Abstract

We report the generation of free space terahertz (THz) pulses with energy up to 8.3 ± 0.2 µJ from an encapsulated interdigitated ZnSe Large Aperture Photo-Conductive Antenna (LAPCA). An aperture of 12.2 cm2 is illuminated using a 400 nm pump laser with multi-mJ energies at 10 Hz repetition rate. The calculated THz peak electric field is 331 ± 4 kV/cm with a spectrum characterized by a median frequency of 0.28 THz. Given its relatively low frequency, this THz field will accelerate charged particles efficiently having very large ponderomotive energy of 15 ± 1 eV for electrons in vacuum. The scaling of the emission is studied with respect to the dimensions of the antenna, and it is observed that the capacitance of the LAPCA leads to a severe decrease in and distortion of the biasing voltage pulse, fundamentally limiting the maximum applied bias field and consequently the maximum energy of the radiated THz pulses. In order to demonstrate the advantages of this source in the strong field regime, an open-aperture Z-scan experiment was performed on n-doped InGaAs, which showed significant absorption bleaching.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (2)

M. Shalaby and C. P. Hauri, “Demonstration of a low-frequency three-dimensional terahertz bullet with extreme brightness,” Nat. Commun. 6(5976), 5976 (2015).
[PubMed]

N. T. Yardimci, S.-H. Yang, C. W. Berry, and M. Jarrahi, “High power terahertz generation using large-area plasmonic photoconductive emitter,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 223–229 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (11)

S. H. Yang, M. R. Hashemi, C. W. Berry, and M. Jarrahi, “7.5% optical-to-terahertz conversion efficiency offered by photoconductive emitters with three-dimensional plasmonic contact electrodes,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 4(5), 575–581 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. I. Oh, Y. J. Yoo, S. You, and K. Y. Kim, “Generation of strong terahertz fields exceeding 8 MV/cm at 1 kHz and real-time beam profiling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(4), 041103 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Leitenstorfer, K. A. Nelson, K. Reimann, and K. Tanaka, “Focus on nonlinear terahertz studies,” New J. Phys. 16(4), 045016 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. N. Egodapitiya, S. Li, and R. R. Jones, “Terahertz-induced field-free orientation of rotationally excited molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(10), 103002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kubacka, J. A. Johnson, M. C. Hoffmann, C. Vicario, S. de Jong, P. Beaud, S. Grübel, S. W. Huang, L. Huber, L. Patthey, Y. D. Chuang, J. J. Turner, G. L. Dakovski, W. S. Lee, M. P. Minitti, W. Schlotter, R. G. Moore, C. P. Hauri, S. M. Koohpayeh, V. Scagnoli, G. Ingold, S. L. Johnson, and U. Staub, “Large-amplitude spin dynamics driven by a THz pulse in resonance with an electromagnon,” Science 343(6177), 1333–1336 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Bowlan, E. Martinez-Moreno, K. Reimann, T. Elsaesser, and M. Woerner, “Ultrafast terahertz response of multilayer graphene in the nonperturbative regime,” Phys. Rev. B 89(4), 041408 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Herink, L. Wimmer, and C. Ropers, “Field emission at terahertz frequencies: AC-tunneling and ultrafast carrier dynamics,” New J. Phys. 16(12), 123005 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Li and R. R. Jones, “Ionization of excited atoms by intense single-cycle THz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(14), 143006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Blanchard, X. Ropagnol, H. Hafez, H. Razavipour, M. Bolduc, R. Morandotti, T. Ozaki, and D. G. Cooke, “Effect of extreme pump pulse reshaping on intense terahertz emission in lithium niobate at multimilliJoule pump energies,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4333–4336 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fülöp, Z. Ollmann, C. Lombosi, C. Skrobol, S. Klingebiel, L. Pálfalvi, F. Krausz, S. Karsch, and J. Hebling, “Efficient generation of THz pulses with 0.4 mJ energy,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20155–20163 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (8)

L. V. Titova, A. K. Ayesheshim, A. Golubov, D. Fogen, R. Rodriguez-Juarez, F. A. Hegmann, and O. Kovalchuk, “Intense THz pulses cause H2AX phosphorylation and activate DNA damage response in human skin tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(4), 559–568 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ropagnol, F. Blanchard, T. Ozaki, and M. Reid, “Intense terahertz generation at low frequencies using an interdigitated ZnSe large aperture photoconductive antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161108 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transient,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Shinokita, H. Hirori, K. Tanaka, T. Mochizuki, C. Kim, H. Akiyama, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Terahertz-induced optical emission of photoexcited undoped GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(6), 067401 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Mukai, H. Hirori, and K. Tanaka, “Electric field ionization of gallium acceptors in germanium induced by single-cycle terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 87(20), 201202 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Minami, T. Kurihara, K. Yamaguchi, M. Nakajima, and T. Suemoto, “High-power THz wave generation in plasma induced by polarization adjusted two-color laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041105 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. W. Berry, N. Wang, M. R. Hashemi, M. Unlu, and M. Jarrahi, “Significant performance enhancement in photoconductive terahertz optoelectronics by incorporating plasmonic contact electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4(1622), 1622 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (7)

