Abstract

We report the development of an efficient, liquid-nitrogen conduction cooled Ho:YAG slab laser with good beam quality. Detailed measurements resolving the structure of the 1900-1911 nm absorption band in Ho:YAG at 77 K are presented. Stress-free conduction cooled mounting of the Ho:YAG slab was demonstrated and the resulting laser operated with a large mode volume of 42 mm3, a slope efficiency of 75% and a threshold of 0.84 W. To our knowledge this corresponds to the lowest reported threshold intensity for a Ho:YAG laser.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2015 (1)

2013 (4)

2012 (3)

2010 (3)

A. Hemming, J. Richards, S. Bennetts, A. Davidson, N. Carmody, P. Davies, L. Corena, and D. Lancaster, “A high power hybrid mid-IR laser source,” Opt. Commun. 283(20), 4041–4045 (2010).
[Crossref]

E. Lippert, H. Fonnum, G. Arisholm, and K. Stenersen, “A 22-watt mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator with V-shaped 3-mirror ring resonator,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26475–26483 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. I. Mackenzie, J. W. Kim, L. Pearson, W. O. S. Bailey, Y. Yang, and W. A. Clarkson, “Two-micron cryogenically-cooled solid-state lasers: recent progress and future prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 75781F (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

I. Elder, “Thulium fibre laser pumped mid-IR source,” Proc. SPIE 7325, 73250I (2009).
[Crossref]

J. I. Mackenzie, W. O. S. Bailey, J. W. Kim, L. Pearson, D. Y. Shen, Y. Yang, and W. A. Clarkson, “Tm:fiber laser in-band pumping a cryogenically-cooled Ho:YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71931H (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

D. C. Brown, J. M. Singley, E. Yager, K. Kowalewski, J. Guelzow, and J. W. Kuper, “Kilowatt class high-power CW Yb:YAG cryogenic laser,” Proc. SPIE 6952, 69520K (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

R. L. Aggarwal, D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, and T. Y. Fan, “Measurement of thermo-optic properties of Y3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, YAlO3, LiYF4, LiLuF4, BaY2F8, KGd(WO4)2, and KY(WO4)2 laser crystals in the 80–300 K temperature range,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103514 (2005).
[Crossref]

B. M. Walsh, G. W. Grew, and N. P. Barnes, “Energy levels and intensity parameters of Ho3+ ions in GdLiF4, YLiF4 and LuLiF4,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17(48), 7643–7665 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

D. Y. Shen, A. Abdolvand, L. J. Cooper, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient Ho:YAG laser pumped by a cladding-pumped tunable Tm:silica-fibre laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 559–561 (2004).
[Crossref]

D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, R. L. Aggarwal, and T. Y. Fan, “165-W cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(18), 2154–2156 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

1991 (1)

J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and M. R. Kokta, “Energy levels and crystal quantum states of trivalent holmium in yttrium aluminum garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(12), 8183–8204 (1991).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

G. A. Slack and D. W. Oliver, “Thermal Conductivity of Garnets and Phonon Scattering by Rare-Earth Ions,” Phys. Rev. B 4(2), 592–609 (1971).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

P. H. Klein and W. J. Croft, “Thermal Conductivity, Diffusivity, and Expansion of Y2O3, Y3Al5O12, and LaF3 in the Range 77–300 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 38(4), 1603–1607 (1967).
[Crossref]

Abdolvand, A.

D. Y. Shen, A. Abdolvand, L. J. Cooper, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient Ho:YAG laser pumped by a cladding-pumped tunable Tm:silica-fibre laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 559–561 (2004).
[Crossref]

Aggarwal, R. L.

R. L. Aggarwal, D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, and T. Y. Fan, “Measurement of thermo-optic properties of Y3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, YAlO3, LiYF4, LiLuF4, BaY2F8, KGd(WO4)2, and KY(WO4)2 laser crystals in the 80–300 K temperature range,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103514 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, R. L. Aggarwal, and T. Y. Fan, “165-W cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(18), 2154–2156 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arisholm, G.

Bailey, W. O. S.

