-Yb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 265302 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Cappellini, P. Lombardi, M. Mancini, G. Pagano, M. Pizzocaro, L. Fallani, and J. Catani, “A compact ultranarrow high-power laser system for experiments with 578 nm ytterbium clock transition,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 073111 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Zhang, Y. Cheng, H. Zhai, and P. Zhang, “Orbital Feshbach resonance in alkali-earth atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 135301 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (9)

P. Kómár, E. M. Kessler, M. Bishof, L. Jiang, A. S. Sørensen, J. Ye, and M. D. Lukin, “A quantum network of clocks,” Nature Phys. 10, 582–587 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Levi, D. Calonico, C. E. Calosso, A. Godone, S. Micalizio, and G. A. Costanzo, “Accuracy evaluation of ITCsF2: a nitrogen cooled caesium fountain,” Metrologia 51, 270–284 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Cappellini, M. Mancini, G. Pagano, L. Lombardi, L. Livi, M. Siciliani de Cumis, P Cancio Pastor, M. Pizzocaro, D. Calonico, F. Levi, C. Sias, J. Catani, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “Direct observation of coherent interorbital spin-exchange dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 120402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Scazza, C. Hofrichter, M. Höfer, P. C. De Groot, I. Bloch, and S. Fölling, “Observation of two-orbital spin-exchange interactions with ultracold SU(N)-symmetric fermions,” Nature Phys. 10, 779–784 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, M. Bishof, S. L. Bromley, C. V. Kraus, M. S. Safronova, P. Zoller, A. M. Rey, and J. Ye, “Spectroscopic observation of SU(N)-symmetric interactions in Sr orbital magnetism,” Science 345, 1467–1473 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Pagano, M. Mancini, G. Cappellini, P. Lombardi, F. Schäfer, H. Hu, X.-J. Liu, J. Catani, C. Sias, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “A one-dimensional liquid of fermions with tunable spin,” Nature Phys. 10, 198–201 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. A. Cazalilla and A. M. Rey, “Ultracold Fermi gases with emergent SU(N) symmetry,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 77, 124401 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. Bloom, T. L. Nicholson, J. R. Williams, S. L. Campbell, M. Bishof, X. Zhang, W. Zhang, S. L. Bromley, and J. Ye, “An optical lattice clock with accuracy and stability at the 10−18 level,” Nature 506, 71–75 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. A. GodoneMura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. M. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 979–986 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hänsch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S2S frequency via a 920-km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

O. Lopez, A. Haboucha, B. Chanteau, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-stable long distance optical frequency distribution using the Internet fiber network,” Opt. Express 20, 23518–23526 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Taie, R. Yamazaki, S. Sugawa, and Y. Takahashi, “An SU(6) Mott insulator of an atomic Fermi gas realized by large-spin Pomeranchuk cooling,” Nature Phys. 8, 825–830 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. A. Sherman, N. D. Lemke, N. Hinkley, M. Pizzocaro, R. W. Fox, A. D. Ludlow, and C. W. Oates, “High-accuracy measurement of atomic polarizability in an optical lattice clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 153002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

A. J. Daley, “Quantum computing and quantum simulation with Group-II atoms,” Quantum Inf. Process. 10, 865–884 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Clivati, A. Mura, D. Calonico, F. Levi, G. A. Costanzo, C. E. Calosso, and A. Godone, “Planar-waveguide external cavity laser stabilization for an optical link with 10−19 frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 2582–2587 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, S. Nagano, A. Yamaguchi, H. Hachisu, and T. Ido, “All-optical link for direct comparison of distant optical clocks,” Opt. Express 19, 16498–16507 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Yamaguchi, M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, H. Hachisu, S. Nagano, Y. Li, T. Ido, T. Takano, M. Takamoto, and H. Katori, “Direct comparison of distant optical lattice clocks at the 10−16 uncertainty,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 082203 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

A. V. Gorshkov, M. Hermele, V. Gurarie, C. Xu, P. S. Julienne, J. Ye, P. Zoller, E. Demler, M. D. Lukin, and A. M. Rey, “Two-orbital SU(N) magnetism with ultracold alkaline-earth atoms,” Nature Phys. 6, 289–295 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

A. J. Daley, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, and P. Zoller, “Quantum computing with alkaline earth atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 170504 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. A. Williams, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “High-stability transfer of an optical frequency over long fiber-optic links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1284–1293 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Lombardi, “The use of GPS disciplined oscillators as primary frequency standards for calibration and metrology laboratories,” NCSLI Measure J. Meas. Sci. 3 (3), 56–65 (2008).

