Abstract

We implement finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method to simulate the optical properties of highly polarized InGaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) coupled with metallic grating structure. The Purcell factor (Fp), light extraction efficiency (LEE), internal quantum efficiency (IQE), external quantum efficiency (EQE), and modulation frequency are calculated for different polarized emissions. Our results show that light polarization has a strong impact on Fp and LEE of LEDs due to their coupling effects with the surface plasmons (SPs) generated by metallic grating. Fp as high as 34 and modulation frequency up to 5.4 GHz are obtained for a simulated LED structure. Furthermore, LEE, IQE and EQE can also be enhanced by tuning the coupling between polarized emission and SPs. These results can serve as guidelines for the design and fabrication of high efficiency and high speed LEDs for the applications of solid-state lighting and visible-light communication.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Enhancement of the modulation bandwidth for GaN-based light-emitting diode by surface plasmons

Shi-Chao Zhu, Zhi-Guo Yu, Li-Xia Zhao, Jun-Xi Wang, and Jin-Min Li
Opt. Express 23(11) 13752-13760 (2015)

Optical properties of plasmonic light-emitting diodes based on flip-chip III-nitride core-shell nanowires

Mohsen Nami and Daniel F. Feezell
Opt. Express 22(24) 29445-29455 (2014)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. R. Krames, J. Bhat, D. Collins, N. F. Gardner, W. Götz, C. H. Lowery, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, and S. Rudaz, “High‐Power III‐Nitride Emitters for Solid‐State Lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi 192(2), 237–245 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. Feezell, S. S. James, P. D. Steven, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 190–198 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  3. F. Qian, S. Gradecak, Y. Li, C. Y. Wen, and C. M. Lieber, “Core/multishell nanowire heterostructures as multicolor, high-efficiency light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2287–2291 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. J. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  5. P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. H. Fu, Z. Lu, X. Zhao, Y. H. Zhang, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and Y. Zhao, “Study of low efficiency droop in semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN light-emitting diodes by time-resolved photoluminescence,” J. Disp. Technol. (to be published).
  8. Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green semipolar (20bar 2bar 1) InGaN light-emitting diodes with small wavelength shift and narrow spectral linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  9. Y. Zhao, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, and J. S. Speck, “Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201108 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  10. Y. Zhao, R. M. Farrell, Y. R. Wu, and J. S. Speck, “Valence band states and polarized optical emission from nonpolar and semipolar III–nitride quantum well optoelectronic devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100206 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  11. H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated on GaN substrates oriented between (1010) and (1011) planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091105 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. Ueda, M. Funato, K. Kojima, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Polarization switching phenomena in semipolar In x Ga 1− x N/GaN quantum well active layers,” Phys. Rev. B 78(23), 233303 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  13. M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohta, “Temperature dependence of polarized photoluminescence from nonpolar m-plane InGaN multiple quantum wells for blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011920 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  14. Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, R. B. Chung, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High optical polarization ratio from semipolar (202 1) blue-green InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051109 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  15. Y. Zhao, Q. Yan, D. Feezell, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical polarization characteristics of semipolar (3031¯) and (3031¯) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(101), A53–A59 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electronic and optical properties of a-and m-plane wurtzite InGaN–GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  17. W. G. Scheibenzuber, U. T. Schwarz, R. G. Veprek, B. Witzigmann, and A. Hangleiter, “Calculation of optical eigenmodes and gain in semipolar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Phys. Rev. B 80(11), 115320 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  18. E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, Y. L. Hu, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High-brightness polarized light-emitting diodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(8), e22 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. Vučković, M. Lončar, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(10), 1131–1144 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  20. K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/ GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071102 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  22. I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 60(16), 11564 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  23. X. Feng, F. Liu, and Y. Huang, “Calculated plasmonic enhancement of spontaneous emission from silicon nanocrystals with metallic gratings,” Opt. Commun. 283(13), 2758–2761 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  24. D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, M. Tan, D. Houng, S. Y. Wang, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Design of an efficient light-emitting diode with 10 GHz modulation bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 243501 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  25. N. Gao, K. Huang, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced deep-UV light emitting diodes based on AlGaN multi-quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 2, 816 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).
  27. Y. Xu, J. S. Vučković, R. K. Lee, O. J. Painter, A. Scherer, and A. Yariv, “Finite-difference time-domain calculation of spontaneous emission lifetime in a microcavity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(3), 465–474 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  28. E. Sakalauskas, Ö. Tuna, A. Kraus, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, C. Giesen, M. Heuken, A. Hangleiter, G. Gobsch, and R. Goldhahn, “Dielectric function and bowing parameters of InGaN alloys,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(3), 485–488 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  29. D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  30. E. K. Lau, A. Lakhani, R. S. Tucker, and M. C. Wu, “Enhanced modulation bandwidth of nanocavity light emitting devices,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7790–7799 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. T. Suhr, N. Gregersen, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, “Modulation response of nanoLEDs and nanolasers exploiting Purcell enhanced spontaneous emission,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11230–11241 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. M. Nami and D. Feezell, “Optical properties of Ag-coated GaN/InGaN axial and core–shell nanowire light-emitting diodes,” J. Opt. 17(2), 025004 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