J. I. Mackenzie, J. W. Kim, L. Pearson, W. O. S. Bailey, Y. Yang, and W. A. Clarkson, “Two-micron cryogenically-cooled solid-state lasers: recent progress and future prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 75781F (2010).
[Crossref]

J. I. Mackenzie, W. O. S. Bailey, J. W. Kim, L. Pearson, D. Y. Shen, Y. Yang, and W. A. Clarkson, “Tm:fiber laser in-band pumping a cryogenically-cooled Ho:YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71931H (2009).
[Crossref]

Barnes, N. P.

B. M. Walsh, G. W. Grew, and N. P. Barnes, “Energy levels and intensity parameters of Ho3+ ions in GdLiF4, YLiF4 and LuLiF4,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17(48), 7643–7665 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bennetts, S.

A. Hemming, J. Richards, A. Davidson, N. Carmody, S. Bennetts, N. Simakov, and J. Haub, “99 W mid-IR operation of a ZGP OPO at 25% duty cycle,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10062–10069 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hemming, J. Richards, S. Bennetts, A. Davidson, N. Carmody, P. Davies, L. Corena, and D. Lancaster, “A high power hybrid mid-IR laser source,” Opt. Commun. 283(20), 4041–4045 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brown, D. C.

D. C. Brown, J. M. Singley, E. Yager, K. Kowalewski, J. Guelzow, and J. W. Kuper, “Kilowatt class high-power CW Yb:YAG cryogenic laser,” Proc. SPIE 6952, 69520K (2008).
[Crossref]

Carmody, N.

Carter, A.

Ciddor, P. E.

Clarkson, W. A.

J. I. Mackenzie, J. W. Kim, L. Pearson, W. O. S. Bailey, Y. Yang, and W. A. Clarkson, “Two-micron cryogenically-cooled solid-state lasers: recent progress and future prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 75781F (2010).
[Crossref]

J. I. Mackenzie, W. O. S. Bailey, J. W. Kim, L. Pearson, D. Y. Shen, Y. Yang, and W. A. Clarkson, “Tm:fiber laser in-band pumping a cryogenically-cooled Ho:YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71931H (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Shen, A. Abdolvand, L. J. Cooper, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient Ho:YAG laser pumped by a cladding-pumped tunable Tm:silica-fibre laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 559–561 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cooper, L. J.

D. Y. Shen, A. Abdolvand, L. J. Cooper, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient Ho:YAG laser pumped by a cladding-pumped tunable Tm:silica-fibre laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 559–561 (2004).
[Crossref]

Corena, L.

Croft, W. J.

P. H. Klein and W. J. Croft, “Thermal Conductivity, Diffusivity, and Expansion of Y2O3, Y3Al5O12, and LaF3 in the Range 77–300 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 38(4), 1603–1607 (1967).
[Crossref]

Daneu, J. L.

Daniel, J. M. O.

Davidson, A.

Davies, P.

A. Hemming, J. Richards, S. Bennetts, A. Davidson, N. Carmody, P. Davies, L. Corena, and D. Lancaster, “A high power hybrid mid-IR laser source,” Opt. Commun. 283(20), 4041–4045 (2010).
[Crossref]

Duan, X.-M.

Dubinskii, M.

Elder, I.

I. Elder, “Thulium fibre laser pumped mid-IR source,” Proc. SPIE 7325, 73250I (2009).
[Crossref]

Fan, T. Y.

R. L. Aggarwal, D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, and T. Y. Fan, “Measurement of thermo-optic properties of Y3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, YAlO3, LiYF4, LiLuF4, BaY2F8, KGd(WO4)2, and KY(WO4)2 laser crystals in the 80–300 K temperature range,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103514 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, R. L. Aggarwal, and T. Y. Fan, “165-W cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(18), 2154–2156 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Wynne, J. L. Daneu, and T. Y. Fan, “Thermal coefficients of the expansion and refractive index in YAG,” Appl. Opt. 38(15), 3282–3284 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farley, K.

Fleischman, Z.

Fleischman, Z. D.

Fonnum, H.

Ganija, M.

M. Ganija, D. Ottaway, P. Veitch, and J. Munch, “Cryogenic, high power, near diffraction limited, Yb:YAG slab laser,” Opt. Express 21(6), 6973–6978 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ganija, D. J. Ottaway, P. J. Veitch, and J. Munch, “A Cryogenic, End Pumped, Zigzag Slab Laser Suitable For Power Scaling,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, Sydney, 2011), p. C817.
[Crossref]

M. Ganija, D. J. Ottaway, P. J. Veitch, and J. Munch, “A Cryogenic, End Pumped, Zigzag Slab Laser Suitable For Power Scaling,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim (Optical Society of America, 2011), p. C817.
[Crossref]

Grew, G. W.

