Abstract

A dynamically wavelength tunable multispectral plasmon induced transparency (PIT) device based on graphene metamaterials, which is composed of periodically patterned graphene double layers separated by a dielectric layer, is proposed theoretically and numerically in the terahertz frequency range. Considering the near-field coupling of different graphene layers and the bright-dark mode coupling in the same graphene layer, the coupled Lorentz oscillator model is adapted to explain the physical mechanism of multispectral EIT-like responses. The simulated transmission based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solutions indicates that the shifting and depth of the EIT resonances in multiple PIT windows are controlled by different geometrical parameters and Fermi energies distributions. A design scheme with graphene integration is employed, which allows independent tuning of resonance frequencies by electrostatically changing the Fermi energies of graphene double layer. Active control of the multispectral EIT-like responses enables the proposed device to be widely applied in optical information processing as tunable sensors, switches, and filters.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  5. S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Physical Review Letters 101, 035104 (2008).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonic waves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS Nano 6, 7806–7813 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332, 1291–1294 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. H. Yan, T. Low, W. Zhu, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, X. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nature Photon 7, 394–399 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  29. M. Amin, M. Farhat, and H. Baǧci, “A dynamically reconfigurable fano metamaterial through graphene tuning for switching and sensing applications,” Scientific Reports 3, 2105 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  30. H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Applied Physics Letters 103, 203112 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  31. X. Shi, X. Su, and Y. Yang, “Enhanced tunability of plasmon induced transparency in graphene strips,” Journal of Applied Physics 117, 143101 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  32. H. Yan, T. Low, F. Guinea, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Tunable phonon-induced transparency in bilayer graphene nanoribbons,” Nano Lett. 14, 4581–4586 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. J. Chen, P. Wang, C. Chen, Y. Lu, H. Ming, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic eit-like switching in bright-dark-bright plasmon resonators,” Optics Express 19, 5970 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” Journal of Applied Physics 103, 064302 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  35. P. Tassin, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Graphene for terahertz applications,” Science 341, 620–621 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. S. Thongrattanasiri, A. Manjavacas, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Quantum finite-size effects in graphene plasmons,” ACS Nano 6, 1766–1775 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. J. Christensen, A. Manjavacas, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. Koppens, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmon waveguiding and hybridization in individual and paired nanoribbons,” ACS Nano 6, 431–440 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

X. Shi, X. Su, and Y. Yang, “Enhanced tunability of plasmon induced transparency in graphene strips,” Journal of Applied Physics 117, 143101 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

H. Yan, T. Low, F. Guinea, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Tunable phonon-induced transparency in bilayer graphene nanoribbons,” Nano Lett. 14, 4581–4586 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Low and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmonics for terahertz to mid-infrared applications, ACS Nano 8, 1086–1101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

H. Yan, T. Low, W. Zhu, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, X. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nature Photon 7, 394–399 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Amin, M. Farhat, and H. Baǧci, “A dynamically reconfigurable fano metamaterial through graphene tuning for switching and sensing applications,” Scientific Reports 3, 2105 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Applied Physics Letters 103, 203112 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Tassin, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Graphene for terahertz applications,” Science 341, 620–621 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Cheng, Z. Li, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency by planar hybrid metamaterial,” Opt. Lett. 38, 483 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (8)

S. Thongrattanasiri, A. Manjavacas, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Quantum finite-size effects in graphene plasmons,” ACS Nano 6, 1766–1775 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Christensen, A. Manjavacas, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. Koppens, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmon waveguiding and hybridization in individual and paired nanoribbons,” ACS Nano 6, 431–440 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. A. Maier, “Graphene plasmonics: All eyes on flatland,” Nature Physics 8, 581–582 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, and et al., “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat Comms 3, 1151 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Yang, H. Cheng, J. Li, W. Liu, C. Gu, and J. Tian, “Polarization-insensitive and wide-angle plasmonically induced transparency by planar metamaterials,” Applied Physics Letters 101, 143105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, L. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, K. Wen, Z. Guo, and X. Luo, “Electromagnetically induced transparency (eit)-like transmission in side-coupled complementary split-ring resonators,” Optics Express 20, 24348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Liu, J. Gu, R. Singh, Y. Ma, J. Zhu, Z. Tian, M. He, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz plasmonic metamaterials via dual excitation pathways of the dark mode,” Applied Physics Letters 100, 131101 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonic waves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS Nano 6, 7806–7813 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (7)

