Abstract

Angular distribution of polarized light and its effect on light extraction efficiency (LEE) in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet (DUV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are investigated in this paper. A united picture is presented to describe polarized light’s emission and propagation processes. It is found that the electron-hole recombinations in AlGaN multiple quantum wells produce three kinds of angularly distributed polarized emissions and propagation process can change their intensity distributions. By investigation the change of angular distributions in 277nm and 215nm LEDs, this work reveals that LEE can be significantly enhanced by modulating the angular distributions of polarized light of DUV LEDs.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (3)

S.-I. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90 mW output via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(13), 131104 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, H. Rass, M Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kuller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. H. Lee, H. J. Park, S. H. Kim, M. Asadirad, Y.-T. Moon, J. S. Kwak, and J.-H. Ryou, “Light-extraction efficiency control in AlGaN-based deep-ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes: a comparison to InGaN-based visible flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20340–20349 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

H. X. Zhong, J. J. Shi, M. Zhang, X. H. Jiang, P. Huang, and Y. M. Ding, “Reducing My acceptor activation-energy in Al0.83Ga0.17N disorder alloy substituted by nanoscale (AlN)5/(GaN)1 superlattice using MgGa δ-doping: Mg local-structure effect,” Sci. Rep. 4, 06710 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. C. Yuan, X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, Z. Z. Chen, X. N. Kang, J. J. Wu, and G. Y. Zhang, “Angular distribution of polarized spontaneous emissions and its effect on light extraction behavior in InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(9), 093106 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

C. Y. Cho, Y. J. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, G. C. Yuan, B. Shen, and G. Y. Zhang, “Modulating optical polarization properties of Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum well by controlling wavelength overlap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181117 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Y. Ryu, I. G. Choi, H. S. Choi, and J. I. Shim, “Investigation of light extraction efficiency in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062101 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Lu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Extremely high internal quantum efficiencies from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells emitting in the deep ultraviolet spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(1), 011902 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. K. Sharma, D. Naveh, and E. Towe, “Strain-driven light-polarization switching in deep ultraviolet nitride emitters,” Phys. Rev. B 84(3), 035305 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. H. Huang, J. P. Liu, Y. Y. Fan, J. J. Kong, H. Yang, and H. B. Wang, “Effect of patterned sapphire substrate shape on light output power of GaN-based LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 944–946 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. M. Lu and G. X. Chen, “Design strategies for mitigating the influence of polarization effects on GaN-based multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(9), 093102 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Matioli and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of internal quantum efficiency in light emitting diodes under electrical injection,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073114 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

Z. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, and S. Liu, “Precise optical modeling of blue light-emitting diodes by Monte Carlo ray-tracing,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9398–9412 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Taniyasu and M. Kasu, “Surface 210nm light emission from an AlN p-n junction light-emitting diode enhanced by A-plane growth orientation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221110 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Optical anisotropy in [0001]-oriented Alx Ga1− xN /AlN quantum wells (x> 0.69),” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 121308 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Bhattacharyya, T. D. Moustakas, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and W. Hug, “Deep ultraviolet emitting AlGaN quantum wells with high internal quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(18), 181907 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

T.-X. Lee, K.-F. Gao, W.-T. Chien, and C.-C. Sun, “Light extraction analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface texture and/or patterned substrate,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6670–6676 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, and J. Cho, “Polarization of light emission by 460nm GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (0001) oriented sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051117 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441(7091), 325–328 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

H. Benisty, R. Stanley, and M. Mayer, “Method of source terms for dipole emission modification in modes of arbitrary planar structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 15(5), 1192–1201 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Kawashima, H. Yoshikawa, S. Adachi, S. Fuke, and K. Ohtsuka, “Optical properties of hexagonal GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(7), 3528–3535 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “k⋅p method for strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 54(4), 2491–2504 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chuang, “Optical gain of strained wurtzite GaN quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(10), 1791–1800 (1996).
[Crossref]

Adachi, S.