B. M. Walsh, G. W. Grew, and N. P. Barnes, “Energy levels and intensity parameters of Ho3+ ions in GdLiF4, YLiF4 and LuLiF4,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17(48), 7643–7665 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gruber, J. B.

J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and M. R. Kokta, “Energy levels and crystal quantum states of trivalent holmium in yttrium aluminum garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(12), 8183–8204 (1991).
[Crossref]

Guelzow, J.

D. C. Brown, J. M. Singley, E. Yager, K. Kowalewski, J. Guelzow, and J. W. Kuper, “Kilowatt class high-power CW Yb:YAG cryogenic laser,” Proc. SPIE 6952, 69520K (2008).
[Crossref]

Haakestad, M. W.

Haub, J.

Hemming, A.

A. Hemming, J. Richards, A. Davidson, N. Carmody, S. Bennetts, N. Simakov, and J. Haub, “99 W mid-IR operation of a ZGP OPO at 25% duty cycle,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10062–10069 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hemming, J. Richards, S. Bennetts, A. Davidson, N. Carmody, P. Davies, L. Corena, and D. Lancaster, “A high power hybrid mid-IR laser source,” Opt. Commun. 283(20), 4041–4045 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hemming, A. V.

Hills, M. E.

J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and M. R. Kokta, “Energy levels and crystal quantum states of trivalent holmium in yttrium aluminum garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(12), 8183–8204 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hughes, M.

Ju, Y.-L.

Kim, J. W.

J. I. Mackenzie, J. W. Kim, L. Pearson, W. O. S. Bailey, Y. Yang, and W. A. Clarkson, “Two-micron cryogenically-cooled solid-state lasers: recent progress and future prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 75781F (2010).
[Crossref]

J. I. Mackenzie, W. O. S. Bailey, J. W. Kim, L. Pearson, D. Y. Shen, Y. Yang, and W. A. Clarkson, “Tm:fiber laser in-band pumping a cryogenically-cooled Ho:YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71931H (2009).
[Crossref]

Klein, P. H.

P. H. Klein and W. J. Croft, “Thermal Conductivity, Diffusivity, and Expansion of Y2O3, Y3Al5O12, and LaF3 in the Range 77–300 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 38(4), 1603–1607 (1967).
[Crossref]

Kokta, M. R.

J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and M. R. Kokta, “Energy levels and crystal quantum states of trivalent holmium in yttrium aluminum garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(12), 8183–8204 (1991).
[Crossref]

Kowalewski, K.

D. C. Brown, J. M. Singley, E. Yager, K. Kowalewski, J. Guelzow, and J. W. Kuper, “Kilowatt class high-power CW Yb:YAG cryogenic laser,” Proc. SPIE 6952, 69520K (2008).
[Crossref]

Kuper, J. W.

D. C. Brown, J. M. Singley, E. Yager, K. Kowalewski, J. Guelzow, and J. W. Kuper, “Kilowatt class high-power CW Yb:YAG cryogenic laser,” Proc. SPIE 6952, 69520K (2008).
[Crossref]

Lancaster, D.

A. Hemming, J. Richards, S. Bennetts, A. Davidson, N. Carmody, P. Davies, L. Corena, and D. Lancaster, “A high power hybrid mid-IR laser source,” Opt. Commun. 283(20), 4041–4045 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lippert, E.

Mackenzie, J. I.

J. I. Mackenzie, J. W. Kim, L. Pearson, W. O. S. Bailey, Y. Yang, and W. A. Clarkson, “Two-micron cryogenically-cooled solid-state lasers: recent progress and future prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 75781F (2010).
[Crossref]

J. I. Mackenzie, W. O. S. Bailey, J. W. Kim, L. Pearson, D. Y. Shen, Y. Yang, and W. A. Clarkson, “Tm:fiber laser in-band pumping a cryogenically-cooled Ho:YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71931H (2009).
[Crossref]

Merkle, L. D.

Morrison, C. A.