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332, 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, P. Wang, C. Chen, Y. Lu, H. Ming, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic eit-like switching in bright-dark-bright plasmon resonators,” Optics Express 19, 5970 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Multispectral plasmon induced transparency in coupled meta-atoms,” Nano Lett. 11, 1685–1689 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and et al., “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nature Nanotechnology 6, 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, Y. Ma, R. Huang, R. Singh, J. Gu, Z. Tian, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Manipulating the plasmon-induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials,” Optics Express 19, 8912 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal-superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Physical Review Letters 107, 043901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

Z.-G. Dong, H. Liu, J.-X. Cao, T. Li, S.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Applied Physics Letters 97, 114101 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, T. Ye, and J. Chen, “Coherent interference induced transparency in self-coupled optical waveguide-based resonators,” Opt. Lett. 36, 13 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

C.-Y. Chen, I.-W. Un, N.-H. Tai, and T.-J. Yen, “Asymmetric coupling between subradiant and superradiant plasmonic resonances and its enhanced sensing performance,” Optics Express 17, 15372 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Yannopapas, E. Paspalakis, and N. V. Vitanov, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light in an array of metallic nanoparticles,” Physical Review B 80, 035104 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Planar designs for electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials,” Optics Express 17, 5595 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Physical Review Letters 102, 053901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene, Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” Journal of Applied Physics 103, 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Physical Review Letters 101, 035104 (2008).

2006 (1)

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Physical Review Letters 96, 123901 (2006).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

C. L. Garrido Alzar, M. A. G. Martinez, and P. Nussenzveig, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” American Journal of Physics 70, 37 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409, 490–493 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Physical Review Letters 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency,” Physics Today 50, 36 (1997).
[Crossref]

Altug, H.

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Multispectral plasmon induced transparency in coupled meta-atoms,” Nano Lett. 11, 1685–1689 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amin, M.

M. Amin, M. Farhat, and H. Baǧci, “A dynamically reconfigurable fano metamaterial through graphene tuning for switching and sensing applications,” Scientific Reports 3, 2105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Anlage, S. M.

C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal-superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Physical Review Letters 107, 043901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Artar, A.

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Multispectral plasmon induced transparency in coupled meta-atoms,” Nano Lett. 11, 1685–1689 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avouris, P.

T. Low and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmonics for terahertz to mid-infrared applications, ACS Nano 8, 1086–1101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, T. Low, F. Guinea, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Tunable phonon-induced transparency in bilayer graphene nanoribbons,” Nano Lett. 14, 4581–4586 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, T. Low, W. Zhu, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, X. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nature Photon 7, 394–399 (2013).
[Crossref]

Azad, A. K.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, and et al., “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat Comms 3, 1151 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bagci, H.

M. Amin, M. Farhat, and H. Baǧci, “A dynamically reconfigurable fano metamaterial through graphene tuning for switching and sensing applications,” Scientific Reports 3, 2105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bechtel, H. A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and et al., “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nature Nanotechnology 6, 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Behroozi, C. H.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409, 490–493 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, J.-X.

Z.-G. Dong, H. Liu, J.-X. Cao, T. Li, S.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Applied Physics Letters 97, 114101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

J. Chen, P. Wang, C. Chen, Y. Lu, H. Ming, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic eit-like switching in bright-dark-bright plasmon resonators,” Optics Express 19, 5970 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.-Y.

