Abstract

We present Ge rib waveguide devices fabricated on a Ge-on-insulator (GeOI) wafer as a proof-of-concept Ge mid-infrared photonics platform. Numerical analysis revealed that the driving current for a given optical attenuation in a carrier-injection Ge waveguide device at a 1.95 μm wavelength can be approximately five times smaller than that in a Si device, enabling in-line carrier-injection Ge optical modulators based on free-carrier absorption. We prepared a GeOI wafer with a 2-μm-thick buried oxide layer (BOX) by wafer bonding. By using the GeOI wafer, we fabricated Ge rib waveguides. The Ge rib waveguides were transparent to 2 μm wavelengths and the propagation loss was found to be 1.4 dB/mm, which may have been caused by sidewall scattering. We achieved a negligible bend loss in the Ge rib waveguide, even with a 5 μm bend radius, owing to the strong optical confinement in the GeOI structure. We also formed a lateral p-i-n junction along the Ge rib waveguide to explore the capability of absorption modulation by carrier injection. By injecting current through the lateral p-i-n junction, we achieved optical intensity modulation in the 2 μm band based on the free-carrier absorption in Ge.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (1)

J. Kang, X. Yu, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Impact of thermal annealing on Ge-on-insulator substrate fabricated by wafer bonding,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 42, 259–263 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Predictions of free-carrier electroabsorption and electrorefraction in germanium,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 2600214 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. H. Lee, S. J. Choo, U. Jung, K. W. Lee, K. W. Kim, and J. H. Park, “Low-loss silicon waveguides with sidewall roughness reduction using a SiO2 hard mask and fluorine-based dry etching,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 25(1), 015003 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, N. Kavanagh, Z. Li, J. Zhao, N. Ye, Y. Chen, N. V. Wheeler, J. P. Wooler, J. R. Hayes, S. R. Sandoghchi, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, R. Phelan, J. O’Carroll, B. Kelly, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. J. Richardson, B. Corbett, and F. C. Garcia Gunning, “100 Gbit/s WDM transmission at 2 µm: transmission studies in both low-loss hollow core photonic bandgap fiber and solid core fiber,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4946–4951 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nedeljkovic, J. Penadés, C. Mitchell, A. Khokhar, S. Stanković, T. Bucio, C. Littlejohns, F. Gardes, and G. Mashanovich, “Surface-grating-coupled low-loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

2013 (7)

Y. Moriyama, K. Ikeda, Y. Kamimuta, M. Oda, T. Irisawa, Y. Nakamura, A. Sakai, and T. Tezuka, “Fabrication of bonded GeOI substrates with thin Al2O3/SiO2 buried oxide layers,” Solid-State Electron. 83, 42–45 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. T. Lin, V. Singh, J. F. Wang, H. T. Lin, J. J. Hu, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, I. Luzinov, J. Hensley, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Si-CMOS compatible materials and devices for mid-IR microphotonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1474–1487 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, J. P. Wooler, A. M. Heidt, N. K. Baddela, Z. Li, D. R. Gray, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, N. V. Wheeler, J. R. Hayes, E. Numkam, L. Grűner-Nielsen, B. Pálsdóttir, R. Phelan, B. Kelly, J. O’Carroll, M. Becker, N. MacSuibhne, J. Zhao, F. C. Gunning, A. D. Ellis, P. Petropoulos, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Demonstration of amplified data transmission at 2 µm in a low-loss wide bandwidth hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28559–28569 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. S. Penades, S. Stankovic, H. M. H. Chong, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Khan, J. Chiles, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, “Silicon-on-nitride waveguides for mid- and near-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121104 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-Silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-Silicon planar concave grating wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161119 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

2011 (3)

F. Li, S. D. Jackson, C. Grillet, E. Magi, D. Hudson, S. J. Madden, Y. Moghe, C. O’Brien, A. Read, S. G. Duvall, P. Atanackovic, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Low propagation loss silicon-on-sapphire waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15212–15220 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Thareja, S. Chopra, B. Adams, Y. Kim, S. Moffatt, K. Saraswat, and Y. Nishi, “High n-type antimony dopant activation in germanium using laser annealing for n+/p junction diode,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(7), 838–840 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

