Abstract

Optical switches based on ring resonator cavities were fabricated by a silicon photonics foundry process and analyzed for optical crosstalk at various data rates and channel spacings. These devices were compared to commercial bandpass filters and at 20Gb/s, 0.5dB power penalty is observed due to spectral filtering for bit error ratio threshold of 1 × 10−9. Concurrent modulation at 20Gb/s with a channel spacing as narrow as 40GHz shows error-free transmission with 1dB power penalty as compared to wider channel spacing for the ring-based switch.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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  1. V. N. I. Cisco, “The Zettabyte Era: Trends and Analysis,” http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral/service-provider/visual-networking-index-vni/VNI_Hyperconnectivity_WP.html .
  2. N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P. C. Sun, J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. C. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  3. Y. Kunishige, K. i. Baba, and S. Shimojo, “Optical network configuration methods considering end-to-end latency in data centers,” IEEE Pacific Rim Conference on Communications, Computers and Signal Processing (PACRIM) (IEEE2015), pp. 210–215.
  4. T. J. Seok, N. Quack, S. Han, and M. C. Wu, “50×50 digital silicon photonic switches with mems-actuated adiabatic couplers,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper M2B4.
  5. N. Dupuis, “Technologies for fast, scalable silicon photonic switches,” International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS) (IEEE2015), pp. 100–102.
  6. G. de Valicourt, N. D. Moroz, P. Jennev, F. Vacondio, G. H. Duan, C. Jany, A. Leliepvre, A. Accard, and J. C. Antona, “A next-generation optical packet-switching node based on hybrid III-V/silicon optical gates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 678–681 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  7. T. C. Huang, C. Li, R. Wu, C. H. Chen, M. Fiorentino, K. T. Cheng, and R. Beausoleil, “DWDM nanophotonic interconnects: toward terabit/s chip-scale serial link,” IEEE 58th International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS) (IEEE2015) pp. 1–4.
  8. M. Bahadori, S. Rumley, D. Nikolova, and K. Bergman, “Comprehensive design space exploration of silicon photonic interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. PP(99), 1–14 (2016).
  9. A. Descos, M. A. Seyedi, C.H. Chen, F. Vincent, D. Penkler, M. Fiorentino, B. Szelag, and R. Beausoleil, “Crosstalk analysis of ring-resonator based optical switches,” IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (OIC) (IEEE2016), paper TuP5.
  10. S. Haykin, An Introduction to Analog and Digital Communication (Wiley & Sons, 1989)
  11. B. Small, B. Lee, K. Bergman, Q. Xu, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “High data rate signal integrity in micron-scale silicon ring resonators,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CTuCC4.
  12. M. A. Seyedi, C.-H. Chen, M. Fiorentino, and R. Beausoleil, “Error-free DWDM transmission and crosstalk analysis for a silicon photonics transmitter,” Opt. Express 23(26), 32968–32976 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

M. Bahadori, S. Rumley, D. Nikolova, and K. Bergman, “Comprehensive design space exploration of silicon photonic interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. PP(99), 1–14 (2016).

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

G. de Valicourt, N. D. Moroz, P. Jennev, F. Vacondio, G. H. Duan, C. Jany, A. Leliepvre, A. Accard, and J. C. Antona, “A next-generation optical packet-switching node based on hybrid III-V/silicon optical gates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 678–681 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P. C. Sun, J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. C. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
[Crossref]

Accard, A.

G. de Valicourt, N. D. Moroz, P. Jennev, F. Vacondio, G. H. Duan, C. Jany, A. Leliepvre, A. Accard, and J. C. Antona, “A next-generation optical packet-switching node based on hybrid III-V/silicon optical gates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 678–681 (2014).
[Crossref]

Antona, J. C.

G. de Valicourt, N. D. Moroz, P. Jennev, F. Vacondio, G. H. Duan, C. Jany, A. Leliepvre, A. Accard, and J. C. Antona, “A next-generation optical packet-switching node based on hybrid III-V/silicon optical gates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 678–681 (2014).
[Crossref]

Baba, K. i.