C.-Y. Chen, I.-W. Un, N.-H. Tai, and T.-J. Yen, “Asymmetric coupling between subradiant and superradiant plasmonic resonances and its enhanced sensing performance,” Optics Express 17, 15372 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.-T.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, and et al., “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat Comms 3, 1151 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, P. Wang, C. Chen, Y. Lu, H. Ming, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic eit-like switching in bright-dark-bright plasmon resonators,” Optics Express 19, 5970 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhou, T. Ye, and J. Chen, “Coherent interference induced transparency in self-coupled optical waveguide-based resonators,” Opt. Lett. 36, 13 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Cheng, Z. Li, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency by planar hybrid metamaterial,” Opt. Lett. 38, 483 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Applied Physics Letters 103, 203112 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Yang, H. Cheng, J. Li, W. Liu, C. Gu, and J. Tian, “Polarization-insensitive and wide-angle plasmonically induced transparency by planar metamaterials,” Applied Physics Letters 101, 143105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H.

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Applied Physics Letters 103, 203112 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Cheng, Z. Li, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency by planar hybrid metamaterial,” Opt. Lett. 38, 483 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Yang, H. Cheng, J. Li, W. Liu, C. Gu, and J. Tian, “Polarization-insensitive and wide-angle plasmonically induced transparency by planar metamaterials,” Applied Physics Letters 101, 143105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Christensen, J.

J. Christensen, A. Manjavacas, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. Koppens, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmon waveguiding and hybridization in individual and paired nanoribbons,” ACS Nano 6, 431–440 (2012).
[Crossref]

Crommie, M.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene, Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, Z.-G.

Z.-G. Dong, H. Liu, J.-X. Cao, T. Li, S.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Applied Physics Letters 97, 114101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Duan, X.

X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Cheng, Z. Li, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency by planar hybrid metamaterial,” Opt. Lett. 38, 483 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Applied Physics Letters 103, 203112 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Yang, H. Cheng, J. Li, W. Liu, C. Gu, and J. Tian, “Polarization-insensitive and wide-angle plasmonically induced transparency by planar metamaterials,” Applied Physics Letters 101, 143105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dutton, Z.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409, 490–493 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Economou, E. N.

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Planar designs for electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials,” Optics Express 17, 5595 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Physical Review Letters 102, 053901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332, 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Physical Review Letters 96, 123901 (2006).
[Crossref]

Farhat, M.

M. Amin, M. Farhat, and H. Baǧci, “A dynamically reconfigurable fano metamaterial through graphene tuning for switching and sensing applications,” Scientific Reports 3, 2105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Freitag, M.

H. Yan, T. Low, W. Zhu, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, X. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nature Photon 7, 394–399 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gao, W.

W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonic waves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS Nano 6, 7806–7813 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

García de Abajo, F. J.

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X. Liu, J. Gu, R. Singh, Y. Ma, J. Zhu, Z. Tian, M. He, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz plasmonic metamaterials via dual excitation pathways of the dark mode,” Applied Physics Letters 100, 131101 (2012).
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L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and et al., “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nature Nanotechnology 6, 630–634 (2011).
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X. Liu, J. Gu, R. Singh, Y. Ma, J. Zhu, Z. Tian, M. He, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz plasmonic metamaterials via dual excitation pathways of the dark mode,” Applied Physics Letters 100, 131101 (2012).
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M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
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J. Chen, P. Wang, C. Chen, Y. Lu, H. Ming, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic eit-like switching in bright-dark-bright plasmon resonators,” Optics Express 19, 5970 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.-M.

Z.-G. Dong, H. Liu, J.-X. Cao, T. Li, S.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Applied Physics Letters 97, 114101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Physical Review Letters 101, 035104 (2008).

Wen, K.

Y. Guo, L. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, K. Wen, Z. Guo, and X. Luo, “Electromagnetically induced transparency (eit)-like transmission in side-coupled complementary split-ring resonators,” Optics Express 20, 24348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

H. Yan, T. Low, W. Zhu, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, X. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nature Photon 7, 394–399 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xia, F.