D. J. Richardson, “Applied physics. Filling the light pipe,” Science 330(6002), 327–328 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of a Si-based lattice-matched room-temperature GeSn/GeSiSn multi-quantum-well mid-infrared laser diode,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19957–19965 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

H. Takagi, J. Utsumi, M. Takahashi, and R. Maeda, “Room-temperature bonding of oxide wafer by Ar-beam surface activation,” ECS Trans. 16, 531–537 (2008).

2006 (2)

C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, T. Akatsu, F. Allibert, J. Dechamp, F. Madeira, F. Mazen, A. Tauzin, V. Loup, C. Richtarch, D. Mercier, T. Signamarcheix, F. Letertre, B. Depuydt, and N. Kernevez, “Fabrication and characterisation of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates made from bulk germanium,” Electron. Lett. 42(7), 415–416 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Simoen, A. Satta, A. D’Amore, T. Janssens, T. Clarysse, K. Martens, B. De Jaeger, A. Benedetti, I. Hoflijk, B. Brijs, M. Meuris, and W. Vandervorst, “Ion-implantation issues in the formation of shallow junctions in germanium,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4-5), 634–639 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

C. O. Chui, K. Gopalakrishnan, P. B. Griffin, J. D. Plummer, and K. C. Saraswat, “Activation and diffusion studies of ion-implanted p and n dopants in germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(16), 3275 (2003).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

H. H. Li, “Refractive index of silicon and germanium and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 9(3), 561–658 (1980).
[Crossref]

Adams, B.

G. Thareja, S. Chopra, B. Adams, Y. Kim, S. Moffatt, K. Saraswat, and Y. Nishi, “High n-type antimony dopant activation in germanium using laser annealing for n+/p junction diode,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(7), 838–840 (2011).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A.

Akatsu, T.

C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, T. Akatsu, F. Allibert, J. Dechamp, F. Madeira, F. Mazen, A. Tauzin, V. Loup, C. Richtarch, D. Mercier, T. Signamarcheix, F. Letertre, B. Depuydt, and N. Kernevez, “Fabrication and characterisation of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates made from bulk germanium,” Electron. Lett. 42(7), 415–416 (2006).
[Crossref]

Alam, S. U.

Allibert, F.

C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, T. Akatsu, F. Allibert, J. Dechamp, F. Madeira, F. Mazen, A. Tauzin, V. Loup, C. Richtarch, D. Mercier, T. Signamarcheix, F. Letertre, B. Depuydt, and N. Kernevez, “Fabrication and characterisation of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates made from bulk germanium,” Electron. Lett. 42(7), 415–416 (2006).
[Crossref]

Alonso-Ramos, C.

Atanackovic, P.

Baddela, N. K.

Becker, M.

Benedetti, A.

E. Simoen, A. Satta, A. D’Amore, T. Janssens, T. Clarysse, K. Martens, B. De Jaeger, A. Benedetti, I. Hoflijk, B. Brijs, M. Meuris, and W. Vandervorst, “Ion-implantation issues in the formation of shallow junctions in germanium,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4-5), 634–639 (2006).
[Crossref]

Boodhoo, L. A.

Boztug, C.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brijs, B.

E. Simoen, A. Satta, A. D’Amore, T. Janssens, T. Clarysse, K. Martens, B. De Jaeger, A. Benedetti, I. Hoflijk, B. Brijs, M. Meuris, and W. Vandervorst, “Ion-implantation issues in the formation of shallow junctions in germanium,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4-5), 634–639 (2006).
[Crossref]

Buca, D.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bucio, T.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. Penadés, C. Mitchell, A. Khokhar, S. Stanković, T. Bucio, C. Littlejohns, F. Gardes, and G. Mashanovich, “Surface-grating-coupled low-loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chang, Y. C.

Cheben, P.

Chen, F.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

Chen, Y.

Cheng, H. H.