M. Nami and D. Feezell, “Optical properties of Ag-coated GaN/InGaN axial and core–shell nanowire light-emitting diodes,” J. Opt. 17(2), 025004 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

Y. Zhao, R. M. Farrell, Y. R. Wu, and J. S. Speck, “Valence band states and polarized optical emission from nonpolar and semipolar III–nitride quantum well optoelectronic devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100206 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

D. Feezell, S. S. James, P. D. Steven, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 190–198 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green semipolar (20bar 2bar 1) InGaN light-emitting diodes with small wavelength shift and narrow spectral linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, Q. Yan, D. Feezell, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical polarization characteristics of semipolar (3031¯) and (3031¯) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(101), A53–A59 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

E. Sakalauskas, Ö. Tuna, A. Kraus, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, C. Giesen, M. Heuken, A. Hangleiter, G. Gobsch, and R. Goldhahn, “Dielectric function and bowing parameters of InGaN alloys,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(3), 485–488 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Gao, K. Huang, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced deep-UV light emitting diodes based on AlGaN multi-quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 2, 816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, and J. S. Speck, “Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201108 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, Y. L. Hu, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High-brightness polarized light-emitting diodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(8), e22 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, R. B. Chung, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High optical polarization ratio from semipolar (202 1) blue-green InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

J. J. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Feng, F. Liu, and Y. Huang, “Calculated plasmonic enhancement of spontaneous emission from silicon nanocrystals with metallic gratings,” Opt. Commun. 283(13), 2758–2761 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Suhr, N. Gregersen, K. Yvind, and J. Mørk, “Modulation response of nanoLEDs and nanolasers exploiting Purcell enhanced spontaneous emission,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11230–11241 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

E. K. Lau, A. Lakhani, R. S. Tucker, and M. C. Wu, “Enhanced modulation bandwidth of nanocavity light emitting devices,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7790–7799 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. G. Scheibenzuber, U. T. Schwarz, R. G. Veprek, B. Witzigmann, and A. Hangleiter, “Calculation of optical eigenmodes and gain in semipolar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Phys. Rev. B 80(11), 115320 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, M. Tan, D. Houng, S. Y. Wang, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Design of an efficient light-emitting diode with 10 GHz modulation bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 243501 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated on GaN substrates oriented between (1010) and (1011) planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091105 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Ueda, M. Funato, K. Kojima, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Polarization switching phenomena in semipolar In x Ga 1− x N/GaN quantum well active layers,” Phys. Rev. B 78(23), 233303 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohta, “Temperature dependence of polarized photoluminescence from nonpolar m-plane InGaN multiple quantum wells for blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011920 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electronic and optical properties of a-and m-plane wurtzite InGaN–GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

F. Qian, S. Gradecak, Y. Li, C. Y. Wen, and C. M. Lieber, “Core/multishell nanowire heterostructures as multicolor, high-efficiency light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2287–2291 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/ GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071102 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. R. Krames, J. Bhat, D. Collins, N. F. Gardner, W. Götz, C. H. Lowery, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, and S. Rudaz, “High‐Power III‐Nitride Emitters for Solid‐State Lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi 192(2), 237–245 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vučković, M. Lončar, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(10), 1131–1144 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 60(16), 11564 (1999).
[Crossref]

Y. Xu, J. S. Vučković, R. K. Lee, O. J. Painter, A. Scherer, and A. Yariv, “Finite-difference time-domain calculation of spontaneous emission lifetime in a microcavity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(3), 465–474 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[Crossref]

1946 (1)

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Ahn, D.

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electronic and optical properties of a-and m-plane wurtzite InGaN–GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ambacher, O.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[Crossref]

Angerer, H.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[Crossref]

Beausoleil, R. G.

D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, M. Tan, D. Houng, S. Y. Wang, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Design of an efficient light-emitting diode with 10 GHz modulation bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 243501 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bhat, J.

M. R. Krames, J. Bhat, D. Collins, N. F. Gardner, W. Götz, C. H. Lowery, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, and S. Rudaz, “High‐Power III‐Nitride Emitters for Solid‐State Lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi 192(2), 237–245 (2002).
[Crossref]

Boroditsky, M.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 60(16), 11564 (1999).
[Crossref]

Brandt, O.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bremers, H.

E. Sakalauskas, Ö. Tuna, A. Kraus, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, C. Giesen, M. Heuken, A. Hangleiter, G. Gobsch, and R. Goldhahn, “Dielectric function and bowing parameters of InGaN alloys,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(3), 485–488 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brinkley, S.

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, Y. L. Hu, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High-brightness polarized light-emitting diodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(8), e22 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brunner, D.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bustarret, E.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chuang, S. L.

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electronic and optical properties of a-and m-plane wurtzite InGaN–GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chung, R. B.

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, R. B. Chung, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High optical polarization ratio from semipolar (202 1) blue-green InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Collins, D.

M. R. Krames, J. Bhat, D. Collins, N. F. Gardner, W. Götz, C. H. Lowery, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, and S. Rudaz, “High‐Power III‐Nitride Emitters for Solid‐State Lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi 192(2), 237–245 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dawson, M. D.