T. Kawashima, H. Yoshikawa, S. Adachi, S. Fuke, and K. Ohtsuka, “Optical properties of hexagonal GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(7), 3528–3535 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ambacher, O.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[Crossref]

Angerer, H.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[Crossref]

Asadirad, M.

Bai, Y.

C. Y. Cho, Y. J. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Banal, R. G.

R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Extremely high internal quantum efficiencies from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells emitting in the deep ultraviolet spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(1), 011902 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Optical anisotropy in [0001]-oriented Alx Ga1− xN /AlN quantum wells (x> 0.69),” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 121308 (2009).
[Crossref]

Benisty, H.

H. Benisty, R. Stanley, and M. Mayer, “Method of source terms for dipole emission modification in modes of arbitrary planar structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 15(5), 1192–1201 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bhattacharyya, A.

A. Bhattacharyya, T. D. Moustakas, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and W. Hug, “Deep ultraviolet emitting AlGaN quantum wells with high internal quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(18), 181907 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bilenko, Y.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Lu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brunner, D.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bustarret, E.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. S.

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “k⋅p method for strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 54(4), 2491–2504 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chen, G. X.

H. M. Lu and G. X. Chen, “Design strategies for mitigating the influence of polarization effects on GaN-based multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(9), 093102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, X. J.

G. C. Yuan, X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, Z. Z. Chen, X. N. Kang, J. J. Wu, and G. Y. Zhang, “Angular distribution of polarized spontaneous emissions and its effect on light extraction behavior in InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(9), 093106 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, G. C. Yuan, B. Shen, and G. Y. Zhang, “Modulating optical polarization properties of Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum well by controlling wavelength overlap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z. Z.

G. C. Yuan, X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, Z. Z. Chen, X. N. Kang, J. J. Wu, and G. Y. Zhang, “Angular distribution of polarized spontaneous emissions and its effect on light extraction behavior in InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(9), 093106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chhajed, S.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, and J. Cho, “Polarization of light emission by 460nm GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (0001) oriented sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051117 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chien, W.-T.

Cho, C. Y.

C. Y. Cho, Y. J. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cho, J.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, and J. Cho, “Polarization of light emission by 460nm GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (0001) oriented sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051117 (2007).
[Crossref]

Choi, H. S.

H. Y. Ryu, I. G. Choi, H. S. Choi, and J. I. Shim, “Investigation of light extraction efficiency in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Choi, I. G.

H. Y. Ryu, I. G. Choi, H. S. Choi, and J. I. Shim, “Investigation of light extraction efficiency in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chuang, S. L.

S. L. Chuang, “Optical gain of strained wurtzite GaN quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(10), 1791–1800 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “k⋅p method for strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 54(4), 2491–2504 (1996).
[Crossref]

Cicek, E.

C. Y. Cho, Y. J. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dimitrov, R.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ding, Y. M.

H. X. Zhong, J. J. Shi, M. Zhang, X. H. Jiang, P. Huang, and Y. M. Ding, “Reducing My acceptor activation-energy in Al0.83Ga0.17N disorder alloy substituted by nanoscale (AlN)5/(GaN)1 superlattice using MgGa δ-doping: Mg local-structure effect,” Sci. Rep. 4, 06710 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dobrinsky, A.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Lu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Einfeldt, S.

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, H. Rass, M Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kuller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fan, Y. Y.

X. H. Huang, J. P. Liu, Y. Y. Fan, J. J. Kong, H. Yang, and H. B. Wang, “Effect of patterned sapphire substrate shape on light output power of GaN-based LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 944–946 (2011).
[Crossref]

Feneberg, M.

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, H. Rass, M Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kuller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Freudenberg, F.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fujikawa, S.

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fuke, S.

T. Kawashima, H. Yoshikawa, S. Adachi, S. Fuke, and K. Ohtsuka, “Optical properties of hexagonal GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(7), 3528–3535 (1997).
[Crossref]

Funato, M.

R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Extremely high internal quantum efficiencies from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells emitting in the deep ultraviolet spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(1), 011902 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Optical anisotropy in [0001]-oriented Alx Ga1− xN /AlN quantum wells (x> 0.69),” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 121308 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gao, K.-F.