Y. Kunishige, K. i. Baba, and S. Shimojo, “Optical network configuration methods considering end-to-end latency in data centers,” IEEE Pacific Rim Conference on Communications, Computers and Signal Processing (PACRIM) (IEEE2015), pp. 210–215.

Bahadori, M.

M. Bahadori, S. Rumley, D. Nikolova, and K. Bergman, “Comprehensive design space exploration of silicon photonic interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. PP(99), 1–14 (2016).

Beausoleil, R.

M. A. Seyedi, C.-H. Chen, M. Fiorentino, and R. Beausoleil, “Error-free DWDM transmission and crosstalk analysis for a silicon photonics transmitter,” Opt. Express 23(26), 32968–32976 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Descos, M. A. Seyedi, C.H. Chen, F. Vincent, D. Penkler, M. Fiorentino, B. Szelag, and R. Beausoleil, “Crosstalk analysis of ring-resonator based optical switches,” IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (OIC) (IEEE2016), paper TuP5.

T. C. Huang, C. Li, R. Wu, C. H. Chen, M. Fiorentino, K. T. Cheng, and R. Beausoleil, “DWDM nanophotonic interconnects: toward terabit/s chip-scale serial link,” IEEE 58th International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS) (IEEE2015) pp. 1–4.

Bergman, K.

M. Bahadori, S. Rumley, D. Nikolova, and K. Bergman, “Comprehensive design space exploration of silicon photonic interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. PP(99), 1–14 (2016).

B. Small, B. Lee, K. Bergman, Q. Xu, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “High data rate signal integrity in micron-scale silicon ring resonators,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CTuCC4.

Chen, C. H.

T. C. Huang, C. Li, R. Wu, C. H. Chen, M. Fiorentino, K. T. Cheng, and R. Beausoleil, “DWDM nanophotonic interconnects: toward terabit/s chip-scale serial link,” IEEE 58th International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS) (IEEE2015) pp. 1–4.

Chen, C.H.

A. Descos, M. A. Seyedi, C.H. Chen, F. Vincent, D. Penkler, M. Fiorentino, B. Szelag, and R. Beausoleil, “Crosstalk analysis of ring-resonator based optical switches,” IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (OIC) (IEEE2016), paper TuP5.

Chen, C.-H.

Cheng, K. T.

T. C. Huang, C. Li, R. Wu, C. H. Chen, M. Fiorentino, K. T. Cheng, and R. Beausoleil, “DWDM nanophotonic interconnects: toward terabit/s chip-scale serial link,” IEEE 58th International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS) (IEEE2015) pp. 1–4.

de Valicourt, G.

G. de Valicourt, N. D. Moroz, P. Jennev, F. Vacondio, G. H. Duan, C. Jany, A. Leliepvre, A. Accard, and J. C. Antona, “A next-generation optical packet-switching node based on hybrid III-V/silicon optical gates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 678–681 (2014).
[Crossref]

Descos, A.

A. Descos, M. A. Seyedi, C.H. Chen, F. Vincent, D. Penkler, M. Fiorentino, B. Szelag, and R. Beausoleil, “Crosstalk analysis of ring-resonator based optical switches,” IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (OIC) (IEEE2016), paper TuP5.

Duan, G. H.

G. de Valicourt, N. D. Moroz, P. Jennev, F. Vacondio, G. H. Duan, C. Jany, A. Leliepvre, A. Accard, and J. C. Antona, “A next-generation optical packet-switching node based on hybrid III-V/silicon optical gates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 678–681 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dupuis, N.

N. Dupuis, “Technologies for fast, scalable silicon photonic switches,” International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS) (IEEE2015), pp. 100–102.

Fainman, Y.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P. C. Sun, J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. C. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
[Crossref]

Farrington, N.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P. C. Sun, J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. C. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fiorentino, M.