H. Yan, T. Low, F. Guinea, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Tunable phonon-induced transparency in bilayer graphene nanoribbons,” Nano Lett. 14, 4581–4586 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, T. Low, W. Zhu, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, X. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nature Photon 7, 394–399 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xie, B.

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Applied Physics Letters 103, 203112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonic waves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS Nano 6, 7806–7813 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Physical Review Letters 96, 123901 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yan, H.

H. Yan, T. Low, F. Guinea, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Tunable phonon-induced transparency in bilayer graphene nanoribbons,” Nano Lett. 14, 4581–4586 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yan, T. Low, W. Zhu, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, X. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nature Photon 7, 394–399 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yan, L.

Y. Guo, L. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, K. Wen, Z. Guo, and X. Luo, “Electromagnetically induced transparency (eit)-like transmission in side-coupled complementary split-ring resonators,” Optics Express 20, 24348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Yang, H. Cheng, J. Li, W. Liu, C. Gu, and J. Tian, “Polarization-insensitive and wide-angle plasmonically induced transparency by planar metamaterials,” Applied Physics Letters 101, 143105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

X. Shi, X. Su, and Y. Yang, “Enhanced tunability of plasmon induced transparency in graphene strips,” Journal of Applied Physics 117, 143101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yanik, A. A.

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Multispectral plasmon induced transparency in coupled meta-atoms,” Nano Lett. 11, 1685–1689 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yannopapas, V.

V. Yannopapas, E. Paspalakis, and N. V. Vitanov, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light in an array of metallic nanoparticles,” Physical Review B 80, 035104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ye, T.

Yen, T.-J.

C.-Y. Chen, I.-W. Un, N.-H. Tai, and T.-J. Yen, “Asymmetric coupling between subradiant and superradiant plasmonic resonances and its enhanced sensing performance,” Optics Express 17, 15372 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, P.

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Applied Physics Letters 103, 203112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zentgraf, T.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zettl, A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and et al., “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nature Nanotechnology 6, 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene, Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhan, Q.

J. Chen, P. Wang, C. Chen, Y. Lu, H. Ming, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic eit-like switching in bright-dark-bright plasmon resonators,” Optics Express 19, 5970 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal-superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Physical Review Letters 107, 043901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Planar designs for electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials,” Optics Express 17, 5595 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Physical Review Letters 102, 053901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, and et al., “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat Comms 3, 1151 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Physical Review Letters 101, 035104 (2008).

Zhang, W.

X. Liu, J. Gu, R. Singh, Y. Ma, J. Zhu, Z. Tian, M. He, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz plasmonic metamaterials via dual excitation pathways of the dark mode,” Applied Physics Letters 100, 131101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, Y. Ma, R. Huang, R. Singh, J. Gu, Z. Tian, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Manipulating the plasmon-induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials,” Optics Express 19, 8912 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, and et al., “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat Comms 3, 1151 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-G. Dong, H. Liu, J.-X. Cao, T. Li, S.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Applied Physics Letters 97, 114101 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Physical Review Letters 101, 035104 (2008).

Zhang, Y.

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene, Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

Zhu, J.

X. Liu, J. Gu, R. Singh, Y. Ma, J. Zhu, Z. Tian, M. He, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz plasmonic metamaterials via dual excitation pathways of the dark mode,” Applied Physics Letters 100, 131101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, S.-N.

Z.-G. Dong, H. Liu, J.-X. Cao, T. Li, S.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Applied Physics Letters 97, 114101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhu, W.

H. Yan, T. Low, W. Zhu, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, X. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nature Photon 7, 394–399 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhuravel, A. P.

