Abstract

This study aims to investigate the effects of lighting color temperatures on elementary students’ performance, and thereby propose a dynamic lighting system for a smart learning environment. Three empirical studies were conducted: First, physiological responses were measured as a potential mediator of performance. Second, cognitive and behavioral responses were observed during academic and recess activities. Lastly, the experiment was carried out in a real-life setting with prolonged exposure. With a comprehensive analysis of the three studies, three lighting presets–3500 K, 5000 K, and 6500 K–are suggested for easy, standard, and intensive activity, respectively. The study is expected to act as a good stepping stone for developing dynamic lighting systems to support students’ performance in learning environments.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Assessment of white for displays under dark- and chromatic-adapted conditions

Kyungah Choi and Hyeon-Jeong Suk
Opt. Express 24(25) 28945-28957 (2016)

Model predicting discomfort glare caused by LED road lights

Yandan Lin, Yihong Liu, Yaojie Sun, Xiaoyan Zhu, Jushui Lai, and Ingrid Heynderickx
Opt. Express 22(15) 18056-18071 (2014)

Does correlated color temperature affect the ability of humans to identify veins?

Aikaterini Argyraki, Line Katrine Harder Clemmensen, and Paul Michael Petersen
J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 33(1) 141-148 (2016)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Optimal colour quality of LED clusters based on memory colours,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6903–6912 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, and M. Shur, “Solid-state lamps with optimized color saturation ability,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2287–2295 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. H. Chen, Z. Luo, R. Zhu, Q. Hong, and S. T. Wu, “Tuning the correlated color temperature of white LED with a guest-host liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13060–13068 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. K. Choi, J. Lee, and H. J. Suk, “Context-based presets for lighting setup in residential space,” Appl. Ergon. 52, 222–231 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. H. J. Suk, “Designing User-Centered Lighting Scenarios,” in Light, Energy and the Environment (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper DW2C. 1.
  6. G. Hoffmann, V. Gufler, A. Griesmacher, C. Bartenbach, M. Canazei, S. Staggl, and W. Schobersberger, “Effects of variable lighting intensities and colour temperatures on sulphatoxymelatonin and subjective mood in an experimental office workplace,” Appl. Ergon. 39(6), 719–728 (2008).
  7. A. AL‐Ayash R. T. Kane, D. Smith, and P. Green-Armytage, “The influence of color on student emotion, heart rate, and performance in learning environments,” Color Res. Appl. 41(2), 196–205 (2015).
  8. N. Abbas, D. Kumar, and N. Mclachlan, “The psychological and physiological effects of light and colour on space users,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1228–1231.
  9. J. Baker, M. Levy, and D. Grewal, “An experimental approach to making retail store environmental decisions,” J. Retailing 68(4), 445–460 (1992).
  10. P. R. Mills, S. C. Tomkins, and L. J. Schlangen, “The effect of high correlated colour temperature office lighting on employee wellbeing and work performance,” J. Circadian Rhythms 5(1), 2 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. A. U. Viola, L. M. James, L. J. Schlangen, and D. J. Dijk, “Blue-enriched white light in the workplace improves self-reported alertness, performance and sleep quality,” Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 34(4), 297–306 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. I. Knez, “Effects of colour of light on nonvisual psychological processes,” J. Environ. Psychol. 21(2), 201–208 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  13. E. Rautkylä, M. Puolakka, E. Tetri, and L. Halonen, “Effects of correlated colour temperature and timing of light exposure on daytime alertness in lecture environments,” J. Light Vis. Environ. 34(2), 59–68 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  14. L. Izsó, “Appropriate dynamic lighting as a possible basis for a smart ambient lighting,” in Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, C. Stephanidis, ed. (Springer, 2009), pp. 67–74.
  15. P. Sleegers, N. Moolenaar, M. Galetzka, A. Pruyn, B. Sarroukh, and B. van der Zande, “Lighting affects students’ concentration positively: findings from three Dutch studies,” Light. Res. Technol. 0, 1–17 (2012).
  16. N. Wessolowski, “Wirksamkeit von dynamischem Licht im Schulunterricht,” Dissertation (University of Hamburg, 2014).
  17. ISO, “Lighting of indoor work places,” ISO 8995: 2002 (International Organization for Standardization, 2002)
  18. ISO, “Ergonomics of the thermal environment,” ISO 7730: 2005 (International Organization for Standardization, 2005).
  19. M. D. Fairchild and L. Reniff, “Time course of chromatic adaptation for color-appearance judgments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12(5), 824–833 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. M. Malik, “Heart rate variability,” Ann. Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 1(2), 151–181 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  21. M. W. Eysenck, Simply Psychology (Psychology Press, 2012).
  22. M. Y. Robert and J. D. Dodson, “The relation of strength of stimulus to rapidity of habit-formation,” J. Comp. Neurol. Psychol. 18(5), 459–482 (1908).
    [Crossref]
  23. G. J. Gorn, A. Chattopadhyay, J. Sengupta, and S. Tripathi, “Waiting for the web: how screen color affects time perception,” J. Mark. Res. 41(2), 215–225 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  24. I. Levin and D. Zakay, Time and Human Cognition: A Life-Span Perspective (Elsevier, 1989).
  25. C. H. Tsuei, W. S. Sun, and C. C. Kuo, “Hybrid sunlight/LED illumination and renewable solar energy saving concepts for indoor lighting,” Opt. Express 18(104Suppl 4), A640–A653 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. N. J. Stone, “Designing effective study environments,” J. Environ. Psychol. 21(2), 179–190 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  27. J. B. Hutchings, L. C. Ou, and M. Ronnier Luo, “Quantification of scene appearance – A valid design tool?” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 44–52 (2012).
    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