Garrett, G.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Lu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gaska, R.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Lu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Goldhahn, R.

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, H. Rass, M Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kuller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guttmann, M.

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, H. Rass, M Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kuller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hirayama, H.

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
[Crossref]

Höpler, R.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[Crossref]

Hu, F.

Huang, P.

H. X. Zhong, J. J. Shi, M. Zhang, X. H. Jiang, P. Huang, and Y. M. Ding, “Reducing My acceptor activation-energy in Al0.83Ga0.17N disorder alloy substituted by nanoscale (AlN)5/(GaN)1 superlattice using MgGa δ-doping: Mg local-structure effect,” Sci. Rep. 4, 06710 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, X. H.

X. H. Huang, J. P. Liu, Y. Y. Fan, J. J. Kong, H. Yang, and H. B. Wang, “Effect of patterned sapphire substrate shape on light output power of GaN-based LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 944–946 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hug, W.

A. Bhattacharyya, T. D. Moustakas, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and W. Hug, “Deep ultraviolet emitting AlGaN quantum wells with high internal quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(18), 181907 (2009).
[Crossref]

Inoue, S.-I.

S.-I. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90 mW output via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(13), 131104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H. X.

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X. H.

H. X. Zhong, J. J. Shi, M. Zhang, X. H. Jiang, P. Huang, and Y. M. Ding, “Reducing My acceptor activation-energy in Al0.83Ga0.17N disorder alloy substituted by nanoscale (AlN)5/(GaN)1 superlattice using MgGa δ-doping: Mg local-structure effect,” Sci. Rep. 4, 06710 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kamata, N.

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kang, X. N.

G. C. Yuan, X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, Z. Z. Chen, X. N. Kang, J. J. Wu, and G. Y. Zhang, “Angular distribution of polarized spontaneous emissions and its effect on light extraction behavior in InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(9), 093106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kasu, M.

Y. Taniyasu and M. Kasu, “Surface 210nm light emission from an AlN p-n junction light-emitting diode enhanced by A-plane growth orientation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441(7091), 325–328 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawakami, Y.

R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Extremely high internal quantum efficiencies from AlGaN/AlN quantum wells emitting in the deep ultraviolet spectral region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(1), 011902 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. G. Banal, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Optical anisotropy in [0001]-oriented Alx Ga1− xN /AlN quantum wells (x> 0.69),” Phys. Rev. B 79(12), 121308 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kawashima, T.

T. Kawashima, H. Yoshikawa, S. Adachi, S. Fuke, and K. Ohtsuka, “Optical properties of hexagonal GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(7), 3528–3535 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kim, J. K.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, and J. Cho, “Polarization of light emission by 460nm GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (0001) oriented sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051117 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. H.

Kinoshita, T.

S.-I. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90 mW output via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(13), 131104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Knauer, A.

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, H. Rass, M Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kuller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kneissl, M.

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, H. Rass, M Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kuller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kong, J. J.

X. H. Huang, J. P. Liu, Y. Y. Fan, J. J. Kong, H. Yang, and H. B. Wang, “Effect of patterned sapphire substrate shape on light output power of GaN-based LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 944–946 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kuhn, C.

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, H. Rass, M Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kuller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kuller, V.

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, H. Rass, M Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kuller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kwak, J. S.

Lapeyrade, M

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, H. Rass, M Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kuller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. H.

Lee, T.-X.

Li, J.

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lin, J. Y.

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. P.

X. H. Huang, J. P. Liu, Y. Y. Fan, J. J. Kong, H. Yang, and H. B. Wang, “Effect of patterned sapphire substrate shape on light output power of GaN-based LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 944–946 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

Liu, Z.

Lu, H. M.

G. C. Yuan, X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, Z. Z. Chen, X. N. Kang, J. J. Wu, and G. Y. Zhang, “Angular distribution of polarized spontaneous emissions and its effect on light extraction behavior in InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(9), 093106 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, G. C. Yuan, B. Shen, and G. Y. Zhang, “Modulating optical polarization properties of Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum well by controlling wavelength overlap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181117 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. M. Lu and G. X. Chen, “Design strategies for mitigating the influence of polarization effects on GaN-based multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(9), 093102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lu, X.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Lu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lunev, A.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Lu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Luo, X.