J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and M. R. Kokta, “Energy levels and crystal quantum states of trivalent holmium in yttrium aluminum garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(12), 8183–8204 (1991).
[Crossref]

Munch, J.

M. Ganija, D. Ottaway, P. Veitch, and J. Munch, “Cryogenic, high power, near diffraction limited, Yb:YAG slab laser,” Opt. Express 21(6), 6973–6978 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ganija, D. J. Ottaway, P. J. Veitch, and J. Munch, “A Cryogenic, End Pumped, Zigzag Slab Laser Suitable For Power Scaling,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, Sydney, 2011), p. C817.
[Crossref]

M. Ganija, D. J. Ottaway, P. J. Veitch, and J. Munch, “A Cryogenic, End Pumped, Zigzag Slab Laser Suitable For Power Scaling,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim (Optical Society of America, 2011), p. C817.
[Crossref]

Newburgh, G. A.

Nicolas, S.

Ochoa, J. R.

R. L. Aggarwal, D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, and T. Y. Fan, “Measurement of thermo-optic properties of Y3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, YAlO3, LiYF4, LiLuF4, BaY2F8, KGd(WO4)2, and KY(WO4)2 laser crystals in the 80–300 K temperature range,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103514 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, R. L. Aggarwal, and T. Y. Fan, “165-W cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(18), 2154–2156 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oliver, D. W.

G. A. Slack and D. W. Oliver, “Thermal Conductivity of Garnets and Phonon Scattering by Rare-Earth Ions,” Phys. Rev. B 4(2), 592–609 (1971).
[Crossref]

Ottaway, D.

Ottaway, D. J.

M. Ganija, D. J. Ottaway, P. J. Veitch, and J. Munch, “A Cryogenic, End Pumped, Zigzag Slab Laser Suitable For Power Scaling,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim (Optical Society of America, 2011), p. C817.
[Crossref]

M. Ganija, D. J. Ottaway, P. J. Veitch, and J. Munch, “A Cryogenic, End Pumped, Zigzag Slab Laser Suitable For Power Scaling,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, Sydney, 2011), p. C817.
[Crossref]

Pearson, L.

J. I. Mackenzie, J. W. Kim, L. Pearson, W. O. S. Bailey, Y. Yang, and W. A. Clarkson, “Two-micron cryogenically-cooled solid-state lasers: recent progress and future prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 75781F (2010).
[Crossref]

J. I. Mackenzie, W. O. S. Bailey, J. W. Kim, L. Pearson, D. Y. Shen, Y. Yang, and W. A. Clarkson, “Tm:fiber laser in-band pumping a cryogenically-cooled Ho:YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71931H (2009).
[Crossref]

Richards, J.

A. Hemming, J. Richards, A. Davidson, N. Carmody, S. Bennetts, N. Simakov, and J. Haub, “99 W mid-IR operation of a ZGP OPO at 25% duty cycle,” Opt. Express 21(8), 10062–10069 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Hemming, J. Richards, S. Bennetts, A. Davidson, N. Carmody, P. Davies, L. Corena, and D. Lancaster, “A high power hybrid mid-IR laser source,” Opt. Commun. 283(20), 4041–4045 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ripin, D. J.

R. L. Aggarwal, D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, and T. Y. Fan, “Measurement of thermo-optic properties of Y3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, YAlO3, LiYF4, LiLuF4, BaY2F8, KGd(WO4)2, and KY(WO4)2 laser crystals in the 80–300 K temperature range,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103514 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, R. L. Aggarwal, and T. Y. Fan, “165-W cryogenically cooled Yb:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(18), 2154–2156 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rustad, G.

Seltzer, M. D.

J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and M. R. Kokta, “Energy levels and crystal quantum states of trivalent holmium in yttrium aluminum garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(12), 8183–8204 (1991).
[Crossref]

Shen, D. Y.

J. I. Mackenzie, W. O. S. Bailey, J. W. Kim, L. Pearson, D. Y. Shen, Y. Yang, and W. A. Clarkson, “Tm:fiber laser in-band pumping a cryogenically-cooled Ho:YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71931H (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Shen, A. Abdolvand, L. J. Cooper, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient Ho:YAG laser pumped by a cladding-pumped tunable Tm:silica-fibre laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 559–561 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shen, Y.-J.

Simakov, N.