Chiles, J.

J. Chiles and S. Fathpour, “Mid-infrared integrated waveguide modulators based on silicon-on-lithium-niobate photonics,” Optica 1(5), 350–355 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Khan, J. Chiles, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, “Silicon-on-nitride waveguides for mid- and near-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121104 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chiussi, S.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chong, H. M. H.

Choo, S. J.

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L. Li, H. Lin, S. Qiao, Y. Zou, S. Danto, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, N. Lu, and J. Hu, “Integrated flexible chalcogenide glass photonic devices,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 643–649 (2014).
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S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
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M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Predictions of free-carrier electroabsorption and electrorefraction in germanium,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 2600214 (2015).
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J. Soler Penadés, C. Alonso-Ramos, A. Z. Khokhar, M. Nedeljkovic, L. A. Boodhoo, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, P. Cheben, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Suspended SOI waveguide with sub-wavelength grating cladding for mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5661–5664 (2014).
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[Crossref]

Nishi, Y.

G. Thareja, S. Chopra, B. Adams, Y. Kim, S. Moffatt, K. Saraswat, and Y. Nishi, “High n-type antimony dopant activation in germanium using laser annealing for n+/p junction diode,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(7), 838–840 (2011).
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Oda, M.

Y. Moriyama, K. Ikeda, Y. Kamimuta, M. Oda, T. Irisawa, Y. Nakamura, A. Sakai, and T. Tezuka, “Fabrication of bonded GeOI substrates with thin Al2O3/SiO2 buried oxide layers,” Solid-State Electron. 83, 42–45 (2013).
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Paeder, V.

Paiella, R.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pálsdóttir, B.

Park, J. H.

D. H. Lee, S. J. Choo, U. Jung, K. W. Lee, K. W. Kim, and J. H. Park, “Low-loss silicon waveguides with sidewall roughness reduction using a SiO2 hard mask and fluorine-based dry etching,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 25(1), 015003 (2015).
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Paskiewicz, D. M.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
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A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-Silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1805–1808 (2013).
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Penadés, J.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. Penadés, C. Mitchell, A. Khokhar, S. Stanković, T. Bucio, C. Littlejohns, F. Gardes, and G. Mashanovich, “Surface-grating-coupled low-loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
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Petrovich, M. N.

Phelan, R.

Plummer, J. D.

C. O. Chui, K. Gopalakrishnan, P. B. Griffin, J. D. Plummer, and K. C. Saraswat, “Activation and diffusion studies of ion-implanted p and n dopants in germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(16), 3275 (2003).
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Poulton, C. G.

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L. Li, H. Lin, S. Qiao, Y. Zou, S. Danto, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, N. Lu, and J. Hu, “Integrated flexible chalcogenide glass photonic devices,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 643–649 (2014).
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Reed, G. T.

Richardson, D. J.

Richardson, K.

L. Li, H. Lin, S. Qiao, Y. Zou, S. Danto, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, N. Lu, and J. Hu, “Integrated flexible chalcogenide glass photonic devices,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 643–649 (2014).
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P. T. Lin, V. Singh, J. F. Wang, H. T. Lin, J. J. Hu, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, I. Luzinov, J. Hensley, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Si-CMOS compatible materials and devices for mid-IR microphotonics,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1474–1487 (2013).
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Roelkens, G.

A. Malik, S. Dwivedi, L. Van Landschoot, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, G. Lepage, J. Van Campenhout, W. Vanherle, T. Van Opstal, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Ge-on-Si and Ge-on-SOI thermo-optic phase shifters for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28479–28488 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-Silicon planar concave grating wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161119 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-Silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, F. Gencarelli, J. Van Campenhout, Y. Shimura, R. Loo, G. Narcy, B. Vincent, and G. Roelkens, “GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27297–27303 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakai, A.

Y. Moriyama, K. Ikeda, Y. Kamimuta, M. Oda, T. Irisawa, Y. Nakamura, A. Sakai, and T. Tezuka, “Fabrication of bonded GeOI substrates with thin Al2O3/SiO2 buried oxide layers,” Solid-State Electron. 83, 42–45 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sanchez, L.