M. A. Seyedi, C.-H. Chen, M. Fiorentino, and R. Beausoleil, “Error-free DWDM transmission and crosstalk analysis for a silicon photonics transmitter,” Opt. Express 23(26), 32968–32976 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. C. Huang, C. Li, R. Wu, C. H. Chen, M. Fiorentino, K. T. Cheng, and R. Beausoleil, “DWDM nanophotonic interconnects: toward terabit/s chip-scale serial link,” IEEE 58th International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS) (IEEE2015) pp. 1–4.

A. Descos, M. A. Seyedi, C.H. Chen, F. Vincent, D. Penkler, M. Fiorentino, B. Szelag, and R. Beausoleil, “Crosstalk analysis of ring-resonator based optical switches,” IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (OIC) (IEEE2016), paper TuP5.

Ford, J. E.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P. C. Sun, J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. C. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
[Crossref]

Forencich, A.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P. C. Sun, J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. C. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
[Crossref]

Han, S.

T. J. Seok, N. Quack, S. Han, and M. C. Wu, “50×50 digital silicon photonic switches with mems-actuated adiabatic couplers,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper M2B4.

Haykin, S.

S. Haykin, An Introduction to Analog and Digital Communication (Wiley & Sons, 1989)

Huang, T. C.

T. C. Huang, C. Li, R. Wu, C. H. Chen, M. Fiorentino, K. T. Cheng, and R. Beausoleil, “DWDM nanophotonic interconnects: toward terabit/s chip-scale serial link,” IEEE 58th International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS) (IEEE2015) pp. 1–4.

Jany, C.

G. de Valicourt, N. D. Moroz, P. Jennev, F. Vacondio, G. H. Duan, C. Jany, A. Leliepvre, A. Accard, and J. C. Antona, “A next-generation optical packet-switching node based on hybrid III-V/silicon optical gates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 678–681 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jennev, P.

G. de Valicourt, N. D. Moroz, P. Jennev, F. Vacondio, G. H. Duan, C. Jany, A. Leliepvre, A. Accard, and J. C. Antona, “A next-generation optical packet-switching node based on hybrid III-V/silicon optical gates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 678–681 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kunishige, Y.

Y. Kunishige, K. i. Baba, and S. Shimojo, “Optical network configuration methods considering end-to-end latency in data centers,” IEEE Pacific Rim Conference on Communications, Computers and Signal Processing (PACRIM) (IEEE2015), pp. 210–215.

Lee, B.

B. Small, B. Lee, K. Bergman, Q. Xu, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “High data rate signal integrity in micron-scale silicon ring resonators,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CTuCC4.

Leliepvre, A.

G. de Valicourt, N. D. Moroz, P. Jennev, F. Vacondio, G. H. Duan, C. Jany, A. Leliepvre, A. Accard, and J. C. Antona, “A next-generation optical packet-switching node based on hybrid III-V/silicon optical gates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 678–681 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

T. C. Huang, C. Li, R. Wu, C. H. Chen, M. Fiorentino, K. T. Cheng, and R. Beausoleil, “DWDM nanophotonic interconnects: toward terabit/s chip-scale serial link,” IEEE 58th International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS) (IEEE2015) pp. 1–4.

Lipson, M.

B. Small, B. Lee, K. Bergman, Q. Xu, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “High data rate signal integrity in micron-scale silicon ring resonators,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CTuCC4.

Moroz, N. D.

G. de Valicourt, N. D. Moroz, P. Jennev, F. Vacondio, G. H. Duan, C. Jany, A. Leliepvre, A. Accard, and J. C. Antona, “A next-generation optical packet-switching node based on hybrid III-V/silicon optical gates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 678–681 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nikolova, D.

M. Bahadori, S. Rumley, D. Nikolova, and K. Bergman, “Comprehensive design space exploration of silicon photonic interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. PP(99), 1–14 (2016).