N. Poli, Z. W. Barber, N. D. Lemke, C. W. Oates, L. S. Ma, J. E. Stalnaker, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, A. Brusch, S. Jefferts, T. Heavner, and T. Parker, “Frequency evaluation of the doubly forbidden 1S0—3P0 transition in bosonic 174Yb,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 050501 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

D. Calonico, A. Cina, I. H. Bendea, F. Levi, L. Lorini, and A. Godone, “Gravitational redshift at INRIM,” Metrologia 44, L44–L48 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Barzaghi, A. Borghi, D. Carrion, and G. Sona, “Refining the estimate of the Italian quasi-geoid,” Bollettino di Geodesia e Scienze Affini 66, 145–149 (2007).

2005 (1)

C. W. Hoyt, Z. W. Barber, C. W. Oates, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, “Observation and absolute frequency measurements of the 1S0—3P0 optical clock transition in neutral ytterbium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 083003 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. G. Porsev, A. Derevianko, and E. N. Fortson, “Possibility of an optical clock using the 61S0→63P00 transition in 171,173Yb atoms held in an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 021403 (2004).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

A. Bjerhammar, “On a relativistic geodesy,” B. Geod. 59, 207–220 (1985).
[Crossref]

Abgrall, M.

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nature Photon. 9, 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hänsch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S2S frequency via a 920-km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
[Crossref]

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C. Clivati, A. Mura, D. Calonico, F. Levi, G. A. Costanzo, C. E. Calosso, and A. Godone, “Planar-waveguide external cavity laser stabilization for an optical link with 10−19 frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 2582–2587 (2011).
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D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. A. GodoneMura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. M. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 979–986 (2014).
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C. Clivati, A. Mura, D. Calonico, F. Levi, G. A. Costanzo, C. E. Calosso, and A. Godone, “Planar-waveguide external cavity laser stabilization for an optical link with 10−19 frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 2582–2587 (2011).
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F. Scazza, C. Hofrichter, M. Höfer, P. C. De Groot, I. Bloch, and S. Fölling, “Observation of two-orbital spin-exchange interactions with ultracold SU(N)-symmetric fermions,” Nature Phys. 10, 779–784 (2014).
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A. V. Gorshkov, M. Hermele, V. Gurarie, C. Xu, P. S. Julienne, J. Ye, P. Zoller, E. Demler, M. D. Lukin, and A. M. Rey, “Two-orbital SU(N) magnetism with ultracold alkaline-earth atoms,” Nature Phys. 6, 289–295 (2010).
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C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S.M.F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” arXiv:1511.07735 (2015).

Derevianko, A.

S. G. Porsev, A. Derevianko, and E. N. Fortson, “Possibility of an optical clock using the 61S0→63P00 transition in 171,173Yb atoms held in an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 021403 (2004).
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N. Poli, Z. W. Barber, N. D. Lemke, C. W. Oates, L. S. Ma, J. E. Stalnaker, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, A. Brusch, S. Jefferts, T. Heavner, and T. Parker, “Frequency evaluation of the doubly forbidden 1S0—3P0 transition in bosonic 174Yb,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 050501 (2008).
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C. W. Hoyt, Z. W. Barber, C. W. Oates, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, “Observation and absolute frequency measurements of the 1S0—3P0 optical clock transition in neutral ytterbium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 083003 (2005).
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C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S.M.F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” arXiv:1511.07735 (2015).

Droste, S.

S. Droste, C. Grebing, J. Leute, S. M. F. Raupach, A. Matveev, T. W. Hänsch, A. Bauch, R. Holzwarth, and G. Grosche, “Characterization of a 450-km baseline GPS carrier-phase link using an optical fiber link,” New J. Phys. 17, 083044 (2015).
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S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
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G. Pagano, M. Mancini, G. Cappellini, P. Lombardi, F. Schäfer, H. Hu, X.-J. Liu, J. Catani, C. Sias, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “A one-dimensional liquid of fermions with tunable spin,” Nature Phys. 10, 198–201 (2014).
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G. Cappellini, M. Mancini, G. Pagano, L. Lombardi, L. Livi, M. Siciliani de Cumis, P Cancio Pastor, M. Pizzocaro, D. Calonico, F. Levi, C. Sias, J. Catani, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “Direct observation of coherent interorbital spin-exchange dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 120402 (2014).
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M. Höfer, L. Riegger, F. Scazza, C. Hofrichter, D. R. Fernandes, M. M. Parish, J. Levinsen, I. Bloch, and S. Fölling, “Observation of an orbital interaction-induced Feshbach resonance in 173-Yb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 265302 (2015).
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Fölling, S.