C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, T. Akatsu, F. Allibert, J. Dechamp, F. Madeira, F. Mazen, A. Tauzin, V. Loup, C. Richtarch, D. Mercier, T. Signamarcheix, F. Letertre, B. Depuydt, and N. Kernevez, “Fabrication and characterisation of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates made from bulk germanium,” Electron. Lett. 42(7), 415–416 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sánchez-Pérez, J. R.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
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Sandoghchi, S. R.

Saraswat, K.

G. Thareja, S. Chopra, B. Adams, Y. Kim, S. Moffatt, K. Saraswat, and Y. Nishi, “High n-type antimony dopant activation in germanium using laser annealing for n+/p junction diode,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(7), 838–840 (2011).
[Crossref]

Saraswat, K. C.

C. O. Chui, K. Gopalakrishnan, P. B. Griffin, J. D. Plummer, and K. C. Saraswat, “Activation and diffusion studies of ion-implanted p and n dopants in germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(16), 3275 (2003).
[Crossref]

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E. Simoen, A. Satta, A. D’Amore, T. Janssens, T. Clarysse, K. Martens, B. De Jaeger, A. Benedetti, I. Hoflijk, B. Brijs, M. Meuris, and W. Vandervorst, “Ion-implantation issues in the formation of shallow junctions in germanium,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4-5), 634–639 (2006).
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Shimura, Y.

A. Malik, S. Dwivedi, L. Van Landschoot, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, G. Lepage, J. Van Campenhout, W. Vanherle, T. Van Opstal, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Ge-on-Si and Ge-on-SOI thermo-optic phase shifters for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28479–28488 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-Silicon planar concave grating wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161119 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-Silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, F. Gencarelli, J. Van Campenhout, Y. Shimura, R. Loo, G. Narcy, B. Vincent, and G. Roelkens, “GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27297–27303 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sigg, H.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Signamarcheix, T.

C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, T. Akatsu, F. Allibert, J. Dechamp, F. Madeira, F. Mazen, A. Tauzin, V. Loup, C. Richtarch, D. Mercier, T. Signamarcheix, F. Letertre, B. Depuydt, and N. Kernevez, “Fabrication and characterisation of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates made from bulk germanium,” Electron. Lett. 42(7), 415–416 (2006).
[Crossref]

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E. Simoen, A. Satta, A. D’Amore, T. Janssens, T. Clarysse, K. Martens, B. De Jaeger, A. Benedetti, I. Hoflijk, B. Brijs, M. Meuris, and W. Vandervorst, “Ion-implantation issues in the formation of shallow junctions in germanium,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4-5), 634–639 (2006).
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Singh, V.

Slavík, R.

Soler Penadés, J.

Soref, R.

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Predictions of free-carrier electroabsorption and electrorefraction in germanium,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 2600214 (2015).
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C. Wolff, R. Soref, C. G. Poulton, and B. J. Eggleton, “Germanium as a material for stimulated Brillouin scattering in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30735–30747 (2014).
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R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
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Soref, R. A.

Stankovic, S.

M. Nedeljkovic, J. Penadés, C. Mitchell, A. Khokhar, S. Stanković, T. Bucio, C. Littlejohns, F. Gardes, and G. Mashanovich, “Surface-grating-coupled low-loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, A. Z. Khokhar, Y. Hu, X. Chen, J. S. Penades, S. Stankovic, H. M. H. Chong, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Silicon photonic devices and platforms for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1205–1214 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stoica, T.

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sudradjat, F. F.

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Takagi, H.

H. Takagi, J. Utsumi, M. Takahashi, and R. Maeda, “Room-temperature bonding of oxide wafer by Ar-beam surface activation,” ECS Trans. 16, 531–537 (2008).

Takagi, S.

J. Kang, X. Yu, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Impact of thermal annealing on Ge-on-insulator substrate fabricated by wafer bonding,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 42, 259–263 (2016).
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Takahashi, M.