K. Choi, J. Lee, and H. J. Suk, “Context-based presets for lighting setup in residential space,” Appl. Ergon. 52, 222–231 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

A. AL‐Ayash R. T. Kane, D. Smith, and P. Green-Armytage, “The influence of color on student emotion, heart rate, and performance in learning environments,” Color Res. Appl. 41(2), 196–205 (2015).

H. Chen, Z. Luo, R. Zhu, Q. Hong, and S. T. Wu, “Tuning the correlated color temperature of white LED with a guest-host liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13060–13068 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

P. Sleegers, N. Moolenaar, M. Galetzka, A. Pruyn, B. Sarroukh, and B. van der Zande, “Lighting affects students’ concentration positively: findings from three Dutch studies,” Light. Res. Technol. 0, 1–17 (2012).

J. B. Hutchings, L. C. Ou, and M. Ronnier Luo, “Quantification of scene appearance – A valid design tool?” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 44–52 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

2008 (2)

A. U. Viola, L. M. James, L. J. Schlangen, and D. J. Dijk, “Blue-enriched white light in the workplace improves self-reported alertness, performance and sleep quality,” Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 34(4), 297–306 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Hoffmann, V. Gufler, A. Griesmacher, C. Bartenbach, M. Canazei, S. Staggl, and W. Schobersberger, “Effects of variable lighting intensities and colour temperatures on sulphatoxymelatonin and subjective mood in an experimental office workplace,” Appl. Ergon. 39(6), 719–728 (2008).

2007 (1)

P. R. Mills, S. C. Tomkins, and L. J. Schlangen, “The effect of high correlated colour temperature office lighting on employee wellbeing and work performance,” J. Circadian Rhythms 5(1), 2 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

G. J. Gorn, A. Chattopadhyay, J. Sengupta, and S. Tripathi, “Waiting for the web: how screen color affects time perception,” J. Mark. Res. 41(2), 215–225 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

I. Knez, “Effects of colour of light on nonvisual psychological processes,” J. Environ. Psychol. 21(2), 201–208 (2001).
[Crossref]

N. J. Stone, “Designing effective study environments,” J. Environ. Psychol. 21(2), 179–190 (2001).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. Malik, “Heart rate variability,” Ann. Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 1(2), 151–181 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

J. Baker, M. Levy, and D. Grewal, “An experimental approach to making retail store environmental decisions,” J. Retailing 68(4), 445–460 (1992).

1908 (1)

M. Y. Robert and J. D. Dodson, “The relation of strength of stimulus to rapidity of habit-formation,” J. Comp. Neurol. Psychol. 18(5), 459–482 (1908).
[Crossref]

Abbas, N.

N. Abbas, D. Kumar, and N. Mclachlan, “The psychological and physiological effects of light and colour on space users,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1228–1231.