M. Höfer, L. Riegger, F. Scazza, C. Hofrichter, D. R. Fernandes, M. M. Parish, J. Levinsen, I. Bloch, and S. Fölling, “Observation of an orbital interaction-induced Feshbach resonance in 173-Yb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 265302 (2015).
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F. Scazza, C. Hofrichter, M. Höfer, P. C. De Groot, I. Bloch, and S. Fölling, “Observation of two-orbital spin-exchange interactions with ultracold SU(N)-symmetric fermions,” Nature Phys. 10, 779–784 (2014).
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Fortier, T. M.

N. Poli, Z. W. Barber, N. D. Lemke, C. W. Oates, L. S. Ma, J. E. Stalnaker, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, A. Brusch, S. Jefferts, T. Heavner, and T. Parker, “Frequency evaluation of the doubly forbidden 1S0—3P0 transition in bosonic 174Yb,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 050501 (2008).
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C. W. Hoyt, Z. W. Barber, C. W. Oates, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, “Observation and absolute frequency measurements of the 1S0—3P0 optical clock transition in neutral ytterbium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 083003 (2005).
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Fortson, E. N.

S. G. Porsev, A. Derevianko, and E. N. Fortson, “Possibility of an optical clock using the 61S0→63P00 transition in 171,173Yb atoms held in an optical lattice,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 021403 (2004).
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Fox, R. W.

J. A. Sherman, N. D. Lemke, N. Hinkley, M. Pizzocaro, R. W. Fox, A. D. Ludlow, and C. W. Oates, “High-accuracy measurement of atomic polarizability in an optical lattice clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 153002 (2012).
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Frittelli, M.

C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, M. Zucco, R. Ambrosini, C. Bortolotti, F. Perini, M. Roma, and D. Calonico, “A coherent fiber link for very long baseline interferometry,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 62, 1907–1912 (2015).
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D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. A. GodoneMura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. M. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 979–986 (2014).
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Fujieda, M.

A. Yamaguchi, M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, H. Hachisu, S. Nagano, Y. Li, T. Ido, T. Takano, M. Takamoto, and H. Katori, “Direct comparison of distant optical lattice clocks at the 10−16 uncertainty,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 082203 (2011).
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M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, S. Nagano, A. Yamaguchi, H. Hachisu, and T. Ido, “All-optical link for direct comparison of distant optical clocks,” Opt. Express 19, 16498–16507 (2011).
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Godone, A.

F. Levi, D. Calonico, C. E. Calosso, A. Godone, S. Micalizio, and G. A. Costanzo, “Accuracy evaluation of ITCsF2: a nitrogen cooled caesium fountain,” Metrologia 51, 270–284 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Clivati, A. Mura, D. Calonico, F. Levi, G. A. Costanzo, C. E. Calosso, and A. Godone, “Planar-waveguide external cavity laser stabilization for an optical link with 10−19 frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 2582–2587 (2011).
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D. Calonico, A. Cina, I. H. Bendea, F. Levi, L. Lorini, and A. Godone, “Gravitational redshift at INRIM,” Metrologia 44, L44–L48 (2007).
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GodoneMura, A. A.

D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. A. GodoneMura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. M. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 979–986 (2014).
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Gorshkov, A. V.

A. V. Gorshkov, M. Hermele, V. Gurarie, C. Xu, P. S. Julienne, J. Ye, P. Zoller, E. Demler, M. D. Lukin, and A. M. Rey, “Two-orbital SU(N) magnetism with ultracold alkaline-earth atoms,” Nature Phys. 6, 289–295 (2010).
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Grebing, C.

S. Droste, C. Grebing, J. Leute, S. M. F. Raupach, A. Matveev, T. W. Hänsch, A. Bauch, R. Holzwarth, and G. Grosche, “Characterization of a 450-km baseline GPS carrier-phase link using an optical fiber link,” New J. Phys. 17, 083044 (2015).
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C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S.M.F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” arXiv:1511.07735 (2015).

Grosche, G.

S. Droste, C. Grebing, J. Leute, S. M. F. Raupach, A. Matveev, T. W. Hänsch, A. Bauch, R. Holzwarth, and G. Grosche, “Characterization of a 450-km baseline GPS carrier-phase link using an optical fiber link,” New J. Phys. 17, 083044 (2015).
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A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hänsch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S2S frequency via a 920-km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
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S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S.M.F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” arXiv:1511.07735 (2015).

Gurarie, V.