H. Takagi, J. Utsumi, M. Takahashi, and R. Maeda, “Room-temperature bonding of oxide wafer by Ar-beam surface activation,” ECS Trans. 16, 531–537 (2008).

Takenaka, M.

J. Kang, X. Yu, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Impact of thermal annealing on Ge-on-insulator substrate fabricated by wafer bonding,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 42, 259–263 (2016).
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Tauzin, A.

C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, T. Akatsu, F. Allibert, J. Dechamp, F. Madeira, F. Mazen, A. Tauzin, V. Loup, C. Richtarch, D. Mercier, T. Signamarcheix, F. Letertre, B. Depuydt, and N. Kernevez, “Fabrication and characterisation of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates made from bulk germanium,” Electron. Lett. 42(7), 415–416 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tezuka, T.

Y. Moriyama, K. Ikeda, Y. Kamimuta, M. Oda, T. Irisawa, Y. Nakamura, A. Sakai, and T. Tezuka, “Fabrication of bonded GeOI substrates with thin Al2O3/SiO2 buried oxide layers,” Solid-State Electron. 83, 42–45 (2013).
[Crossref]

Thareja, G.

G. Thareja, S. Chopra, B. Adams, Y. Kim, S. Moffatt, K. Saraswat, and Y. Nishi, “High n-type antimony dopant activation in germanium using laser annealing for n+/p junction diode,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(7), 838–840 (2011).
[Crossref]

Thomson, D. J.

Utsumi, J.

H. Takagi, J. Utsumi, M. Takahashi, and R. Maeda, “Room-temperature bonding of oxide wafer by Ar-beam surface activation,” ECS Trans. 16, 531–537 (2008).

Van Campenhout, J.

A. Malik, S. Dwivedi, L. Van Landschoot, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, G. Lepage, J. Van Campenhout, W. Vanherle, T. Van Opstal, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Ge-on-Si and Ge-on-SOI thermo-optic phase shifters for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28479–28488 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-Silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-Silicon planar concave grating wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161119 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Gassenq, F. Gencarelli, J. Van Campenhout, Y. Shimura, R. Loo, G. Narcy, B. Vincent, and G. Roelkens, “GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27297–27303 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Landschoot, L.

Van Opstal, T.

Vandervorst, W.

E. Simoen, A. Satta, A. D’Amore, T. Janssens, T. Clarysse, K. Martens, B. De Jaeger, A. Benedetti, I. Hoflijk, B. Brijs, M. Meuris, and W. Vandervorst, “Ion-implantation issues in the formation of shallow junctions in germanium,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4-5), 634–639 (2006).
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S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
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Wooler, J. P.

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J. Kang, X. Yu, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Impact of thermal annealing on Ge-on-insulator substrate fabricated by wafer bonding,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 42, 259–263 (2016).
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Zhao, J.

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L. Li, H. Lin, S. Qiao, Y. Zou, S. Danto, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, N. Lu, and J. Hu, “Integrated flexible chalcogenide glass photonic devices,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 643–649 (2014).
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S. Khan, J. Chiles, J. Ma, and S. Fathpour, “Silicon-on-nitride waveguides for mid- and near-infrared integrated photonics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121104 (2013).
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A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-Silicon planar concave grating wavelength (de)multiplexers in the mid-infrared,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161119 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. O. Chui, K. Gopalakrishnan, P. B. Griffin, J. D. Plummer, and K. C. Saraswat, “Activation and diffusion studies of ion-implanted p and n dopants in germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(16), 3275 (2003).
[Crossref]

ECS Trans. (1)

H. Takagi, J. Utsumi, M. Takahashi, and R. Maeda, “Room-temperature bonding of oxide wafer by Ar-beam surface activation,” ECS Trans. 16, 531–537 (2008).