C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal-superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Physical Review Letters 107, 043901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (4)

T. Low and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmonics for terahertz to mid-infrared applications, ACS Nano 8, 1086–1101 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonic waves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS Nano 6, 7806–7813 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Thongrattanasiri, A. Manjavacas, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Quantum finite-size effects in graphene plasmons,” ACS Nano 6, 1766–1775 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Christensen, A. Manjavacas, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. Koppens, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmon waveguiding and hybridization in individual and paired nanoribbons,” ACS Nano 6, 431–440 (2012).
[Crossref]

American Journal of Physics (1)

C. L. Garrido Alzar, M. A. G. Martinez, and P. Nussenzveig, “Classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” American Journal of Physics 70, 37 (2002).
[Crossref]

Applied Physics Letters (4)

X. Duan, S. Chen, H. Yang, H. Cheng, J. Li, W. Liu, C. Gu, and J. Tian, “Polarization-insensitive and wide-angle plasmonically induced transparency by planar metamaterials,” Applied Physics Letters 101, 143105 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, J. Gu, R. Singh, Y. Ma, J. Zhu, Z. Tian, M. He, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in terahertz plasmonic metamaterials via dual excitation pathways of the dark mode,” Applied Physics Letters 100, 131101 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Cheng, S. Chen, P. Yu, X. Duan, B. Xie, and J. Tian, “Dynamically tunable plasmonically induced transparency in periodically patterned graphene nanostrips,” Applied Physics Letters 103, 203112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z.-G. Dong, H. Liu, J.-X. Cao, T. Li, S.-M. Wang, S.-N. Zhu, and X. Zhang, “Enhanced sensing performance by the plasmonic analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in active metamaterials,” Applied Physics Letters 97, 114101 (2010).
[Crossref]

Journal of Applied Physics (2)

X. Shi, X. Su, and Y. Yang, “Enhanced tunability of plasmon induced transparency in graphene strips,” Journal of Applied Physics 117, 143101 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” Journal of Applied Physics 103, 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

H. Yan, T. Low, F. Guinea, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Tunable phonon-induced transparency in bilayer graphene nanoribbons,” Nano Lett. 14, 4581–4586 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Artar, A. A. Yanik, and H. Altug, “Multispectral plasmon induced transparency in coupled meta-atoms,” Nano Lett. 11, 1685–1689 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat Comms (1)

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, and et al., “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat Comms 3, 1151 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, “Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses,” Nature 409, 490–493 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Nanotechnology (1)

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and et al., “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nature Nanotechnology 6, 630–634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Photon (1)

H. Yan, T. Low, W. Zhu, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, X. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nature Photon 7, 394–399 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature Physics (1)

S. A. Maier, “Graphene plasmonics: All eyes on flatland,” Nature Physics 8, 581–582 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optics Express (5)

C.-Y. Chen, I.-W. Un, N.-H. Tai, and T.-J. Yen, “Asymmetric coupling between subradiant and superradiant plasmonic resonances and its enhanced sensing performance,” Optics Express 17, 15372 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Chen, P. Wang, C. Chen, Y. Lu, H. Ming, and Q. Zhan, “Plasmonic eit-like switching in bright-dark-bright plasmon resonators,” Optics Express 19, 5970 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Planar designs for electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials,” Optics Express 17, 5595 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Li, Y. Ma, R. Huang, R. Singh, J. Gu, Z. Tian, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Manipulating the plasmon-induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials,” Optics Express 19, 8912 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Guo, L. Yan, W. Pan, B. Luo, K. Wen, Z. Guo, and X. Luo, “Electromagnetically induced transparency (eit)-like transmission in side-coupled complementary split-ring resonators,” Optics Express 20, 24348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Physical Review B (1)

V. Yannopapas, E. Paspalakis, and N. V. Vitanov, “Electromagnetically induced transparency and slow light in an array of metallic nanoparticles,” Physical Review B 80, 035104 (2009).
[Crossref]

Physical Review Letters (5)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Physical Review Letters 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Kurter, P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, A. P. Zhuravel, A. V. Ustinov, S. M. Anlage, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency with a metal-superconductor hybrid metamaterial,” Physical Review Letters 107, 043901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Tassin, L. Zhang, T. Koschny, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Low-loss metamaterials based on classical electromagnetically induced transparency,” Physical Review Letters 102, 053901 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, J. Shakya, S. Fan, and M. Lipson, “Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency,” Physical Review Letters 96, 123901 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Physical Review Letters 101, 035104 (2008).