S. B. Qadri, D. H. Wu, B. D. Graber, N. A. Mahadik, and A. Garzarella, “Failure mechanism of THz GaAs photoconductive antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011910 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Zaks, R. B. Liu, and M. S. Sherwin, “Experimental observation of electron-hole recollisions,” Nature 483(7391), 580–583 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. G. Park, K. H. Jin, M. Yi, J. C. Ye, J. Ahn, and K. H. Jeong, “Enhancement of terahertz pulse emission by optical nanoantenna,” ACS Nano 6(3), 2026–2031 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Ewers, N. S. Koster, R. Woscholski, M. Koch, S. Chatterjee, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, A. C. Klettke, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Ionization of coherent excitons by strong terahertz fields,” Phys. Rev. B 85(7), 075307 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Tani, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in graphene under a high electric field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(16), 166603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Berry and M. Jarrahi, “Principles of impedance matching in photoconductive antennas, J Infrared Milli Terahertz Waves,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 33(12), 1182–1189 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (10)

C. Headley, L. Fu, P. Parkinson, X. Xu, J. Lloyd-Hughes, C. Jagadish, and M. B. Johnston, “Improved performances of GaAs-based terahertz emitters via surface passivation and silicon nitride encapsulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 17–21 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Blanchard, A. Doi, T. Tanaka, H. Hirori, H. Tanaka, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Real-time terahertz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8277–8284 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ropagnol, R. Morandotti, T. Ozaki, and M. Reid, “THz pulse shaping and improved optical-to-THz conversion efficiency using a binary phase mask,” Opt. Lett. 36(14), 2662–2664 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single –cycle terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Blanchard, D. Golde, F. H. Su, L. Razzari, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and F. A. Hegmann, “Effective mass anisotropy of hot electrons in nonparabolic conduction bands of n-doped InGaAs films using ultrafast terahertz pump-probe techniques,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(10), 107401 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fleischer, Y. Zhou, R. W. Field, and K. A. Nelson, “Molecular orientation and alignment by intense single-cycle THz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(16), 163603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. C. Ho and X. C. Zhang, “Driving intervalley scattering and impact ionization in InAs with intense Terahertz pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 241908 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Hirori, K. Shinokita, M. Shirai, S. Tani, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Extraordinary carrier multiplication gated by a picosecond electric field pulse,” Nat. Commun. 2(594), 594 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Hoffmann and J. A. Fülöp, “Intense ultrashort terahertz pulses: Generation and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(8), 083001 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Ropagnol, R. Morandotti, T. Ozaki, and M. Reid, “Toward high-power terahertz emitters using large aperture ZnSe photoconductive antennas,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(2), 174–186 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H.-C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n-doped semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 79(19), 193204 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

T. Hattori, K. Egawa, S. I. Ookuma, and T. Itatani, “Intense terahertz pulses from large-aperture antenna with interdigitated electrodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(15), L422–L424 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. S. Kim and D. S. Citrin, “Coulomb abd radiation screening in photoconductive terahertz sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 161117 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

S. Ono, H. Murakami, A. Quema, G. Diwa, N. Sarukura, R. Nagasaka, Y. Ichikawa, H. Ogino, E. Ohshima, A. Yoshikawa, and T. Fukuda, “Generation of terahertz radiation using zinc oxide as photoconductive material excited by ultraviolet pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 261112 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. R. Stone, M. Naftaly, R. E. Miles, J. R. Fletcher, and D. P. Steenson, “Electrical and radiation characteristics of semilarge photconductive terahertz emitters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(10), 2420–2429 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

J. F. Holzman and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Two-photon photoconductive terahertz generation in ZnSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2967 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

1996 (1)

S. E. Ralph, Y. Chen, J. Woodall, and D. McInturff, “Subpicosecond photoconductivity of In0.53Ga0.47As: Intervalley scattering rates observed via THz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(8), 5568–5573 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

J. T. Darrow, X. C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, “Saturation properties of large-aperture photoconducting antennas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(6), 1607–1616 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J.

S. G. Park, K. H. Jin, M. Yi, J. C. Ye, J. Ahn, and K. H. Jeong, “Enhancement of terahertz pulse emission by optical nanoantenna,” ACS Nano 6(3), 2026–2031 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akiyama, H.

K. Shinokita, H. Hirori, K. Tanaka, T. Mochizuki, C. Kim, H. Akiyama, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Terahertz-induced optical emission of photoexcited undoped GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(6), 067401 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Auston, D. H.

J. T. Darrow, X. C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, “Saturation properties of large-aperture photoconducting antennas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(6), 1607–1616 (1992).
[Crossref]

Averitt, R. D.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ayesheshim, A.

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H.-C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n-doped semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 79(19), 193204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ayesheshim, A. K.

Baba, K.

Bandulet, H. C.

Bandulet, H.-C.

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H.-C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n-doped semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 79(19), 193204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Beaud, P.

T. Kubacka, J. A. Johnson, M. C. Hoffmann, C. Vicario, S. de Jong, P. Beaud, S. Grübel, S. W. Huang, L. Huber, L. Patthey, Y. D. Chuang, J. J. Turner, G. L. Dakovski, W. S. Lee, M. P. Minitti, W. Schlotter, R. G. Moore, C. P. Hauri, S. M. Koohpayeh, V. Scagnoli, G. Ingold, S. L. Johnson, and U. Staub, “Large-amplitude spin dynamics driven by a THz pulse in resonance with an electromagnon,” Science 343(6177), 1333–1336 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beck, M.

Berry, C. W.