Electron. Lett. (1)

C. Deguet, L. Sanchez, T. Akatsu, F. Allibert, J. Dechamp, F. Madeira, F. Mazen, A. Tauzin, V. Loup, C. Richtarch, D. Mercier, T. Signamarcheix, F. Letertre, B. Depuydt, and N. Kernevez, “Fabrication and characterisation of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates made from bulk germanium,” Electron. Lett. 42(7), 415–416 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

G. Thareja, S. Chopra, B. Adams, Y. Kim, S. Moffatt, K. Saraswat, and Y. Nishi, “High n-type antimony dopant activation in germanium using laser annealing for n+/p junction diode,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(7), 838–840 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Predictions of free-carrier electroabsorption and electrorefraction in germanium,” IEEE Photonics J. 7(3), 2600214 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, S. Pathak, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-Silicon mid-infrared arrayed waveguide grating multiplexers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(18), 1805–1808 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Nedeljkovic, J. Penadés, C. Mitchell, A. Khokhar, S. Stanković, T. Bucio, C. Littlejohns, F. Gardes, and G. Mashanovich, “Surface-grating-coupled low-loss Ge-on-Si rib waveguides and multimode interferometers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(10), 1040–1043 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

D. H. Lee, S. J. Choo, U. Jung, K. W. Lee, K. W. Kim, and J. H. Park, “Low-loss silicon waveguides with sidewall roughness reduction using a SiO2 hard mask and fluorine-based dry etching,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 25(1), 015003 (2015).
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J. Kang, X. Yu, M. Takenaka, and S. Takagi, “Impact of thermal annealing on Ge-on-insulator substrate fabricated by wafer bonding,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 42, 259–263 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Simoen, A. Satta, A. D’Amore, T. Janssens, T. Clarysse, K. Martens, B. De Jaeger, A. Benedetti, I. Hoflijk, B. Brijs, M. Meuris, and W. Vandervorst, “Ion-implantation issues in the formation of shallow junctions in germanium,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 9(4-5), 634–639 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (3)

L. Li, H. Lin, S. Qiao, Y. Zou, S. Danto, K. Richardson, J. D. Musgraves, N. Lu, and J. Hu, “Integrated flexible chalcogenide glass photonic devices,” Nat. Photonics 8(8), 643–649 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wirths, R. Geiger, N. von den Driesch, G. Mussler, T. Stoica, S. Mantl, Z. Ikonic, M. Luysberg, S. Chiussi, J. M. Hartmann, H. Sigg, J. Faist, D. Buca, and D. Grützmacher, “Lasing in direct-bandgap GeSn alloy grown on Si,” Nat. Photonics 9(2), 88–92 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

J. Shephard, W. Macpherson, R. Maier, J. Jones, D. Hand, M. Mohebbi, A. George, P. Roberts, and J. Knight, “Single-mode mid-IR guidance in a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 13(18), 7139–7144 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, N. Kavanagh, Z. Li, J. Zhao, N. Ye, Y. Chen, N. V. Wheeler, J. P. Wooler, J. R. Hayes, S. R. Sandoghchi, F. Poletti, M. N. Petrovich, S. U. Alam, R. Phelan, J. O’Carroll, B. Kelly, L. Grüner-Nielsen, D. J. Richardson, B. Corbett, and F. C. Garcia Gunning, “100 Gbit/s WDM transmission at 2 µm: transmission studies in both low-loss hollow core photonic bandgap fiber and solid core fiber,” Opt. Express 23(4), 4946–4951 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. N. Petrovich, F. Poletti, J. P. Wooler, A. M. Heidt, N. K. Baddela, Z. Li, D. R. Gray, R. Slavík, F. Parmigiani, N. V. Wheeler, J. R. Hayes, E. Numkam, L. Grűner-Nielsen, B. Pálsdóttir, R. Phelan, B. Kelly, J. O’Carroll, M. Becker, N. MacSuibhne, J. Zhao, F. C. Gunning, A. D. Ellis, P. Petropoulos, S. U. Alam, and D. J. Richardson, “Demonstration of amplified data transmission at 2 µm in a low-loss wide bandwidth hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Express 21(23), 28559–28569 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sun, R. A. Soref, and H. H. Cheng, “Design of a Si-based lattice-matched room-temperature GeSn/GeSiSn multi-quantum-well mid-infrared laser diode,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19957–19965 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Li, S. D. Jackson, C. Grillet, E. Magi, D. Hudson, S. J. Madden, Y. Moghe, C. O’Brien, A. Read, S. G. Duvall, P. Atanackovic, B. J. Eggleton, and D. J. Moss, “Low propagation loss silicon-on-sapphire waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 19(16), 15212–15220 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Gassenq, F. Gencarelli, J. Van Campenhout, Y. Shimura, R. Loo, G. Narcy, B. Vincent, and G. Roelkens, “GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27297–27303 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Malik, S. Dwivedi, L. Van Landschoot, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, G. Lepage, J. Van Campenhout, W. Vanherle, T. Van Opstal, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Ge-on-Si and Ge-on-SOI thermo-optic phase shifters for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22(23), 28479–28488 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wolff, R. Soref, C. G. Poulton, and B. J. Eggleton, “Germanium as a material for stimulated Brillouin scattering in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 22(25), 30735–30747 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Optica (1)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