A. V. Gorshkov, M. Hermele, V. Gurarie, C. Xu, P. S. Julienne, J. Ye, P. Zoller, E. Demler, M. D. Lukin, and A. M. Rey, “Two-orbital SU(N) magnetism with ultracold alkaline-earth atoms,” Nature Phys. 6, 289–295 (2010).
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Haboucha, A.

Hachisu, H.

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, S. Nagano, A. Yamaguchi, H. Hachisu, and T. Ido, “All-optical link for direct comparison of distant optical clocks,” Opt. Express 19, 16498–16507 (2011).
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A. Yamaguchi, M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, H. Hachisu, S. Nagano, Y. Li, T. Ido, T. Takano, M. Takamoto, and H. Katori, “Direct comparison of distant optical lattice clocks at the 10−16 uncertainty,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 082203 (2011).
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Häfner, S.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S.M.F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” arXiv:1511.07735 (2015).

Hänsch, T. W.

S. Droste, C. Grebing, J. Leute, S. M. F. Raupach, A. Matveev, T. W. Hänsch, A. Bauch, R. Holzwarth, and G. Grosche, “Characterization of a 450-km baseline GPS carrier-phase link using an optical fiber link,” New J. Phys. 17, 083044 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hänsch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S2S frequency via a 920-km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heavner, T.

N. Poli, Z. W. Barber, N. D. Lemke, C. W. Oates, L. S. Ma, J. E. Stalnaker, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, A. Brusch, S. Jefferts, T. Heavner, and T. Parker, “Frequency evaluation of the doubly forbidden 1S0—3P0 transition in bosonic 174Yb,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 050501 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hermele, M.

A. V. Gorshkov, M. Hermele, V. Gurarie, C. Xu, P. S. Julienne, J. Ye, P. Zoller, E. Demler, M. D. Lukin, and A. M. Rey, “Two-orbital SU(N) magnetism with ultracold alkaline-earth atoms,” Nature Phys. 6, 289–295 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hinkley, N.

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
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J. A. Sherman, N. D. Lemke, N. Hinkley, M. Pizzocaro, R. W. Fox, A. D. Ludlow, and C. W. Oates, “High-accuracy measurement of atomic polarizability in an optical lattice clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 153002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Höfer, M.

M. Höfer, L. Riegger, F. Scazza, C. Hofrichter, D. R. Fernandes, M. M. Parish, J. Levinsen, I. Bloch, and S. Fölling, “Observation of an orbital interaction-induced Feshbach resonance in 173-Yb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 265302 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Scazza, C. Hofrichter, M. Höfer, P. C. De Groot, I. Bloch, and S. Fölling, “Observation of two-orbital spin-exchange interactions with ultracold SU(N)-symmetric fermions,” Nature Phys. 10, 779–784 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hofrichter, C.

M. Höfer, L. Riegger, F. Scazza, C. Hofrichter, D. R. Fernandes, M. M. Parish, J. Levinsen, I. Bloch, and S. Fölling, “Observation of an orbital interaction-induced Feshbach resonance in 173-Yb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 265302 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Scazza, C. Hofrichter, M. Höfer, P. C. De Groot, I. Bloch, and S. Fölling, “Observation of two-orbital spin-exchange interactions with ultracold SU(N)-symmetric fermions,” Nature Phys. 10, 779–784 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hollberg, L.

N. Poli, Z. W. Barber, N. D. Lemke, C. W. Oates, L. S. Ma, J. E. Stalnaker, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, A. Brusch, S. Jefferts, T. Heavner, and T. Parker, “Frequency evaluation of the doubly forbidden 1S0—3P0 transition in bosonic 174Yb,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 050501 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. W. Hoyt, Z. W. Barber, C. W. Oates, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, “Observation and absolute frequency measurements of the 1S0—3P0 optical clock transition in neutral ytterbium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 083003 (2005).
[Crossref]

Holzwarth, R.

S. Droste, C. Grebing, J. Leute, S. M. F. Raupach, A. Matveev, T. W. Hänsch, A. Bauch, R. Holzwarth, and G. Grosche, “Characterization of a 450-km baseline GPS carrier-phase link using an optical fiber link,” New J. Phys. 17, 083044 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hänsch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S2S frequency via a 920-km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Droste, F. Ozimek, T. Udem, K. Predehl, T. W. Hänsch, H. Schnatz, G. Grosche, and R. Holzwarth, “Optical-frequency transfer over a single-span 1840 km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 110801 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoyt, C. W.

C. W. Hoyt, Z. W. Barber, C. W. Oates, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, and L. Hollberg, “Observation and absolute frequency measurements of the 1S0—3P0 optical clock transition in neutral ytterbium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 083003 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hu, H.