N. T. Yardimci, S.-H. Yang, C. W. Berry, and M. Jarrahi, “High power terahertz generation using large-area plasmonic photoconductive emitter,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 223–229 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. H. Yang, M. R. Hashemi, C. W. Berry, and M. Jarrahi, “7.5% optical-to-terahertz conversion efficiency offered by photoconductive emitters with three-dimensional plasmonic contact electrodes,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 4(5), 575–581 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. W. Berry, N. Wang, M. R. Hashemi, M. Unlu, and M. Jarrahi, “Significant performance enhancement in photoconductive terahertz optoelectronics by incorporating plasmonic contact electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4(1622), 1622 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Berry and M. Jarrahi, “Principles of impedance matching in photoconductive antennas, J Infrared Milli Terahertz Waves,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 33(12), 1182–1189 (2012).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, F.

F. Blanchard, X. Ropagnol, H. Hafez, H. Razavipour, M. Bolduc, R. Morandotti, T. Ozaki, and D. G. Cooke, “Effect of extreme pump pulse reshaping on intense terahertz emission in lithium niobate at multimilliJoule pump energies,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4333–4336 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Ropagnol, F. Blanchard, T. Ozaki, and M. Reid, “Intense terahertz generation at low frequencies using an interdigitated ZnSe large aperture photoconductive antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161108 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Tani, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in graphene under a high electric field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(16), 166603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single –cycle terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Blanchard, D. Golde, F. H. Su, L. Razzari, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and F. A. Hegmann, “Effective mass anisotropy of hot electrons in nonparabolic conduction bands of n-doped InGaAs films using ultrafast terahertz pump-probe techniques,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(10), 107401 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Blanchard, A. Doi, T. Tanaka, H. Hirori, H. Tanaka, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Real-time terahertz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8277–8284 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H.-C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n-doped semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 79(19), 193204 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H. C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, “Generation of 1.5 microJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13212–13220 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bolduc, M.

Bowlan, P.

P. Bowlan, E. Martinez-Moreno, K. Reimann, T. Elsaesser, and M. Woerner, “Ultrafast terahertz response of multilayer graphene in the nonperturbative regime,” Phys. Rev. B 89(4), 041408 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

Caspani, L.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chatterjee, S.

B. Ewers, N. S. Koster, R. Woscholski, M. Koch, S. Chatterjee, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, A. C. Klettke, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Ionization of coherent excitons by strong terahertz fields,” Phys. Rev. B 85(7), 075307 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

S. E. Ralph, Y. Chen, J. Woodall, and D. McInturff, “Subpicosecond photoconductivity of In0.53Ga0.47As: Intervalley scattering rates observed via THz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(8), 5568–5573 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chuang, Y. D.

T. Kubacka, J. A. Johnson, M. C. Hoffmann, C. Vicario, S. de Jong, P. Beaud, S. Grübel, S. W. Huang, L. Huber, L. Patthey, Y. D. Chuang, J. J. Turner, G. L. Dakovski, W. S. Lee, M. P. Minitti, W. Schlotter, R. G. Moore, C. P. Hauri, S. M. Koohpayeh, V. Scagnoli, G. Ingold, S. L. Johnson, and U. Staub, “Large-amplitude spin dynamics driven by a THz pulse in resonance with an electromagnon,” Science 343(6177), 1333–1336 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Citrin, D. S.

D. S. Kim and D. S. Citrin, “Coulomb abd radiation screening in photoconductive terahertz sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 161117 (2006).
[Crossref]

Clerici, M.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cooke, D. G.

Couairon, A.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dakovski, G. L.

T. Kubacka, J. A. Johnson, M. C. Hoffmann, C. Vicario, S. de Jong, P. Beaud, S. Grübel, S. W. Huang, L. Huber, L. Patthey, Y. D. Chuang, J. J. Turner, G. L. Dakovski, W. S. Lee, M. P. Minitti, W. Schlotter, R. G. Moore, C. P. Hauri, S. M. Koohpayeh, V. Scagnoli, G. Ingold, S. L. Johnson, and U. Staub, “Large-amplitude spin dynamics driven by a THz pulse in resonance with an electromagnon,” Science 343(6177), 1333–1336 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Darrow, J. T.

J. T. Darrow, X. C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, “Saturation properties of large-aperture photoconducting antennas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(6), 1607–1616 (1992).
[Crossref]

de Jong, S.

T. Kubacka, J. A. Johnson, M. C. Hoffmann, C. Vicario, S. de Jong, P. Beaud, S. Grübel, S. W. Huang, L. Huber, L. Patthey, Y. D. Chuang, J. J. Turner, G. L. Dakovski, W. S. Lee, M. P. Minitti, W. Schlotter, R. G. Moore, C. P. Hauri, S. M. Koohpayeh, V. Scagnoli, G. Ingold, S. L. Johnson, and U. Staub, “Large-amplitude spin dynamics driven by a THz pulse in resonance with an electromagnon,” Science 343(6177), 1333–1336 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dekorsy, T.

Demsar, J.

Diwa, G.

S. Ono, H. Murakami, A. Quema, G. Diwa, N. Sarukura, R. Nagasaka, Y. Ichikawa, H. Ogino, E. Ohshima, A. Yoshikawa, and T. Fukuda, “Generation of terahertz radiation using zinc oxide as photoconductive material excited by ultraviolet pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 261112 (2005).
[Crossref]

Doi, A.

F. Blanchard, A. Doi, T. Tanaka, H. Hirori, H. Tanaka, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Real-time terahertz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8277–8284 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single –cycle terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dykaar, D. R.

Egawa, K.

T. Hattori, K. Egawa, S. I. Ookuma, and T. Itatani, “Intense terahertz pulses from large-aperture antenna with interdigitated electrodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(15), L422–L424 (2006).
[Crossref]

Egodapitiya, K. N.

K. N. Egodapitiya, S. Li, and R. R. Jones, “Terahertz-induced field-free orientation of rotationally excited molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(10), 103002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elezzabi, A. Y.