J. R. Sánchez-Pérez, C. Boztug, F. Chen, F. F. Sudradjat, D. M. Paskiewicz, R. B. Jacobson, M. G. Lagally, and R. Paiella, “Direct-bandgap light-emitting germanium in tensilely strained nanomembranes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(47), 18893–18898 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. J. Richardson, “Applied physics. Filling the light pipe,” Science 330(6002), 327–328 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. F. Liu, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Monolithic Ge-on-Si lasers for large-scale electronic-photonic integration,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(9), 094006 (2012).
[Crossref]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

Y. Moriyama, K. Ikeda, Y. Kamimuta, M. Oda, T. Irisawa, Y. Nakamura, A. Sakai, and T. Tezuka, “Fabrication of bonded GeOI substrates with thin Al2O3/SiO2 buried oxide layers,” Solid-State Electron. 83, 42–45 (2013).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

E. R. Dobrovinskaya, L. A. Lytvynov, and V. Pishchik, Sapphire Material, Manufacturing, Application (Springer, 2009)

V. Degiorgio and C. Flytzanis, Nonlinear Optical Materials: Principles and Applications (IOS Press, 1995).

S. S. Li, Semiconductor Physical Electronics, Second Edition (Springer, 2006).

I. T. Sorokina and K. L. Vodopyanov, Solid-State Mid-Infrared Laser Sources (Springer-Verlag, 2003).

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics,” Proc. OFC, W4A.4 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Malik, M. Muneeb, Y. Shimura, J. Van Campenhout, R. Loo, and G. Roelkens, “Germanium-on-silicon mid-infrared waveguides and Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Proc. IEEE Photonics Conf., MF1.4 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic image of Ge rib waveguide with lateral p-i-n junction on GeOI wafer for carrier-injection optical intensity modulation.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Structure of a Ge rib waveguide with a lateral p-i-n junction and (b) electric field intensity distribution of the fundamental TE-like mode (at 1.95 μm) in a Ge rib waveguide with SiO2 cladding.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Comparison of (a) attenuation properties and (b) current-voltage characteristics of Ge and Si devices.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Process flow of Ge-on-insulator wafer fabrication, and (b) cross-sectional TEM image of the fabricated Ge-on-insulator wafer.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Scanning electron microscope image of a Ge rib waveguide, (b) propagation loss of Ge rib waveguides, (c) transmitted spectrum of a 1.4-mm-long Ge rib waveguide and (d) AFM image of Ge surface after thinning.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Scanning electron microscope image of 5-μm-radius Ge bends, and (b) bend loss of Ge rib waveguide as a function of bend radius.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Fabrication process flow of a Ge variable optical attenuator.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Scanning electron microscope image of a Ge variable optical attenuator and (b) attenuation characteristics of the Ge variable optical attenuator in the 2 μm band as a function of injection current.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Typical current-voltage curve of fabricated Ge p-i-n junction and (b) carrier concentrations in n+/p + - doped Ge layers estimated by transmission line method.

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