G. Pagano, M. Mancini, G. Cappellini, P. Lombardi, F. Schäfer, H. Hu, X.-J. Liu, J. Catani, C. Sias, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “A one-dimensional liquid of fermions with tunable spin,” Nature Phys. 10, 198–201 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ido, T.

A. Yamaguchi, M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, H. Hachisu, S. Nagano, Y. Li, T. Ido, T. Takano, M. Takamoto, and H. Katori, “Direct comparison of distant optical lattice clocks at the 10−16 uncertainty,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 082203 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, S. Nagano, A. Yamaguchi, H. Hachisu, and T. Ido, “All-optical link for direct comparison of distant optical clocks,” Opt. Express 19, 16498–16507 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inguscio, M.

M. Mancini, G. Pagano, G. Cappellini, L. Livi, M. Rider, J. Catani, C. Sias, P. Zoller, M. Inguscio, M. Dalmonte, and L. Fallani, “Observation of chiral edge states with neutral fermions in synthetic Hall ribbons,” Science 349, 1510–1513 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Pagano, M. Mancini, G. Cappellini, L. Livi, C. Sias, J. Catani, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “A strongly interacting gas of two-electron fermions at an orbital Feshbach resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 265301 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Calonico, M. Inguscio, and F. Levi, “Light and the distribution of time,” EPL 110, 40001 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Cappellini, M. Mancini, G. Pagano, L. Lombardi, L. Livi, M. Siciliani de Cumis, P Cancio Pastor, M. Pizzocaro, D. Calonico, F. Levi, C. Sias, J. Catani, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “Direct observation of coherent interorbital spin-exchange dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 120402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Pagano, M. Mancini, G. Cappellini, P. Lombardi, F. Schäfer, H. Hu, X.-J. Liu, J. Catani, C. Sias, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “A one-dimensional liquid of fermions with tunable spin,” Nature Phys. 10, 198–201 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jefferts, S.

N. Poli, Z. W. Barber, N. D. Lemke, C. W. Oates, L. S. Ma, J. E. Stalnaker, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, A. Brusch, S. Jefferts, T. Heavner, and T. Parker, “Frequency evaluation of the doubly forbidden 1S0—3P0 transition in bosonic 174Yb,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 050501 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jiang, L.

P. Kómár, E. M. Kessler, M. Bishof, L. Jiang, A. S. Sørensen, J. Ye, and M. D. Lukin, “A quantum network of clocks,” Nature Phys. 10, 582–587 (2014).
[Crossref]

Julienne, P. S.

A. V. Gorshkov, M. Hermele, V. Gurarie, C. Xu, P. S. Julienne, J. Ye, P. Zoller, E. Demler, M. D. Lukin, and A. M. Rey, “Two-orbital SU(N) magnetism with ultracold alkaline-earth atoms,” Nature Phys. 6, 289–295 (2010).
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Katori, H.

I. Ushijima, M. Takamoto, M. Das, T. Ohkubo, and H. Katori, “Cryogenic optical lattice clocks,” Nature Photon. 9, 185–189 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Yamaguchi, M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, H. Hachisu, S. Nagano, Y. Li, T. Ido, T. Takano, M. Takamoto, and H. Katori, “Direct comparison of distant optical lattice clocks at the 10−16 uncertainty,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 082203 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kessler, E. M.

P. Kómár, E. M. Kessler, M. Bishof, L. Jiang, A. S. Sørensen, J. Ye, and M. D. Lukin, “A quantum network of clocks,” Nature Phys. 10, 582–587 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koczwara, A.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S.M.F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” arXiv:1511.07735 (2015).

Koke, S.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S.M.F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” arXiv:1511.07735 (2015).

Kolachevsky, N.

A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hänsch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S2S frequency via a 920-km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kómár, P.

P. Kómár, E. M. Kessler, M. Bishof, L. Jiang, A. S. Sørensen, J. Ye, and M. D. Lukin, “A quantum network of clocks,” Nature Phys. 10, 582–587 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kraus, C. V.

X. Zhang, M. Bishof, S. L. Bromley, C. V. Kraus, M. S. Safronova, P. Zoller, A. M. Rey, and J. Ye, “Spectroscopic observation of SU(N)-symmetric interactions in Sr orbital magnetism,” Science 345, 1467–1473 (2014).
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Krehlik, P.

P. Morzyński, M. Bober, D. Bartoszek-Bober, J. Nawrocki, P. Krehlik, and L. Sliwczyński, “Absolute measurement of the 1S0—3P0 clock transition in neutral 88Sr over the 330 km-long stabilized fibre optic link,” Sci. Rep. 5, 17495 (2015).
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Kuhl, A.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S.M.F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” arXiv:1511.07735 (2015).