Baker, J.

J. Baker, M. Levy, and D. Grewal, “An experimental approach to making retail store environmental decisions,” J. Retailing 68(4), 445–460 (1992).

Bartenbach, C.

G. Hoffmann, V. Gufler, A. Griesmacher, C. Bartenbach, M. Canazei, S. Staggl, and W. Schobersberger, “Effects of variable lighting intensities and colour temperatures on sulphatoxymelatonin and subjective mood in an experimental office workplace,” Appl. Ergon. 39(6), 719–728 (2008).

Canazei, M.

G. Hoffmann, V. Gufler, A. Griesmacher, C. Bartenbach, M. Canazei, S. Staggl, and W. Schobersberger, “Effects of variable lighting intensities and colour temperatures on sulphatoxymelatonin and subjective mood in an experimental office workplace,” Appl. Ergon. 39(6), 719–728 (2008).

Chattopadhyay, A.

G. J. Gorn, A. Chattopadhyay, J. Sengupta, and S. Tripathi, “Waiting for the web: how screen color affects time perception,” J. Mark. Res. 41(2), 215–225 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Choi, K.

K. Choi, J. Lee, and H. J. Suk, “Context-based presets for lighting setup in residential space,” Appl. Ergon. 52, 222–231 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deconinck, G.

Dijk, D. J.

A. U. Viola, L. M. James, L. J. Schlangen, and D. J. Dijk, “Blue-enriched white light in the workplace improves self-reported alertness, performance and sleep quality,” Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 34(4), 297–306 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dodson, J. D.

M. Y. Robert and J. D. Dodson, “The relation of strength of stimulus to rapidity of habit-formation,” J. Comp. Neurol. Psychol. 18(5), 459–482 (1908).
[Crossref]

Fairchild, M. D.

Galetzka, M.

P. Sleegers, N. Moolenaar, M. Galetzka, A. Pruyn, B. Sarroukh, and B. van der Zande, “Lighting affects students’ concentration positively: findings from three Dutch studies,” Light. Res. Technol. 0, 1–17 (2012).

Gorn, G. J.

G. J. Gorn, A. Chattopadhyay, J. Sengupta, and S. Tripathi, “Waiting for the web: how screen color affects time perception,” J. Mark. Res. 41(2), 215–225 (2004).
[Crossref]

Green-Armytage, P.

A. AL‐Ayash R. T. Kane, D. Smith, and P. Green-Armytage, “The influence of color on student emotion, heart rate, and performance in learning environments,” Color Res. Appl. 41(2), 196–205 (2015).

Grewal, D.

J. Baker, M. Levy, and D. Grewal, “An experimental approach to making retail store environmental decisions,” J. Retailing 68(4), 445–460 (1992).

Griesmacher, A.

G. Hoffmann, V. Gufler, A. Griesmacher, C. Bartenbach, M. Canazei, S. Staggl, and W. Schobersberger, “Effects of variable lighting intensities and colour temperatures on sulphatoxymelatonin and subjective mood in an experimental office workplace,” Appl. Ergon. 39(6), 719–728 (2008).

Gufler, V.

G. Hoffmann, V. Gufler, A. Griesmacher, C. Bartenbach, M. Canazei, S. Staggl, and W. Schobersberger, “Effects of variable lighting intensities and colour temperatures on sulphatoxymelatonin and subjective mood in an experimental office workplace,” Appl. Ergon. 39(6), 719–728 (2008).

Halonen, L.

E. Rautkylä, M. Puolakka, E. Tetri, and L. Halonen, “Effects of correlated colour temperature and timing of light exposure on daytime alertness in lecture environments,” J. Light Vis. Environ. 34(2), 59–68 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hanselaer, P.

Hoffmann, G.

G. Hoffmann, V. Gufler, A. Griesmacher, C. Bartenbach, M. Canazei, S. Staggl, and W. Schobersberger, “Effects of variable lighting intensities and colour temperatures on sulphatoxymelatonin and subjective mood in an experimental office workplace,” Appl. Ergon. 39(6), 719–728 (2008).

Hong, Q.

Hutchings, J. B.