J. F. Holzman and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Two-photon photoconductive terahertz generation in ZnSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2967 (2003).
[Crossref]

Elsaesser, T.

P. Bowlan, E. Martinez-Moreno, K. Reimann, T. Elsaesser, and M. Woerner, “Ultrafast terahertz response of multilayer graphene in the nonperturbative regime,” Phys. Rev. B 89(4), 041408 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Kuehn, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, and R. Hey, “Coherent ballistic motion of electrons in a periodic potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(14), 146602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ewers, B.

B. Ewers, N. S. Koster, R. Woscholski, M. Koch, S. Chatterjee, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, A. C. Klettke, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Ionization of coherent excitons by strong terahertz fields,” Phys. Rev. B 85(7), 075307 (2012).
[Crossref]

Faccio, D.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, K.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Field, R. W.

S. Fleischer, Y. Zhou, R. W. Field, and K. A. Nelson, “Molecular orientation and alignment by intense single-cycle THz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(16), 163603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleischer, S.

S. Fleischer, Y. Zhou, R. W. Field, and K. A. Nelson, “Molecular orientation and alignment by intense single-cycle THz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(16), 163603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fletcher, J. R.

M. R. Stone, M. Naftaly, R. E. Miles, J. R. Fletcher, and D. P. Steenson, “Electrical and radiation characteristics of semilarge photconductive terahertz emitters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(10), 2420–2429 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fogen, D.

Fu, L.

C. Headley, L. Fu, P. Parkinson, X. Xu, J. Lloyd-Hughes, C. Jagadish, and M. B. Johnston, “Improved performances of GaAs-based terahertz emitters via surface passivation and silicon nitride encapsulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 17–21 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fukuda, T.

S. Ono, H. Murakami, A. Quema, G. Diwa, N. Sarukura, R. Nagasaka, Y. Ichikawa, H. Ogino, E. Ohshima, A. Yoshikawa, and T. Fukuda, “Generation of terahertz radiation using zinc oxide as photoconductive material excited by ultraviolet pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 261112 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fukushima, Y.

O. Imafuji, B. P. Singh, Y. Hirose, Y. Fukushima, and S. Takigawa, “High power subterahertz electromagnetic wave radiation from GaN photoconductive switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071112 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fülöp, J. A.

Gaal, P.

W. Kuehn, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, and R. Hey, “Coherent ballistic motion of electrons in a periodic potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(14), 146602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garzarella, A.

S. B. Qadri, D. H. Wu, B. D. Graber, N. A. Mahadik, and A. Garzarella, “Failure mechanism of THz GaAs photoconductive antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011910 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gibbs, H. M.

B. Ewers, N. S. Koster, R. Woscholski, M. Koch, S. Chatterjee, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, A. C. Klettke, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Ionization of coherent excitons by strong terahertz fields,” Phys. Rev. B 85(7), 075307 (2012).
[Crossref]

Giguère, M.

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Golde, D.

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Blanchard, D. Golde, F. H. Su, L. Razzari, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and F. A. Hegmann, “Effective mass anisotropy of hot electrons in nonparabolic conduction bands of n-doped InGaAs films using ultrafast terahertz pump-probe techniques,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(10), 107401 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Golubov, A.

Graber, B. D.

S. B. Qadri, D. H. Wu, B. D. Graber, N. A. Mahadik, and A. Garzarella, “Failure mechanism of THz GaAs photoconductive antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011910 (2012).
[Crossref]

Grübel, S.

T. Kubacka, J. A. Johnson, M. C. Hoffmann, C. Vicario, S. de Jong, P. Beaud, S. Grübel, S. W. Huang, L. Huber, L. Patthey, Y. D. Chuang, J. J. Turner, G. L. Dakovski, W. S. Lee, M. P. Minitti, W. Schlotter, R. G. Moore, C. P. Hauri, S. M. Koohpayeh, V. Scagnoli, G. Ingold, S. L. Johnson, and U. Staub, “Large-amplitude spin dynamics driven by a THz pulse in resonance with an electromagnon,” Science 343(6177), 1333–1336 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hafez, H.

Hashemi, M. R.

S. H. Yang, M. R. Hashemi, C. W. Berry, and M. Jarrahi, “7.5% optical-to-terahertz conversion efficiency offered by photoconductive emitters with three-dimensional plasmonic contact electrodes,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 4(5), 575–581 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. W. Berry, N. Wang, M. R. Hashemi, M. Unlu, and M. Jarrahi, “Significant performance enhancement in photoconductive terahertz optoelectronics by incorporating plasmonic contact electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4(1622), 1622 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hattori, T.

T. Hattori, K. Egawa, S. I. Ookuma, and T. Itatani, “Intense terahertz pulses from large-aperture antenna with interdigitated electrodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(15), L422–L424 (2006).
[Crossref]

Haugen, H. K.

Hauri, C. P.

M. Shalaby and C. P. Hauri, “Demonstration of a low-frequency three-dimensional terahertz bullet with extreme brightness,” Nat. Commun. 6(5976), 5976 (2015).
[PubMed]

T. Kubacka, J. A. Johnson, M. C. Hoffmann, C. Vicario, S. de Jong, P. Beaud, S. Grübel, S. W. Huang, L. Huber, L. Patthey, Y. D. Chuang, J. J. Turner, G. L. Dakovski, W. S. Lee, M. P. Minitti, W. Schlotter, R. G. Moore, C. P. Hauri, S. M. Koohpayeh, V. Scagnoli, G. Ingold, S. L. Johnson, and U. Staub, “Large-amplitude spin dynamics driven by a THz pulse in resonance with an electromagnon,” Science 343(6177), 1333–1336 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Headley, C.