Kumagai, M.

A. Yamaguchi, M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, H. Hachisu, S. Nagano, Y. Li, T. Ido, T. Takano, M. Takamoto, and H. Katori, “Direct comparison of distant optical lattice clocks at the 10−16 uncertainty,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 082203 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, S. Nagano, A. Yamaguchi, H. Hachisu, and T. Ido, “All-optical link for direct comparison of distant optical clocks,” Opt. Express 19, 16498–16507 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laurent, P.

A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hänsch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S2S frequency via a 920-km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Le Coq, Y.

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nature Photon. 9, 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S.M.F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” arXiv:1511.07735 (2015).

Le Targat, R.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S.M.F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” arXiv:1511.07735 (2015).

Legero, T.

A. Matveev, C. G. Parthey, K. Predehl, J. Alnis, A. Beyer, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. Wilken, N. Kolachevsky, M. Abgrall, D. Rovera, C. Salomon, P. Laurent, G. Grosche, O. Terra, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, S. Weyers, B. Altschul, and T. W. Hänsch, “Precision measurement of the hydrogen 1S2S frequency via a 920-km fiber link,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 230801 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S.M.F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” arXiv:1511.07735 (2015).

Lemke, N. D.

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Sherman, N. D. Lemke, N. Hinkley, M. Pizzocaro, R. W. Fox, A. D. Ludlow, and C. W. Oates, “High-accuracy measurement of atomic polarizability in an optical lattice clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 153002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Poli, Z. W. Barber, N. D. Lemke, C. W. Oates, L. S. Ma, J. E. Stalnaker, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, A. Brusch, S. Jefferts, T. Heavner, and T. Parker, “Frequency evaluation of the doubly forbidden 1S0—3P0 transition in bosonic 174Yb,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 050501 (2008).
[Crossref]

Leute, J.

S. Droste, C. Grebing, J. Leute, S. M. F. Raupach, A. Matveev, T. W. Hänsch, A. Bauch, R. Holzwarth, and G. Grosche, “Characterization of a 450-km baseline GPS carrier-phase link using an optical fiber link,” New J. Phys. 17, 083044 (2015).
[Crossref]

Levi, F.

C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, F. Levi, A. Mura, M. Zucco, R. Ambrosini, C. Bortolotti, F. Perini, M. Roma, and D. Calonico, “A coherent fiber link for very long baseline interferometry,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 62, 1907–1912 (2015).
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D. Calonico, M. Inguscio, and F. Levi, “Light and the distribution of time,” EPL 110, 40001 (2015).
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D. Calonico, E. K. Bertacco, C. E. Calosso, C. Clivati, G. A. Costanzo, M. Frittelli, A. A. GodoneMura, N. Poli, D. V. Sutyrin, G. M. Tino, M. E. Zucco, and F. Levi, “High-accuracy coherent optical frequency transfer over a doubled 642-km fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 979–986 (2014).
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G. Cappellini, M. Mancini, G. Pagano, L. Lombardi, L. Livi, M. Siciliani de Cumis, P Cancio Pastor, M. Pizzocaro, D. Calonico, F. Levi, C. Sias, J. Catani, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “Direct observation of coherent interorbital spin-exchange dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 120402 (2014).
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F. Levi, D. Calonico, C. E. Calosso, A. Godone, S. Micalizio, and G. A. Costanzo, “Accuracy evaluation of ITCsF2: a nitrogen cooled caesium fountain,” Metrologia 51, 270–284 (2014).
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C. Clivati, A. Mura, D. Calonico, F. Levi, G. A. Costanzo, C. E. Calosso, and A. Godone, “Planar-waveguide external cavity laser stabilization for an optical link with 10−19 frequency stability,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 58, 2582–2587 (2011).
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D. Calonico, A. Cina, I. H. Bendea, F. Levi, L. Lorini, and A. Godone, “Gravitational redshift at INRIM,” Metrologia 44, L44–L48 (2007).
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Levinsen, J.

M. Höfer, L. Riegger, F. Scazza, C. Hofrichter, D. R. Fernandes, M. M. Parish, J. Levinsen, I. Bloch, and S. Fölling, “Observation of an orbital interaction-induced Feshbach resonance in 173-Yb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 265302 (2015).
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Li, Y.

A. Yamaguchi, M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, H. Hachisu, S. Nagano, Y. Li, T. Ido, T. Takano, M. Takamoto, and H. Katori, “Direct comparison of distant optical lattice clocks at the 10−16 uncertainty,” Appl. Phys. Express 4, 082203 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lisdat, C.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S.M.F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” arXiv:1511.07735 (2015).