Luo, Y.

Maeda, N.

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
[Crossref]

Makimoto, T.

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441(7091), 325–328 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matioli, E.

E. Matioli and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of internal quantum efficiency in light emitting diodes under electrical injection,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mayer, M.

H. Benisty, R. Stanley, and M. Mayer, “Method of source terms for dipole emission modification in modes of arbitrary planar structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 15(5), 1192–1201 (1998).
[Crossref]

McClintock, R.

C. Y. Cho, Y. J. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mehnke, F.

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, H. Rass, M Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kuller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Meyer, J. R.

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[Crossref]

Moe, C.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Lu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Moon, Y.-T.

Moustakas, T. D.

A. Bhattacharyya, T. D. Moustakas, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and W. Hug, “Deep ultraviolet emitting AlGaN quantum wells with high internal quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(18), 181907 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nakarmi, M. L.

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nam, K. B.

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264–5266 (2004).
[Crossref]

Naoki, T.

S.-I. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90 mW output via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(13), 131104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Naveh, D.

T. K. Sharma, D. Naveh, and E. Towe, “Strain-driven light-polarization switching in deep ultraviolet nitride emitters,” Phys. Rev. B 84(3), 035305 (2011).
[Crossref]

Obata, T.

S.-I. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90 mW output via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(13), 131104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ohtsuka, K.

T. Kawashima, H. Yoshikawa, S. Adachi, S. Fuke, and K. Ohtsuka, “Optical properties of hexagonal GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(7), 3528–3535 (1997).
[Crossref]

Park, H. J.

Qian, K. Y.

Rahnema, B.

C. Y. Cho, Y. J. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rass, H.

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, H. Rass, M Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kuller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Razeghi, M.

C. Y. Cho, Y. J. Zhang, E. Cicek, B. Rahnema, Y. Bai, R. McClintock, and M. Razeghi, “Surface plasmon enhanced light emission from AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(21), 211110 (2013).
[Crossref]

Reich, C.

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, H. Rass, M Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kuller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ryou, J.-H.

Ryu, H. Y.

H. Y. Ryu, I. G. Choi, H. S. Choi, and J. I. Shim, “Investigation of light extraction efficiency in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, and J. Cho, “Polarization of light emission by 460nm GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (0001) oriented sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051117 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schubert, M. F.

M. F. Schubert, S. Chhajed, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, and J. Cho, “Polarization of light emission by 460nm GaInN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on (0001) oriented sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051117 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sharma, T. K.

T. K. Sharma, D. Naveh, and E. Towe, “Strain-driven light-polarization switching in deep ultraviolet nitride emitters,” Phys. Rev. B 84(3), 035305 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shatalov, M.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Lu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shen, B.

X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, G. C. Yuan, B. Shen, and G. Y. Zhang, “Modulating optical polarization properties of Al-rich AlGaN/AlN quantum well by controlling wavelength overlap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shi, J. J.

H. X. Zhong, J. J. Shi, M. Zhang, X. H. Jiang, P. Huang, and Y. M. Ding, “Reducing My acceptor activation-energy in Al0.83Ga0.17N disorder alloy substituted by nanoscale (AlN)5/(GaN)1 superlattice using MgGa δ-doping: Mg local-structure effect,” Sci. Rep. 4, 06710 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shim, J. I.

H. Y. Ryu, I. G. Choi, H. S. Choi, and J. I. Shim, “Investigation of light extraction efficiency in AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shur, M.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Lu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. J.

A. Bhattacharyya, T. D. Moustakas, L. Zhou, D. J. Smith, and W. Hug, “Deep ultraviolet emitting AlGaN quantum wells with high internal quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(18), 181907 (2009).
[Crossref]

Stanley, R.

H. Benisty, R. Stanley, and M. Mayer, “Method of source terms for dipole emission modification in modes of arbitrary planar structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 15(5), 1192–1201 (1998).
[Crossref]

Stutzmann, M.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sun, C.-C.