C. Headley, L. Fu, P. Parkinson, X. Xu, J. Lloyd-Hughes, C. Jagadish, and M. B. Johnston, “Improved performances of GaAs-based terahertz emitters via surface passivation and silicon nitride encapsulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 17–21 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hebling, J.

Hegmann, F. A.

L. V. Titova, A. K. Ayesheshim, A. Golubov, D. Fogen, R. Rodriguez-Juarez, F. A. Hegmann, and O. Kovalchuk, “Intense THz pulses cause H2AX phosphorylation and activate DNA damage response in human skin tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(4), 559–568 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Blanchard, D. Golde, F. H. Su, L. Razzari, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and F. A. Hegmann, “Effective mass anisotropy of hot electrons in nonparabolic conduction bands of n-doped InGaAs films using ultrafast terahertz pump-probe techniques,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(10), 107401 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H.-C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n-doped semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 79(19), 193204 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Blanchard, L. Razzari, H. C. Bandulet, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, J.-C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, H. F. Tiedje, H. K. Haugen, and F. A. Hegmann, “Generation of 1.5 microJ single-cycle terahertz pulses by optical rectification from a large aperture ZnTe crystal,” Opt. Express 15(20), 13212–13220 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Helm, M.

Herink, G.

G. Herink, L. Wimmer, and C. Ropers, “Field emission at terahertz frequencies: AC-tunneling and ultrafast carrier dynamics,” New J. Phys. 16(12), 123005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hey, R.

W. Kuehn, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, and R. Hey, “Coherent ballistic motion of electrons in a periodic potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(14), 146602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. R. Stone, M. Naftaly, R. E. Miles, J. R. Fletcher, and D. P. Steenson, “Electrical and radiation characteristics of semilarge photconductive terahertz emitters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(10), 2420–2429 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sternbach, A. J.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stone, M. R.

M. R. Stone, M. Naftaly, R. E. Miles, J. R. Fletcher, and D. P. Steenson, “Electrical and radiation characteristics of semilarge photconductive terahertz emitters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(10), 2420–2429 (2004).
[Crossref]

Strikwerda, A. C.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, F. H.

F. Blanchard, D. Golde, F. H. Su, L. Razzari, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and F. A. Hegmann, “Effective mass anisotropy of hot electrons in nonparabolic conduction bands of n-doped InGaAs films using ultrafast terahertz pump-probe techniques,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(10), 107401 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H.-C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n-doped semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 79(19), 193204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Suemoto, T.

Y. Minami, T. Kurihara, K. Yamaguchi, M. Nakajima, and T. Suemoto, “High-power THz wave generation in plasma induced by polarization adjusted two-color laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Takigawa, S.

O. Imafuji, B. P. Singh, Y. Hirose, Y. Fukushima, and S. Takigawa, “High power subterahertz electromagnetic wave radiation from GaN photoconductive switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071112 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, H.

Tanaka, K.

A. Leitenstorfer, K. A. Nelson, K. Reimann, and K. Tanaka, “Focus on nonlinear terahertz studies,” New J. Phys. 16(4), 045016 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transient,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Shinokita, H. Hirori, K. Tanaka, T. Mochizuki, C. Kim, H. Akiyama, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Terahertz-induced optical emission of photoexcited undoped GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(6), 067401 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Mukai, H. Hirori, and K. Tanaka, “Electric field ionization of gallium acceptors in germanium induced by single-cycle terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 87(20), 201202 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Tani, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in graphene under a high electric field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(16), 166603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single –cycle terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Hirori, K. Shinokita, M. Shirai, S. Tani, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Extraordinary carrier multiplication gated by a picosecond electric field pulse,” Nat. Commun. 2(594), 594 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Blanchard, A. Doi, T. Tanaka, H. Hirori, H. Tanaka, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Real-time terahertz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8277–8284 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanaka, T.

Tani, S.

S. Tani, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in graphene under a high electric field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(16), 166603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hirori, K. Shinokita, M. Shirai, S. Tani, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Extraordinary carrier multiplication gated by a picosecond electric field pulse,” Nat. Commun. 2(594), 594 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tao, H.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tiedje, H. F.

Titova, L. V.

Tokuyama, K.

Turner, J. J.

T. Kubacka, J. A. Johnson, M. C. Hoffmann, C. Vicario, S. de Jong, P. Beaud, S. Grübel, S. W. Huang, L. Huber, L. Patthey, Y. D. Chuang, J. J. Turner, G. L. Dakovski, W. S. Lee, M. P. Minitti, W. Schlotter, R. G. Moore, C. P. Hauri, S. M. Koohpayeh, V. Scagnoli, G. Ingold, S. L. Johnson, and U. Staub, “Large-amplitude spin dynamics driven by a THz pulse in resonance with an electromagnon,” Science 343(6177), 1333–1336 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ueda, K.

Unlu, M.

C. W. Berry, N. Wang, M. R. Hashemi, M. Unlu, and M. Jarrahi, “Significant performance enhancement in photoconductive terahertz optoelectronics by incorporating plasmonic contact electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4(1622), 1622 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Urbanek, B.

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vicario, C.