J. B. Hutchings, L. C. Ou, and M. Ronnier Luo, “Quantification of scene appearance – A valid design tool?” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 44–52 (2012).
[Crossref]

James, L. M.

A. U. Viola, L. M. James, L. J. Schlangen, and D. J. Dijk, “Blue-enriched white light in the workplace improves self-reported alertness, performance and sleep quality,” Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 34(4), 297–306 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kane, R. T.

A. AL‐Ayash R. T. Kane, D. Smith, and P. Green-Armytage, “The influence of color on student emotion, heart rate, and performance in learning environments,” Color Res. Appl. 41(2), 196–205 (2015).

Knez, I.

I. Knez, “Effects of colour of light on nonvisual psychological processes,” J. Environ. Psychol. 21(2), 201–208 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kumar, D.

N. Abbas, D. Kumar, and N. Mclachlan, “The psychological and physiological effects of light and colour on space users,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1228–1231.

Kuo, C. C.

Lee, J.

K. Choi, J. Lee, and H. J. Suk, “Context-based presets for lighting setup in residential space,” Appl. Ergon. 52, 222–231 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levy, M.

J. Baker, M. Levy, and D. Grewal, “An experimental approach to making retail store environmental decisions,” J. Retailing 68(4), 445–460 (1992).

Luo, Z.

Malik, M.

M. Malik, “Heart rate variability,” Ann. Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 1(2), 151–181 (1996).
[Crossref]

Mclachlan, N.

N. Abbas, D. Kumar, and N. Mclachlan, “The psychological and physiological effects of light and colour on space users,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1228–1231.

Mills, P. R.

P. R. Mills, S. C. Tomkins, and L. J. Schlangen, “The effect of high correlated colour temperature office lighting on employee wellbeing and work performance,” J. Circadian Rhythms 5(1), 2 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moolenaar, N.

P. Sleegers, N. Moolenaar, M. Galetzka, A. Pruyn, B. Sarroukh, and B. van der Zande, “Lighting affects students’ concentration positively: findings from three Dutch studies,” Light. Res. Technol. 0, 1–17 (2012).

Ou, L. C.

J. B. Hutchings, L. C. Ou, and M. Ronnier Luo, “Quantification of scene appearance – A valid design tool?” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 44–52 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pointer, M. R.

Pruyn, A.

P. Sleegers, N. Moolenaar, M. Galetzka, A. Pruyn, B. Sarroukh, and B. van der Zande, “Lighting affects students’ concentration positively: findings from three Dutch studies,” Light. Res. Technol. 0, 1–17 (2012).

Puolakka, M.

E. Rautkylä, M. Puolakka, E. Tetri, and L. Halonen, “Effects of correlated colour temperature and timing of light exposure on daytime alertness in lecture environments,” J. Light Vis. Environ. 34(2), 59–68 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rautkylä, E.

E. Rautkylä, M. Puolakka, E. Tetri, and L. Halonen, “Effects of correlated colour temperature and timing of light exposure on daytime alertness in lecture environments,” J. Light Vis. Environ. 34(2), 59–68 (2010).
[Crossref]

Reniff, L.

Robert, M. Y.

M. Y. Robert and J. D. Dodson, “The relation of strength of stimulus to rapidity of habit-formation,” J. Comp. Neurol. Psychol. 18(5), 459–482 (1908).
[Crossref]

Ronnier Luo, M.

J. B. Hutchings, L. C. Ou, and M. Ronnier Luo, “Quantification of scene appearance – A valid design tool?” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 44–52 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ryckaert, W. R.

Sarroukh, B.

P. Sleegers, N. Moolenaar, M. Galetzka, A. Pruyn, B. Sarroukh, and B. van der Zande, “Lighting affects students’ concentration positively: findings from three Dutch studies,” Light. Res. Technol. 0, 1–17 (2012).

Schlangen, L. J.

A. U. Viola, L. M. James, L. J. Schlangen, and D. J. Dijk, “Blue-enriched white light in the workplace improves self-reported alertness, performance and sleep quality,” Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 34(4), 297–306 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. R. Mills, S. C. Tomkins, and L. J. Schlangen, “The effect of high correlated colour temperature office lighting on employee wellbeing and work performance,” J. Circadian Rhythms 5(1), 2 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schobersberger, W.