Papen, G. C.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P. C. Sun, J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. C. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
[Crossref]

Penkler, D.

A. Descos, M. A. Seyedi, C.H. Chen, F. Vincent, D. Penkler, M. Fiorentino, B. Szelag, and R. Beausoleil, “Crosstalk analysis of ring-resonator based optical switches,” IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (OIC) (IEEE2016), paper TuP5.

Porter, G.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P. C. Sun, J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. C. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
[Crossref]

Quack, N.

T. J. Seok, N. Quack, S. Han, and M. C. Wu, “50×50 digital silicon photonic switches with mems-actuated adiabatic couplers,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper M2B4.

Rumley, S.

M. Bahadori, S. Rumley, D. Nikolova, and K. Bergman, “Comprehensive design space exploration of silicon photonic interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. PP(99), 1–14 (2016).

Seok, T. J.

T. J. Seok, N. Quack, S. Han, and M. C. Wu, “50×50 digital silicon photonic switches with mems-actuated adiabatic couplers,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper M2B4.

Seyedi, M. A.

M. A. Seyedi, C.-H. Chen, M. Fiorentino, and R. Beausoleil, “Error-free DWDM transmission and crosstalk analysis for a silicon photonics transmitter,” Opt. Express 23(26), 32968–32976 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Descos, M. A. Seyedi, C.H. Chen, F. Vincent, D. Penkler, M. Fiorentino, B. Szelag, and R. Beausoleil, “Crosstalk analysis of ring-resonator based optical switches,” IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (OIC) (IEEE2016), paper TuP5.

Shakya, J.

B. Small, B. Lee, K. Bergman, Q. Xu, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “High data rate signal integrity in micron-scale silicon ring resonators,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CTuCC4.

Shimojo, S.

Y. Kunishige, K. i. Baba, and S. Shimojo, “Optical network configuration methods considering end-to-end latency in data centers,” IEEE Pacific Rim Conference on Communications, Computers and Signal Processing (PACRIM) (IEEE2015), pp. 210–215.

Small, B.

B. Small, B. Lee, K. Bergman, Q. Xu, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “High data rate signal integrity in micron-scale silicon ring resonators,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CTuCC4.

Sun, P. C.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P. C. Sun, J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. C. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
[Crossref]

Szelag, B.

A. Descos, M. A. Seyedi, C.H. Chen, F. Vincent, D. Penkler, M. Fiorentino, B. Szelag, and R. Beausoleil, “Crosstalk analysis of ring-resonator based optical switches,” IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (OIC) (IEEE2016), paper TuP5.

Vacondio, F.

G. de Valicourt, N. D. Moroz, P. Jennev, F. Vacondio, G. H. Duan, C. Jany, A. Leliepvre, A. Accard, and J. C. Antona, “A next-generation optical packet-switching node based on hybrid III-V/silicon optical gates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 678–681 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vahdat, A.

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P. C. Sun, J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. C. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vincent, F.

A. Descos, M. A. Seyedi, C.H. Chen, F. Vincent, D. Penkler, M. Fiorentino, B. Szelag, and R. Beausoleil, “Crosstalk analysis of ring-resonator based optical switches,” IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (OIC) (IEEE2016), paper TuP5.

Wu, M. C.

T. J. Seok, N. Quack, S. Han, and M. C. Wu, “50×50 digital silicon photonic switches with mems-actuated adiabatic couplers,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper M2B4.

Wu, R.

T. C. Huang, C. Li, R. Wu, C. H. Chen, M. Fiorentino, K. T. Cheng, and R. Beausoleil, “DWDM nanophotonic interconnects: toward terabit/s chip-scale serial link,” IEEE 58th International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS) (IEEE2015) pp. 1–4.

Xu, Q.

B. Small, B. Lee, K. Bergman, Q. Xu, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “High data rate signal integrity in micron-scale silicon ring resonators,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CTuCC4.