T. Kubacka, J. A. Johnson, M. C. Hoffmann, C. Vicario, S. de Jong, P. Beaud, S. Grübel, S. W. Huang, L. Huber, L. Patthey, Y. D. Chuang, J. J. Turner, G. L. Dakovski, W. S. Lee, M. P. Minitti, W. Schlotter, R. G. Moore, C. P. Hauri, S. M. Koohpayeh, V. Scagnoli, G. Ingold, S. L. Johnson, and U. Staub, “Large-amplitude spin dynamics driven by a THz pulse in resonance with an electromagnon,” Science 343(6177), 1333–1336 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, N.

C. W. Berry, N. Wang, M. R. Hashemi, M. Unlu, and M. Jarrahi, “Significant performance enhancement in photoconductive terahertz optoelectronics by incorporating plasmonic contact electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4(1622), 1622 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

West, K. G.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

West, K. W.

K. Shinokita, H. Hirori, K. Tanaka, T. Mochizuki, C. Kim, H. Akiyama, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Terahertz-induced optical emission of photoexcited undoped GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(6), 067401 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wimmer, L.

G. Herink, L. Wimmer, and C. Ropers, “Field emission at terahertz frequencies: AC-tunneling and ultrafast carrier dynamics,” New J. Phys. 16(12), 123005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Winnerl, S.

Woerner, M.

P. Bowlan, E. Martinez-Moreno, K. Reimann, T. Elsaesser, and M. Woerner, “Ultrafast terahertz response of multilayer graphene in the nonperturbative regime,” Phys. Rev. B 89(4), 041408 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Kuehn, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, and R. Hey, “Coherent ballistic motion of electrons in a periodic potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(14), 146602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolf, S. A.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woodall, J.

S. E. Ralph, Y. Chen, J. Woodall, and D. McInturff, “Subpicosecond photoconductivity of In0.53Ga0.47As: Intervalley scattering rates observed via THz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(8), 5568–5573 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Woscholski, R.

B. Ewers, N. S. Koster, R. Woscholski, M. Koch, S. Chatterjee, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, A. C. Klettke, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Ionization of coherent excitons by strong terahertz fields,” Phys. Rev. B 85(7), 075307 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, D. H.

S. B. Qadri, D. H. Wu, B. D. Graber, N. A. Mahadik, and A. Garzarella, “Failure mechanism of THz GaAs photoconductive antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011910 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

C. Headley, L. Fu, P. Parkinson, X. Xu, J. Lloyd-Hughes, C. Jagadish, and M. B. Johnston, “Improved performances of GaAs-based terahertz emitters via surface passivation and silicon nitride encapsulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 17–21 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yamaguchi, K.

Y. Minami, T. Kurihara, K. Yamaguchi, M. Nakajima, and T. Suemoto, “High-power THz wave generation in plasma induced by polarization adjusted two-color laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, H.

Yang, S. H.

S. H. Yang, M. R. Hashemi, C. W. Berry, and M. Jarrahi, “7.5% optical-to-terahertz conversion efficiency offered by photoconductive emitters with three-dimensional plasmonic contact electrodes,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 4(5), 575–581 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.-H.

N. T. Yardimci, S.-H. Yang, C. W. Berry, and M. Jarrahi, “High power terahertz generation using large-area plasmonic photoconductive emitter,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 223–229 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yardimci, N. T.

N. T. Yardimci, S.-H. Yang, C. W. Berry, and M. Jarrahi, “High power terahertz generation using large-area plasmonic photoconductive emitter,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 223–229 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ye, J. C.

S. G. Park, K. H. Jin, M. Yi, J. C. Ye, J. Ahn, and K. H. Jeong, “Enhancement of terahertz pulse emission by optical nanoantenna,” ACS Nano 6(3), 2026–2031 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yi, M.

S. G. Park, K. H. Jin, M. Yi, J. C. Ye, J. Ahn, and K. H. Jeong, “Enhancement of terahertz pulse emission by optical nanoantenna,” ACS Nano 6(3), 2026–2031 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoneda, H.

Yoo, Y. J.

T. I. Oh, Y. J. Yoo, S. You, and K. Y. Kim, “Generation of strong terahertz fields exceeding 8 MV/cm at 1 kHz and real-time beam profiling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(4), 041103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yoshikawa, A.

S. Ono, H. Murakami, A. Quema, G. Diwa, N. Sarukura, R. Nagasaka, Y. Ichikawa, H. Ogino, E. Ohshima, A. Yoshikawa, and T. Fukuda, “Generation of terahertz radiation using zinc oxide as photoconductive material excited by ultraviolet pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 261112 (2005).
[Crossref]

You, D.

You, S.

T. I. Oh, Y. J. Yoo, S. You, and K. Y. Kim, “Generation of strong terahertz fields exceeding 8 MV/cm at 1 kHz and real-time beam profiling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(4), 041103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zaks, B.

B. Zaks, R. B. Liu, and M. S. Sherwin, “Experimental observation of electron-hole recollisions,” Nature 483(7391), 580–583 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. C.

I. C. Ho and X. C. Zhang, “Driving intervalley scattering and impact ionization in InAs with intense Terahertz pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 241908 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. T. Darrow, X. C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, “Saturation properties of large-aperture photoconducting antennas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(6), 1607–1616 (1992).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Y.