Singley, J. M.

D. C. Brown, J. M. Singley, E. Yager, K. Kowalewski, J. Guelzow, and J. W. Kuper, “Kilowatt class high-power CW Yb:YAG cryogenic laser,” Proc. SPIE 6952, 69520K (2008).
[Crossref]

Slack, G. A.

G. A. Slack and D. W. Oliver, “Thermal Conductivity of Garnets and Phonon Scattering by Rare-Earth Ions,” Phys. Rev. B 4(2), 592–609 (1971).
[Crossref]

Stenersen, K.

Stepanov, D.

Stevens, S. B.

J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and M. R. Kokta, “Energy levels and crystal quantum states of trivalent holmium in yttrium aluminum garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(12), 8183–8204 (1991).
[Crossref]

Turner, G. A.

J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and M. R. Kokta, “Energy levels and crystal quantum states of trivalent holmium in yttrium aluminum garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(12), 8183–8204 (1991).
[Crossref]

Veitch, P.

Veitch, P. J.

M. Ganija, D. J. Ottaway, P. J. Veitch, and J. Munch, “A Cryogenic, End Pumped, Zigzag Slab Laser Suitable For Power Scaling,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, Sydney, 2011), p. C817.
[Crossref]

M. Ganija, D. J. Ottaway, P. J. Veitch, and J. Munch, “A Cryogenic, End Pumped, Zigzag Slab Laser Suitable For Power Scaling,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim (Optical Society of America, 2011), p. C817.
[Crossref]

Walsh, B. M.

B. M. Walsh, G. W. Grew, and N. P. Barnes, “Energy levels and intensity parameters of Ho3+ ions in GdLiF4, YLiF4 and LuLiF4,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17(48), 7643–7665 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

Wang, Y.-Z.

Wynne, R.

Yager, E.

D. C. Brown, J. M. Singley, E. Yager, K. Kowalewski, J. Guelzow, and J. W. Kuper, “Kilowatt class high-power CW Yb:YAG cryogenic laser,” Proc. SPIE 6952, 69520K (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

J. I. Mackenzie, J. W. Kim, L. Pearson, W. O. S. Bailey, Y. Yang, and W. A. Clarkson, “Two-micron cryogenically-cooled solid-state lasers: recent progress and future prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 75781F (2010).
[Crossref]

J. I. Mackenzie, W. O. S. Bailey, J. W. Kim, L. Pearson, D. Y. Shen, Y. Yang, and W. A. Clarkson, “Tm:fiber laser in-band pumping a cryogenically-cooled Ho:YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71931H (2009).
[Crossref]

Yao, B.-Q.

Zhu, G.-L.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. Y. Shen, A. Abdolvand, L. J. Cooper, and W. A. Clarkson, “Efficient Ho:YAG laser pumped by a cladding-pumped tunable Tm:silica-fibre laser,” Appl. Phys. B 79(5), 559–561 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

P. H. Klein and W. J. Croft, “Thermal Conductivity, Diffusivity, and Expansion of Y2O3, Y3Al5O12, and LaF3 in the Range 77–300 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 38(4), 1603–1607 (1967).
[Crossref]

R. L. Aggarwal, D. J. Ripin, J. R. Ochoa, and T. Y. Fan, “Measurement of thermo-optic properties of Y3Al5O12, Lu3Al5O12, YAlO3, LiYF4, LiLuF4, BaY2F8, KGd(WO4)2, and KY(WO4)2 laser crystals in the 80–300 K temperature range,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 103514 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, M. D. Seltzer, S. B. Stevens, C. A. Morrison, G. A. Turner, and M. R. Kokta, “Energy levels and crystal quantum states of trivalent holmium in yttrium aluminum garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 69(12), 8183–8204 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

B. M. Walsh, G. W. Grew, and N. P. Barnes, “Energy levels and intensity parameters of Ho3+ ions in GdLiF4, YLiF4 and LuLiF4,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17(48), 7643–7665 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Hemming, J. Richards, S. Bennetts, A. Davidson, N. Carmody, P. Davies, L. Corena, and D. Lancaster, “A high power hybrid mid-IR laser source,” Opt. Commun. 283(20), 4041–4045 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mater. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