Liu, X.-J.

G. Pagano, M. Mancini, G. Cappellini, P. Lombardi, F. Schäfer, H. Hu, X.-J. Liu, J. Catani, C. Sias, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “A one-dimensional liquid of fermions with tunable spin,” Nature Phys. 10, 198–201 (2014).
[Crossref]

Livi, L.

M. Mancini, G. Pagano, G. Cappellini, L. Livi, M. Rider, J. Catani, C. Sias, P. Zoller, M. Inguscio, M. Dalmonte, and L. Fallani, “Observation of chiral edge states with neutral fermions in synthetic Hall ribbons,” Science 349, 1510–1513 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Pagano, M. Mancini, G. Cappellini, L. Livi, C. Sias, J. Catani, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “A strongly interacting gas of two-electron fermions at an orbital Feshbach resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 265301 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Cappellini, M. Mancini, G. Pagano, L. Lombardi, L. Livi, M. Siciliani de Cumis, P Cancio Pastor, M. Pizzocaro, D. Calonico, F. Levi, C. Sias, J. Catani, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “Direct observation of coherent interorbital spin-exchange dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 120402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lodewyck, J.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S.M.F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” arXiv:1511.07735 (2015).

Lombardi, L.

G. Cappellini, M. Mancini, G. Pagano, L. Lombardi, L. Livi, M. Siciliani de Cumis, P Cancio Pastor, M. Pizzocaro, D. Calonico, F. Levi, C. Sias, J. Catani, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “Direct observation of coherent interorbital spin-exchange dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 120402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lombardi, M.

M. Lombardi, “The use of GPS disciplined oscillators as primary frequency standards for calibration and metrology laboratories,” NCSLI Measure J. Meas. Sci. 3 (3), 56–65 (2008).

Lombardi, P.

G. Cappellini, P. Lombardi, M. Mancini, G. Pagano, M. Pizzocaro, L. Fallani, and J. Catani, “A compact ultranarrow high-power laser system for experiments with 578 nm ytterbium clock transition,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 073111 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Pagano, M. Mancini, G. Cappellini, P. Lombardi, F. Schäfer, H. Hu, X.-J. Liu, J. Catani, C. Sias, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “A one-dimensional liquid of fermions with tunable spin,” Nature Phys. 10, 198–201 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lopez, O.

B. Argence, B. Chanteau, O. Lopez, D. Nicolodi, M. Abgrall, C. Chardonnet, C. Daussy, B. Darquié, Y. Le Coq, and A. Amy-Klein, “Quantum cascade laser frequency stabilization at the sub-Hz level,” Nature Photon. 9, 456–460 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Lopez, A. Haboucha, B. Chanteau, C. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Ultra-stable long distance optical frequency distribution using the Internet fiber network,” Opt. Express 20, 23518–23526 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S.M.F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” arXiv:1511.07735 (2015).

Lorini, L.

D. Calonico, A. Cina, I. H. Bendea, F. Levi, L. Lorini, and A. Godone, “Gravitational redshift at INRIM,” Metrologia 44, L44–L48 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lours, M.

C. Lisdat, G. Grosche, N. Quintin, C. Shi, S.M.F. Raupach, C. Grebing, D. Nicolodi, F. Stefani, A. Al-Masoudi, S. Dörscher, S. Häfner, J.-L. Robyr, N. Chiodo, S. Bilicki, E. Bookjans, A. Koczwara, S. Koke, A. Kuhl, F. Wiotte, F. Meynadier, E. Camisard, M. Abgrall, M. Lours, T. Legero, H. Schnatz, U. Sterr, H. Denker, C. Chardonnet, Y. Le Coq, G. Santarelli, A. Amy-Klein, R. Le Targat, J. Lodewyck, O. Lopez, and P.-E. Pottie, “A clock network for geodesy and fundamental science,” arXiv:1511.07735 (2015).

Ludlow, A. D.

A. D. Ludlow, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, and P. O. Schmidt, “Optical atomic clocks,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 87, 637–701 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Hinkley, J. A. Sherman, N. B. Phillips, M. Schioppo, N. D. Lemke, K. Beloy, M. Pizzocaro, C. W. Oates, and A. D. Ludlow, “An atomic clock with 10−18 instability,” Science 341, 1215–1218 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Sherman, N. D. Lemke, N. Hinkley, M. Pizzocaro, R. W. Fox, A. D. Ludlow, and C. W. Oates, “High-accuracy measurement of atomic polarizability in an optical lattice clock,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 153002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lukin, M. D.