S. Fleischer, Y. Zhou, R. W. Field, and K. A. Nelson, “Molecular orientation and alignment by intense single-cycle THz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(16), 163603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

S. G. Park, K. H. Jin, M. Yi, J. C. Ye, J. Ahn, and K. H. Jeong, “Enhancement of terahertz pulse emission by optical nanoantenna,” ACS Nano 6(3), 2026–2031 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (10)

S. Ono, H. Murakami, A. Quema, G. Diwa, N. Sarukura, R. Nagasaka, Y. Ichikawa, H. Ogino, E. Ohshima, A. Yoshikawa, and T. Fukuda, “Generation of terahertz radiation using zinc oxide as photoconductive material excited by ultraviolet pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 261112 (2005).
[Crossref]

O. Imafuji, B. P. Singh, Y. Hirose, Y. Fukushima, and S. Takigawa, “High power subterahertz electromagnetic wave radiation from GaN photoconductive switch,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071112 (2007).
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J. F. Holzman and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Two-photon photoconductive terahertz generation in ZnSe,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(14), 2967 (2003).
[Crossref]

X. Ropagnol, F. Blanchard, T. Ozaki, and M. Reid, “Intense terahertz generation at low frequencies using an interdigitated ZnSe large aperture photoconductive antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(16), 161108 (2013).
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D. S. Kim and D. S. Citrin, “Coulomb abd radiation screening in photoconductive terahertz sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 161117 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. B. Qadri, D. H. Wu, B. D. Graber, N. A. Mahadik, and A. Garzarella, “Failure mechanism of THz GaAs photoconductive antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(1), 011910 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Hirori, A. Doi, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Single –cycle terahertz pulses with amplitudes exceeding 1 MV/cm generated by optical rectification in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(9), 091106 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Minami, T. Kurihara, K. Yamaguchi, M. Nakajima, and T. Suemoto, “High-power THz wave generation in plasma induced by polarization adjusted two-color laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041105 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. I. Oh, Y. J. Yoo, S. You, and K. Y. Kim, “Generation of strong terahertz fields exceeding 8 MV/cm at 1 kHz and real-time beam profiling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(4), 041103 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. C. Ho and X. C. Zhang, “Driving intervalley scattering and impact ionization in InAs with intense Terahertz pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(24), 241908 (2011).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. T. Darrow, X. C. Zhang, D. H. Auston, and J. D. Morse, “Saturation properties of large-aperture photoconducting antennas,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(6), 1607–1616 (1992).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Headley, L. Fu, P. Parkinson, X. Xu, J. Lloyd-Hughes, C. Jagadish, and M. B. Johnston, “Improved performances of GaAs-based terahertz emitters via surface passivation and silicon nitride encapsulation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 17–21 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

X. Ropagnol, R. Morandotti, T. Ozaki, and M. Reid, “Toward high-power terahertz emitters using large aperture ZnSe photoconductive antennas,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(2), 174–186 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

M. R. Stone, M. Naftaly, R. E. Miles, J. R. Fletcher, and D. P. Steenson, “Electrical and radiation characteristics of semilarge photconductive terahertz emitters,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(10), 2420–2429 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. (2)

S. H. Yang, M. R. Hashemi, C. W. Berry, and M. Jarrahi, “7.5% optical-to-terahertz conversion efficiency offered by photoconductive emitters with three-dimensional plasmonic contact electrodes,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 4(5), 575–581 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. T. Yardimci, S.-H. Yang, C. W. Berry, and M. Jarrahi, “High power terahertz generation using large-area plasmonic photoconductive emitter,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 5(2), 223–229 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves (1)

C. W. Berry and M. Jarrahi, “Principles of impedance matching in photoconductive antennas, J Infrared Milli Terahertz Waves,” J. Infrared Millim. THz Waves 33(12), 1182–1189 (2012).
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J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

M. C. Hoffmann and J. A. Fülöp, “Intense ultrashort terahertz pulses: Generation and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 44(8), 083001 (2011).
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Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Hattori, K. Egawa, S. I. Ookuma, and T. Itatani, “Intense terahertz pulses from large-aperture antenna with interdigitated electrodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(15), L422–L424 (2006).
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Nat. Commun. (3)

H. Hirori, K. Shinokita, M. Shirai, S. Tani, Y. Kadoya, and K. Tanaka, “Extraordinary carrier multiplication gated by a picosecond electric field pulse,” Nat. Commun. 2(594), 594 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Berry, N. Wang, M. R. Hashemi, M. Unlu, and M. Jarrahi, “Significant performance enhancement in photoconductive terahertz optoelectronics by incorporating plasmonic contact electrodes,” Nat. Commun. 4(1622), 1622 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Shalaby and C. P. Hauri, “Demonstration of a low-frequency three-dimensional terahertz bullet with extreme brightness,” Nat. Commun. 6(5976), 5976 (2015).
[PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

O. Schubert, M. Hohenleutner, F. Langer, B. Urbanek, C. Lange, U. Huttner, D. Golde, T. Meier, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and R. Huber, “Sub-cycle control of terahertz high-harmonic generation by dynamical Bloch oscillations,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 119–123 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Kampfrath, K. Tanaka, and K. Nelson, “Resonant and nonresonant control over matter and light by intense terahertz transient,” Nat. Photonics 7(9), 680–690 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

M. Liu, H. Y. Hwang, H. Tao, A. C. Strikwerda, K. Fan, G. R. Keiser, A. J. Sternbach, K. G. West, S. Kittiwatanakul, J. Lu, S. A. Wolf, F. G. Omenetto, X. Zhang, K. A. Nelson, and R. D. Averitt, “Terahertz-field-induced insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide metamaterial,” Nature 487(7407), 345–348 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zaks, R. B. Liu, and M. S. Sherwin, “Experimental observation of electron-hole recollisions,” Nature 483(7391), 580–583 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (2)