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

N. Farrington, A. Forencich, G. Porter, P. C. Sun, J. E. Ford, Y. Fainman, G. C. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “A multiport microsecond optical circuit switch for data center networking,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(16), 1589–1592 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. de Valicourt, N. D. Moroz, P. Jennev, F. Vacondio, G. H. Duan, C. Jany, A. Leliepvre, A. Accard, and J. C. Antona, “A next-generation optical packet-switching node based on hybrid III-V/silicon optical gates,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 26(7), 678–681 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

M. Bahadori, S. Rumley, D. Nikolova, and K. Bergman, “Comprehensive design space exploration of silicon photonic interconnects,” J. Lightwave Technol. PP(99), 1–14 (2016).

Opt. Express (1)

Other (8)

V. N. I. Cisco, “The Zettabyte Era: Trends and Analysis,” http://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral/service-provider/visual-networking-index-vni/VNI_Hyperconnectivity_WP.html .

T. C. Huang, C. Li, R. Wu, C. H. Chen, M. Fiorentino, K. T. Cheng, and R. Beausoleil, “DWDM nanophotonic interconnects: toward terabit/s chip-scale serial link,” IEEE 58th International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems (MWSCAS) (IEEE2015) pp. 1–4.

A. Descos, M. A. Seyedi, C.H. Chen, F. Vincent, D. Penkler, M. Fiorentino, B. Szelag, and R. Beausoleil, “Crosstalk analysis of ring-resonator based optical switches,” IEEE Optical Interconnects Conference (OIC) (IEEE2016), paper TuP5.

S. Haykin, An Introduction to Analog and Digital Communication (Wiley & Sons, 1989)

B. Small, B. Lee, K. Bergman, Q. Xu, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “High data rate signal integrity in micron-scale silicon ring resonators,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CTuCC4.

Y. Kunishige, K. i. Baba, and S. Shimojo, “Optical network configuration methods considering end-to-end latency in data centers,” IEEE Pacific Rim Conference on Communications, Computers and Signal Processing (PACRIM) (IEEE2015), pp. 210–215.

T. J. Seok, N. Quack, S. Han, and M. C. Wu, “50×50 digital silicon photonic switches with mems-actuated adiabatic couplers,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper M2B4.

N. Dupuis, “Technologies for fast, scalable silicon photonic switches,” International Conference on Photonics in Switching (PS) (IEEE2015), pp. 100–102.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Output optical spectra showing normalized through port spectrum of the a) commercial bandpass thin-film filter and b) both drop and through port transmission of the ring filter and c) a microscope image of the ring filter test structure outlining the location of the ports and d) experimental setup used for crosstalk analysis of ring resonator switch.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) eye diagrams for each condition of PD alone (no filtering), BPF and Ring filter and b) modulated spectra as input to the PD for data rates of 10, 15, and 20Gb/s, c) BER of the modulated signal for each condition of PD alone (no filtering), BPF and Ring filter for data rates of 10, 15, and 20Gb/s and the d) power penalty for each data rate and condition for BER of 1 × 10−9..

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectra of concurrently modulated optical signals for various detuning values for each data rate of 10, 15, and 20Gb/s.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

BER vs. input power for channel 1 as filtered by bandpass filter for each data rate of a) 20Gb/s, b) 15Gb/s, and c) 10Gb/s and Ring filter for d) 20Gb/s, e) 15Gb/s, and f) 10Gb/s for various detuning conditions with respect to channel 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Power penalty for 1 × 10−9 BER for the bandpass filter at various data rates and channel detuning values is shown. Under this plot, the associated eye diagrams for maximum input power to the PD are shown for reference.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Power penalty for 1 × 10−9 BER for the ring filter at various data rates and channel detuning values is shown. Under this plot, the associated eye diagrams for maximum input power to the PD are shown for reference.

Equations (1)

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T = ln ( 1 CL ) f × BER

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