P. Kómár, E. M. Kessler, M. Bishof, L. Jiang, A. S. Sørensen, J. Ye, and M. D. Lukin, “A quantum network of clocks,” Nature Phys. 10, 582–587 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. V. Gorshkov, M. Hermele, V. Gurarie, C. Xu, P. S. Julienne, J. Ye, P. Zoller, E. Demler, M. D. Lukin, and A. M. Rey, “Two-orbital SU(N) magnetism with ultracold alkaline-earth atoms,” Nature Phys. 6, 289–295 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ma, L. S.

N. Poli, Z. W. Barber, N. D. Lemke, C. W. Oates, L. S. Ma, J. E. Stalnaker, T. M. Fortier, S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, J. C. Bergquist, A. Brusch, S. Jefferts, T. Heavner, and T. Parker, “Frequency evaluation of the doubly forbidden 1S0—3P0 transition in bosonic 174Yb,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 050501 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mancini, M.

G. Cappellini, P. Lombardi, M. Mancini, G. Pagano, M. Pizzocaro, L. Fallani, and J. Catani, “A compact ultranarrow high-power laser system for experiments with 578 nm ytterbium clock transition,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 073111 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Pagano, M. Mancini, G. Cappellini, L. Livi, C. Sias, J. Catani, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “A strongly interacting gas of two-electron fermions at an orbital Feshbach resonance,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 265301 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Mancini, G. Pagano, G. Cappellini, L. Livi, M. Rider, J. Catani, C. Sias, P. Zoller, M. Inguscio, M. Dalmonte, and L. Fallani, “Observation of chiral edge states with neutral fermions in synthetic Hall ribbons,” Science 349, 1510–1513 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Pagano, M. Mancini, G. Cappellini, P. Lombardi, F. Schäfer, H. Hu, X.-J. Liu, J. Catani, C. Sias, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “A one-dimensional liquid of fermions with tunable spin,” Nature Phys. 10, 198–201 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Cappellini, M. Mancini, G. Pagano, L. Lombardi, L. Livi, M. Siciliani de Cumis, P Cancio Pastor, M. Pizzocaro, D. Calonico, F. Levi, C. Sias, J. Catani, M. Inguscio, and L. Fallani, “Direct observation of coherent interorbital spin-exchange dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 120402 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matveev, A.

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M. Mancini, G. Pagano, G. Cappellini, L. Livi, M. Rider, J. Catani, C. Sias, P. Zoller, M. Inguscio, M. Dalmonte, and L. Fallani, “Observation of chiral edge states with neutral fermions in synthetic Hall ribbons,” Science 349, 1510–1513 (2015).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of the experimental system. Left panel: generation of the optical signal, frequency-referenced to the Cs primary standard at the metrological institute INRIM (Turin), for long-haul optical frequency dissemination. Right panel: end-user spectroscopy system at LENS (Florence), along with signal regeneration and frequency bridging with a local frequency comb. Note that other users can exploit the reference after regeneration due to a “point-to-star” dissemination configuration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Performances of the remote laser stabilization. a. Red line: frequency noise of the beatnote between the comb-bridged local laser at 1156 nm and reference laser at 1542 nm; blue line: frequency noise of the HM-disciplined 1542-nm laser as measured at INRIM; black line: expected contribution of the optical link. All the spectra are referred to the 1156-nm spectral region. b. Blue line (circles): fractional frequency instability (Allan deviation) of the HM-disciplined 1542-nm laser as measured at INRIM; red line (triangles): instability of the beatnote (through the comb) between the fiber-disseminated signal at 1542 nm and the local 1156-nm laser, locked to it; green line (diamonds): instability of the beatnote between the 1542-nm laser and the local 1156-nm laser when a linear drift of 0.1 Hz/s is removed off-line. All measurements are taken with 0.5 Hz measurement bandwidth. Excess instability on the blue curve with respect to green one on timescales ¡ 10 s is due to a non-stationary contribution, since measurements were taken at different times.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectroscopy of the 1S03P0 173Yb clock transition. a. GPS-based measurement, with a series of 10- to 30-minutes-long scans taken at different starting times during the same day (see legend). b. Same as in a, but with the GPS reference replaced by the optical link. c. Long-term addressing of the clock transition (5.2 hours), used for extracting its absolute frequency (see text). The error bars indicate the standard deviation of the mean over approximately 10 repeated measurements. The lines are fits with Lorentzian functions. The zero values for the horizontal scales are chosen arbitrarily. d. Inset shows both mI = ±5/2 Zeeman components.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Uncertainty budget of the 173Yb 1S03P0 absolute frequency, expressed in Hz at 578 nm.

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