A. Leitenstorfer, K. A. Nelson, K. Reimann, and K. Tanaka, “Focus on nonlinear terahertz studies,” New J. Phys. 16(4), 045016 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Herink, L. Wimmer, and C. Ropers, “Field emission at terahertz frequencies: AC-tunneling and ultrafast carrier dynamics,” New J. Phys. 16(12), 123005 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (4)

P. Bowlan, E. Martinez-Moreno, K. Reimann, T. Elsaesser, and M. Woerner, “Ultrafast terahertz response of multilayer graphene in the nonperturbative regime,” Phys. Rev. B 89(4), 041408 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Mukai, H. Hirori, and K. Tanaka, “Electric field ionization of gallium acceptors in germanium induced by single-cycle terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 87(20), 201202 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Ewers, N. S. Koster, R. Woscholski, M. Koch, S. Chatterjee, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, A. C. Klettke, M. Kira, and S. W. Koch, “Ionization of coherent excitons by strong terahertz fields,” Phys. Rev. B 85(7), 075307 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. Razzari, F. H. Su, G. Sharma, F. Blanchard, A. Ayesheshim, H.-C. Bandulet, R. Morandotti, J. C. Kieffer, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, and F. A. Hegmann, “Nonlinear ultrafast modulation of the optical absorption of intense few-cycle terahertz pulses in n-doped semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 79(19), 193204 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

S. E. Ralph, Y. Chen, J. Woodall, and D. McInturff, “Subpicosecond photoconductivity of In0.53Ga0.47As: Intervalley scattering rates observed via THz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 54(8), 5568–5573 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (8)

S. Li and R. R. Jones, “Ionization of excited atoms by intense single-cycle THz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(14), 143006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Kuehn, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, and R. Hey, “Coherent ballistic motion of electrons in a periodic potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(14), 146602 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Shinokita, H. Hirori, K. Tanaka, T. Mochizuki, C. Kim, H. Akiyama, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “Terahertz-induced optical emission of photoexcited undoped GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(6), 067401 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Blanchard, D. Golde, F. H. Su, L. Razzari, G. Sharma, R. Morandotti, T. Ozaki, M. Reid, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, and F. A. Hegmann, “Effective mass anisotropy of hot electrons in nonparabolic conduction bands of n-doped InGaAs films using ultrafast terahertz pump-probe techniques,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(10), 107401 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tani, F. Blanchard, and K. Tanaka, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in graphene under a high electric field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(16), 166603 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Fleischer, Y. Zhou, R. W. Field, and K. A. Nelson, “Molecular orientation and alignment by intense single-cycle THz pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(16), 163603 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. N. Egodapitiya, S. Li, and R. R. Jones, “Terahertz-induced field-free orientation of rotationally excited molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(10), 103002 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Clerici, M. Peccianti, B. E. Schmidt, L. Caspani, M. Shalaby, M. Giguère, A. Lotti, A. Couairon, F. Légaré, T. Ozaki, D. Faccio, and R. Morandotti, “Wavelength scaling of terahertz generation by gas ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(25), 253901 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

T. Kubacka, J. A. Johnson, M. C. Hoffmann, C. Vicario, S. de Jong, P. Beaud, S. Grübel, S. W. Huang, L. Huber, L. Patthey, Y. D. Chuang, J. J. Turner, G. L. Dakovski, W. S. Lee, M. P. Minitti, W. Schlotter, R. G. Moore, C. P. Hauri, S. M. Koohpayeh, V. Scagnoli, G. Ingold, S. L. Johnson, and U. Staub, “Large-amplitude spin dynamics driven by a THz pulse in resonance with an electromagnon,” Science 343(6177), 1333–1336 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

T. H. Martin, “An empirical formula for gas switch breakdown delay,” in Proceedings of the 7th IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, Monterey, CA (1989), pp. 73–79.
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the setup for generation of intense THz pulses with an interdigitated ZnSe LAPCA excited at 400 nm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) THz waveform acquired by EO sampling of emission from ZnSe interdigitated LAPCA with Ti/Au contacts, using a shadow mask, excited with 16 mJ of 400 nm optical pump and biased with 30 kV/cm. (b) Respective amplitude THz spectrum.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Energy of the THz pulse generated by ZnSe LAPCAs with the Cr/Pt and Cr/Au metallization covered by a shadow mask (a) as function of the bias field when the LAPCAs are excited with 16 mJ and (b) as a function of the optical energy when the LAPCAs are biased at 20 kV/cm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a): Energy and (b) optical-to-THz conversion efficiency as a function of optical energy for the radiation of THz pulses from interdigitated ZnSe LAPCA with Cr/Au contacts illuminated and biased at 42 kV/cm
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Real time image of the THz pulse with an energy of 3.6 µJ measured at the focus position (after the off axis mirror) and (b) cross sections intensity profiles of the THz image in (a).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Trace of the high voltage pulse when the high voltage source is connected to (a) no capacitance, (b) a 24 pF capacitance, (c) a 36 pF capacitance and (d) a 50 pF capacitance. All the traces are compared to the trace of the high voltage pulse when the source is connected to the interdigitated ZnSe LAPCA.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Normalized time integral of the square modulus of the transmitted electric field as a function of the Z-scan position of the InGaAs sample for three different peak THz fields (174, 144 and 115 kV/cm) and for the bare InP substrate at a peak field of 174 kV/cm.

Equations (4)

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W p = e E peak 2 4 m 0 ω 2
E 0 = 2 η 0 W π w x w y τ
ρt=97800 ( E ρ ) 3.44
P rad (ω)= 1 2 | S p (ω) P opt (ω) | 2 ζ G A ( G A + G p ) 2 + ( ω C p + B A ) 2

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