Physics Today (1)

S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency,” Physics Today 50, 36 (1997).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

P. Tassin, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Graphene for terahertz applications,” Science 341, 620–621 (2013).
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A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science 332, 1291–1294 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene, Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scientific Reports (1)

M. Amin, M. Farhat, and H. Baǧci, “A dynamically reconfigurable fano metamaterial through graphene tuning for switching and sensing applications,” Scientific Reports 3, 2105 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the unit cell of the graphene-based multispectral PIT device and the incident light polarization configuration. (b) Top view of the unit cell. The geometrical parameters are: L1 = 540nm, w1 = 40nm, L2 = 360nm, w2 = 40nm, Px = 800nm and Py = 600nm, respectively. The small in-plane separation between the horizontal cut-out and the vertical cut-out pair is 10nm on both sides. Parameter s is defined as the offset in y direction of the horizontal cut-out from the geometrical center of the structure. (c) Side view of the unit cell. Parameter d is defined as the gap size between the graphene double layers. (d) Side view of the graphene-based multispectral PIT device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated transmission spectra of the horizontal cut-out only structure, the vertical cut-out pair only structure and the periodically patterned graphene single layer(s = 30nm) when Fermi energy EF = 0.15eV. Different geometric structures with the direction of incident electrical field are shown in the insets from top to bottom, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Simulated transmission spectra of the graphene-based multispectral PIT device with different gap sizes d for s = 0nm and EF = 0.15eV. The out-of-phase(OP) and in-phase(IP) hybridized states are demonstrated. (b) The cross-sectional electrical field distributions of the graphene double layers (d = 130nm) at the resonance notches in the out-of-phase and in-phase hybridized states are shown in A and B for d = 130nm, respectively, which are observed at a position marked with the black dashed line in the inset of (a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated transmission spectra of the graphene-based multispectral PIT device with different Fermi energies for graphene double layers (s = 0nm and d = 130nm).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulated transmission spectra of the graphene-based multispectral PIT device with different Fermi energies of the top and bottom graphene layers (s = 0nm and d = 130nm).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Simulated transmission spectra of the graphene-based multispectral PIT device with different offsets s for d = 130nm and EF = 0.15eV. The analytic fitting based on Lorentzian harmonic oscillators mode to the simulated transmission (s = 30nm) is shown by the blue circles. (b) The top view electrical field distributions of the device at the EIT peaks (s = 30nm) in the out-of-phase and in-phase hybridized states are shown in A and B, respectively.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[ ω ω D , i + i γ D , i κ 0 0 κ i ω ω Q , i + i γ D , i 0 0 0 0 ω ω D , o + i γ D , o κ o 0 0 κ o ω ω Q , o + i γ D , o ] [ D ˜ i Q ˜ i D ˜ o Q ˜ o ] = [ g i E ˜ 0 0 g o E ˜ 0 0 ]
D ˜ i / o = g i / o E ˜ 0 ( ω ω Q , i / o + i γ Q , i / o ) ( ω ω D , i / o + i γ D , i / o ) ( ω ω Q , i / o + i γ Q , i / o ) ( κ i / o ) 2
T ( ω ) = 1 | D ˜ i E ˜ 0 | 2 | D ˜ 0 E ˜ 0 | 2 .
σ ( ω ) = i e 2 ( ω 2 i Γ ) π h ¯ 2 [ 1 ( ω 2 i Γ ) 2 0 ε ( f d ( ε ) ε f d ( ε ) ε ) d ε 0 f d ( ε ) f d ( ε ) ( ω 2 i Γ ) 2 4 ( ε / h ¯ ) 2 d ε ]

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