G. Hoffmann, V. Gufler, A. Griesmacher, C. Bartenbach, M. Canazei, S. Staggl, and W. Schobersberger, “Effects of variable lighting intensities and colour temperatures on sulphatoxymelatonin and subjective mood in an experimental office workplace,” Appl. Ergon. 39(6), 719–728 (2008).

Sengupta, J.

G. J. Gorn, A. Chattopadhyay, J. Sengupta, and S. Tripathi, “Waiting for the web: how screen color affects time perception,” J. Mark. Res. 41(2), 215–225 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shur, M.

Sleegers, P.

P. Sleegers, N. Moolenaar, M. Galetzka, A. Pruyn, B. Sarroukh, and B. van der Zande, “Lighting affects students’ concentration positively: findings from three Dutch studies,” Light. Res. Technol. 0, 1–17 (2012).

Smet, K.

Smith, D.

A. AL‐Ayash R. T. Kane, D. Smith, and P. Green-Armytage, “The influence of color on student emotion, heart rate, and performance in learning environments,” Color Res. Appl. 41(2), 196–205 (2015).

Staggl, S.

G. Hoffmann, V. Gufler, A. Griesmacher, C. Bartenbach, M. Canazei, S. Staggl, and W. Schobersberger, “Effects of variable lighting intensities and colour temperatures on sulphatoxymelatonin and subjective mood in an experimental office workplace,” Appl. Ergon. 39(6), 719–728 (2008).

Stone, N. J.

N. J. Stone, “Designing effective study environments,” J. Environ. Psychol. 21(2), 179–190 (2001).
[Crossref]

Suk, H. J.

K. Choi, J. Lee, and H. J. Suk, “Context-based presets for lighting setup in residential space,” Appl. Ergon. 52, 222–231 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, W. S.

Tetri, E.

E. Rautkylä, M. Puolakka, E. Tetri, and L. Halonen, “Effects of correlated colour temperature and timing of light exposure on daytime alertness in lecture environments,” J. Light Vis. Environ. 34(2), 59–68 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tomkins, S. C.

P. R. Mills, S. C. Tomkins, and L. J. Schlangen, “The effect of high correlated colour temperature office lighting on employee wellbeing and work performance,” J. Circadian Rhythms 5(1), 2 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tripathi, S.

G. J. Gorn, A. Chattopadhyay, J. Sengupta, and S. Tripathi, “Waiting for the web: how screen color affects time perception,” J. Mark. Res. 41(2), 215–225 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tsuei, C. H.

Vaicekauskas, R.

van der Zande, B.

P. Sleegers, N. Moolenaar, M. Galetzka, A. Pruyn, B. Sarroukh, and B. van der Zande, “Lighting affects students’ concentration positively: findings from three Dutch studies,” Light. Res. Technol. 0, 1–17 (2012).

Viola, A. U.

A. U. Viola, L. M. James, L. J. Schlangen, and D. J. Dijk, “Blue-enriched white light in the workplace improves self-reported alertness, performance and sleep quality,” Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 34(4), 297–306 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, S. T.

Zhu, R.

Žukauskas, A.

Ann. Noninvasive Electrocardiol. (1)

M. Malik, “Heart rate variability,” Ann. Noninvasive Electrocardiol. 1(2), 151–181 (1996).
[Crossref]

Appl. Ergon. (2)

K. Choi, J. Lee, and H. J. Suk, “Context-based presets for lighting setup in residential space,” Appl. Ergon. 52, 222–231 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Hoffmann, V. Gufler, A. Griesmacher, C. Bartenbach, M. Canazei, S. Staggl, and W. Schobersberger, “Effects of variable lighting intensities and colour temperatures on sulphatoxymelatonin and subjective mood in an experimental office workplace,” Appl. Ergon. 39(6), 719–728 (2008).

Color Res. Appl. (2)

A. AL‐Ayash R. T. Kane, D. Smith, and P. Green-Armytage, “The influence of color on student emotion, heart rate, and performance in learning environments,” Color Res. Appl. 41(2), 196–205 (2015).