G. A. Slack and D. W. Oliver, “Thermal Conductivity of Garnets and Phonon Scattering by Rare-Earth Ions,” Phys. Rev. B 4(2), 592–609 (1971).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (5)

J. I. Mackenzie, W. O. S. Bailey, J. W. Kim, L. Pearson, D. Y. Shen, Y. Yang, and W. A. Clarkson, “Tm:fiber laser in-band pumping a cryogenically-cooled Ho:YAG laser,” Proc. SPIE 7193, 71931H (2009).
[Crossref]

J. I. Mackenzie, J. W. Kim, L. Pearson, W. O. S. Bailey, Y. Yang, and W. A. Clarkson, “Two-micron cryogenically-cooled solid-state lasers: recent progress and future prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7578, 75781F (2010).
[Crossref]

I. Elder, “Thulium fibre laser pumped mid-IR source,” Proc. SPIE 7325, 73250I (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Lippert, H. Fonnum, and K. Stenersen, “Fiber laser pumped high energy cryogenically cooled Ho:YLF laser,” Proc. SPIE 8543, 854308 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. C. Brown, J. M. Singley, E. Yager, K. Kowalewski, J. Guelzow, and J. W. Kuper, “Kilowatt class high-power CW Yb:YAG cryogenic laser,” Proc. SPIE 6952, 69520K (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

N. Simakov, A. Hemming, A. Carter, K. Farley, A. Davidson, N. Carmody, J. M. O. Daniel, M. Hughes, L. Corena, D. Stepanov, and J. Haub, “170 W Single-mode Large Pedestal Thulium-doped Fibre Laser,” in 2015 European Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics - European Quantum Electronics Conference (Optical Society of America, Munich, 2015), p. CJ_13_2.

M. Ganija, D. J. Ottaway, P. J. Veitch, and J. Munch, “A Cryogenic, End Pumped, Zigzag Slab Laser Suitable For Power Scaling,” in Proceedings of the International Quantum Electronics Conference and Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Pacific Rim 2011 (Optical Society of America, Sydney, 2011), p. C817.
[Crossref]

M. Ganija, D. J. Ottaway, P. J. Veitch, and J. Munch, “A Cryogenic, End Pumped, Zigzag Slab Laser Suitable For Power Scaling,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim (Optical Society of America, 2011), p. C817.
[Crossref]

S. Bennetts, A. Hemming, A. Davidson, and D. G. Lancaster, “110 W 790 nm pumped 1908 nm thulium fibre laser,” in Joint conference of the Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference and the Australian Conference on Optical Fibre Technology. OECC/ACOFT 2008. (2008), p. 1–2.

D. J. Creeden, B. R. Johnson, and S. D. Setzler, “High Efficiency 1908 nm Tm-doped Fiber Laser Oscillator,” in Specialty Optical Fibers (Optical Society of America, 2012), p. SW2F.4.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the experimental setup for the measurement of the transmission through the Ho:YAG crystal at 295 K and 77 K.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The absorption spectra of a 0.7 wt% doped Ho:YAG laser slab at 295 K and 77 K. These measurements were made with an OSA resolution of 0.5 nm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Absorption spectra of 0.7 wt% doped Ho:YAG at 295 K (red) and at 77 K (green) with the atmospheric absorption superimposed (blue). These measurements were made with a verified OSA resolution of 0.1 nm. Inset: Ho:YAG absorption spectrum at 77 K superimposed with preliminary laser results in which tuning of the pump wavelength across the absorption features was demonstrated to result in a variation in absorbed pump power and hence Ho:YAG output power.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Interferograms of the unpumped Ho:YAG gain medium at 300 K and when cooled to 77 K, demonstrating no new distortions from the cooling and mechanical mount. Shown for both cases are the zero-fringe and carrier-fringe alignment recorded using a ‘straight through’ probe beam. The wavelength used for the interferometry was 632.8 nm. The artefact at the base of the crystal is a damaged region observed after multiple assemblies.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic of the optical layout of the laser in the cryostat as described in the text, including the external pump laser optics and the diagnostics used.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Output power, slope efficiency and spectral content of the LN cooled Ho:YAG laser.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Waist diameter measurements and fit lines resulting in an M2X,Y = 1.3, 1.25. (b) Near field profile of the Ho:YAG output. (c) Far field profile viewed with an imaging system with a magnification of 5.0.

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