Sun, W.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Lu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Taniyasu, Y.

Y. Taniyasu and M. Kasu, “Surface 210nm light emission from an AlN p-n junction light-emitting diode enhanced by A-plane growth orientation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(22), 221110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, “An aluminium nitride light-emitting diode with a wavelength of 210 nanometres,” Nature 441(7091), 325–328 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Towe, E.

T. K. Sharma, D. Naveh, and E. Towe, “Strain-driven light-polarization switching in deep ultraviolet nitride emitters,” Phys. Rev. B 84(3), 035305 (2011).
[Crossref]

Toyoda, S.

H. Hirayama, N. Maeda, S. Fujikawa, S. Toyoda, and N. Kamata, “Recent progress and future prospects of AlGaN-based high-efficiency deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100209 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vurgaftman, I.

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, H. B.

X. H. Huang, J. P. Liu, Y. Y. Fan, J. J. Kong, H. Yang, and H. B. Wang, “Effect of patterned sapphire substrate shape on light output power of GaN-based LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 944–946 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.

Weisbuch, C.

E. Matioli and C. Weisbuch, “Direct measurement of internal quantum efficiency in light emitting diodes under electrical injection,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 073114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wernicke, T.

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, H. Rass, M Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kuller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Weyers, M.

C. Reich, M. Guttmann, M. Feneberg, T. Wernicke, F. Mehnke, C. Kuhn, H. Rass, M Lapeyrade, S. Einfeldt, A. Knauer, V. Kuller, M. Weyers, R. Goldhahn, and M. Kneissl, “Strongly transverse-electric-polarized emission from deep ultraviolet AlGaN quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(14), 142101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wraback, M.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Lu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, J. J.

G. C. Yuan, X. J. Chen, T. J. Yu, H. M. Lu, Z. Z. Chen, X. N. Kang, J. J. Wu, and G. Y. Zhang, “Angular distribution of polarized spontaneous emissions and its effect on light extraction behavior in InGaN-based light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(9), 093106 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yanagi, H.

S.-I. Inoue, T. Naoki, T. Kinoshita, T. Obata, and H. Yanagi, “Light extraction enhancement of 265nm deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with over 90 mW output via an AlN hybrid nanostructure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(13), 131104 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

X. H. Huang, J. P. Liu, Y. Y. Fan, J. J. Kong, H. Yang, and H. B. Wang, “Effect of patterned sapphire substrate shape on light output power of GaN-based LEDs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 23(14), 944–946 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

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[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Sketch of coordinate system for simulation and measurement, s and p oscillating components. Angular distributions of (b) s-polarized source, (c) cos2θ p-polarized source and (d) sin2θ p-polarized source.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) 277nm spontaneous emission rates for TE and TM modes, the inset is sketch of extraction cones and cross sections of angular distributions of s-polarized (up) and cos2θ p-polarized (down) sources and (b) the flip chip LED structure, the simulated (c) and measured (d) s-polarized and p-polarized light intensities as the functions of θ.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) 215nm spontaneous emission rates for TE and TM modes, inset is sketch of extraction cones and cross section of angular distribution of sin2θ p-polarized source. (b) 0.2mm*0.2mm conventional flip chip LED structure. (c) Simulated s-polarized and p-polarized light intensities as the functions of θ in 215nm and 277nm conventional flip chip LEDs, inset in the bottom left corner is experimental data of normalized intensities in 277nm (blue triangle), 283nm (black sphere) and 210nm (red square) LEDs.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The designed 215nm LED structure, and (b) simulated s-polarized and p-polarized light intensities as the functions of θ.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Angular dependent extracted intensities from s-polarized, cos2θ p- polarized and sin2θ p-polarized light in 215nm conventional LED ((a), (b) and (c)) and designed LED ((d), (e) and (f)).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

s polarization : r s p s ( ω ) = r s p T E ( ω ) ,
p polarization : r s p p ( ω ) = r s p T E ( ω ) ( cos θ ) 2 + r s p T M ( ω ) ( sin θ ) 2 .

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