J. B. Hutchings, L. C. Ou, and M. Ronnier Luo, “Quantification of scene appearance – A valid design tool?” Color Res. Appl. 37(1), 44–52 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Circadian Rhythms (1)

P. R. Mills, S. C. Tomkins, and L. J. Schlangen, “The effect of high correlated colour temperature office lighting on employee wellbeing and work performance,” J. Circadian Rhythms 5(1), 2 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Comp. Neurol. Psychol. (1)

M. Y. Robert and J. D. Dodson, “The relation of strength of stimulus to rapidity of habit-formation,” J. Comp. Neurol. Psychol. 18(5), 459–482 (1908).
[Crossref]

J. Environ. Psychol. (2)

N. J. Stone, “Designing effective study environments,” J. Environ. Psychol. 21(2), 179–190 (2001).
[Crossref]

I. Knez, “Effects of colour of light on nonvisual psychological processes,” J. Environ. Psychol. 21(2), 201–208 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Light Vis. Environ. (1)

E. Rautkylä, M. Puolakka, E. Tetri, and L. Halonen, “Effects of correlated colour temperature and timing of light exposure on daytime alertness in lecture environments,” J. Light Vis. Environ. 34(2), 59–68 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Mark. Res. (1)

G. J. Gorn, A. Chattopadhyay, J. Sengupta, and S. Tripathi, “Waiting for the web: how screen color affects time perception,” J. Mark. Res. 41(2), 215–225 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Retailing (1)

J. Baker, M. Levy, and D. Grewal, “An experimental approach to making retail store environmental decisions,” J. Retailing 68(4), 445–460 (1992).

Light. Res. Technol. (1)

P. Sleegers, N. Moolenaar, M. Galetzka, A. Pruyn, B. Sarroukh, and B. van der Zande, “Lighting affects students’ concentration positively: findings from three Dutch studies,” Light. Res. Technol. 0, 1–17 (2012).

Opt. Express (4)

Scand. J. Work Environ. Health (1)

A. U. Viola, L. M. James, L. J. Schlangen, and D. J. Dijk, “Blue-enriched white light in the workplace improves self-reported alertness, performance and sleep quality,” Scand. J. Work Environ. Health 34(4), 297–306 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (8)

N. Abbas, D. Kumar, and N. Mclachlan, “The psychological and physiological effects of light and colour on space users,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (IEEE, 2006), pp. 1228–1231.

H. J. Suk, “Designing User-Centered Lighting Scenarios,” in Light, Energy and the Environment (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper DW2C. 1.

N. Wessolowski, “Wirksamkeit von dynamischem Licht im Schulunterricht,” Dissertation (University of Hamburg, 2014).

ISO, “Lighting of indoor work places,” ISO 8995: 2002 (International Organization for Standardization, 2002)

ISO, “Ergonomics of the thermal environment,” ISO 7730: 2005 (International Organization for Standardization, 2005).

L. Izsó, “Appropriate dynamic lighting as a possible basis for a smart ambient lighting,” in Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, C. Stephanidis, ed. (Springer, 2009), pp. 67–74.

I. Levin and D. Zakay, Time and Human Cognition: A Life-Span Perspective (Elsevier, 1989).

M. W. Eysenck, Simply Psychology (Psychology Press, 2012).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The LED luminous ceiling of the experimental room (left) that offers a wider color gamut than Adobe RGB (right). The maximum illuminance is approximately 3000 lux.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Placement of the four electrodes (ECG + , ECG –, Reference, Ground) for electrocardiogram.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup for the laboratory experiment.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The original fluorescent lighting (left) replaced with tunable LEDs (right).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dynamic lighting system implemented as a mobile application with three lighting presets.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Operational flow of the dynamic lighting system: 1) students are focusing on solving mathematical problems; 2) select the “intensive” lighting preset to support students’ academic performance; and 3) lower the illuminance level by pinching in the intensity icon for high intensity of daylight.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The CCT (K), illuminance (lux), x, y, delta uv, and color rendering index (CRI) of the lighting stimuli

Tables Icon

Table 2 The results of the preliminary study (N = 17) and laboratory experiment (N = 31)a

Tables Icon

Table 3 The average CCT (K), illuminance (lux), and CRI of the pretest-posttest lighting conditions

Tables Icon

Table 4 The mean and standard deviation of the appropriateness of the three lighting conditions (N = 27)a

Tables Icon

Table 5 The mean and standard deviation of the percentage of correct answers (%)

Metrics