J. J. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S.

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, Y. L. Hu, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High-brightness polarized light-emitting diodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(8), e22 (2012).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green semipolar (20bar 2bar 1) InGaN light-emitting diodes with small wavelength shift and narrow spectral linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, Q. Yan, D. Feezell, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical polarization characteristics of semipolar (3031¯) and (3031¯) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(101), A53–A59 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, R. B. Chung, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High optical polarization ratio from semipolar (202 1) blue-green InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051109 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated on GaN substrates oriented between (1010) and (1011) planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091105 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 60(16), 11564 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Fu, Z. Lu, X. Zhao, Y. H. Zhang, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and Y. Zhao, “Study of low efficiency droop in semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN light-emitting diodes by time-resolved photoluminescence,” J. Disp. Technol. (to be published).

Dimitrov, R.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[Crossref]

Farrell, R. M.

Y. Zhao, R. M. Farrell, Y. R. Wu, and J. S. Speck, “Valence band states and polarized optical emission from nonpolar and semipolar III–nitride quantum well optoelectronic devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100206 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fattal, D.

D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, M. Tan, D. Houng, S. Y. Wang, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Design of an efficient light-emitting diode with 10 GHz modulation bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 243501 (2008).
[Crossref]

Feezell, D.

M. Nami and D. Feezell, “Optical properties of Ag-coated GaN/InGaN axial and core–shell nanowire light-emitting diodes,” J. Opt. 17(2), 025004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, Q. Yan, D. Feezell, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical polarization characteristics of semipolar (3031¯) and (3031¯) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(101), A53–A59 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Feezell, S. S. James, P. D. Steven, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 190–198 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, R. B. Chung, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High optical polarization ratio from semipolar (202 1) blue-green InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Feng, X.

X. Feng, F. Liu, and Y. Huang, “Calculated plasmonic enhancement of spontaneous emission from silicon nanocrystals with metallic gratings,” Opt. Commun. 283(13), 2758–2761 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fiorentino, M.

D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, M. Tan, D. Houng, S. Y. Wang, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Design of an efficient light-emitting diode with 10 GHz modulation bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 243501 (2008).
[Crossref]

Freudenberg, F.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fu, H.

H. Fu, Z. Lu, X. Zhao, Y. H. Zhang, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and Y. Zhao, “Study of low efficiency droop in semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN light-emitting diodes by time-resolved photoluminescence,” J. Disp. Technol. (to be published).

Fujito, K.

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green semipolar (20bar 2bar 1) InGaN light-emitting diodes with small wavelength shift and narrow spectral linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, Q. Yan, D. Feezell, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical polarization characteristics of semipolar (3031¯) and (3031¯) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(101), A53–A59 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, and J. S. Speck, “Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, R. B. Chung, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High optical polarization ratio from semipolar (202 1) blue-green InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Funato, M.

M. Ueda, M. Funato, K. Kojima, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Polarization switching phenomena in semipolar In x Ga 1− x N/GaN quantum well active layers,” Phys. Rev. B 78(23), 233303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gao, N.

N. Gao, K. Huang, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced deep-UV light emitting diodes based on AlGaN multi-quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 2, 816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gardner, N. F.

M. R. Krames, J. Bhat, D. Collins, N. F. Gardner, W. Götz, C. H. Lowery, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, and S. Rudaz, “High‐Power III‐Nitride Emitters for Solid‐State Lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi 192(2), 237–245 (2002).
[Crossref]

Giesen, C.

E. Sakalauskas, Ö. Tuna, A. Kraus, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, C. Giesen, M. Heuken, A. Hangleiter, G. Gobsch, and R. Goldhahn, “Dielectric function and bowing parameters of InGaN alloys,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(3), 485–488 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gobsch, G.

E. Sakalauskas, Ö. Tuna, A. Kraus, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, C. Giesen, M. Heuken, A. Hangleiter, G. Gobsch, and R. Goldhahn, “Dielectric function and bowing parameters of InGaN alloys,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(3), 485–488 (2012).
[Crossref]

Goldhahn, R.

E. Sakalauskas, Ö. Tuna, A. Kraus, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, C. Giesen, M. Heuken, A. Hangleiter, G. Gobsch, and R. Goldhahn, “Dielectric function and bowing parameters of InGaN alloys,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(3), 485–488 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gong, Z.

J. J. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gontijo, I.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 60(16), 11564 (1999).
[Crossref]

Götz, W.

M. R. Krames, J. Bhat, D. Collins, N. F. Gardner, W. Götz, C. H. Lowery, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, and S. Rudaz, “High‐Power III‐Nitride Emitters for Solid‐State Lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi 192(2), 237–245 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gradecak, S.

F. Qian, S. Gradecak, Y. Li, C. Y. Wen, and C. M. Lieber, “Core/multishell nanowire heterostructures as multicolor, high-efficiency light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2287–2291 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grahn, H. T.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Green, R. P.

J. J. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gregersen, N.

Gu, E.

J. J. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guilhabert, B.

J. J. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hangleiter, A.

E. Sakalauskas, Ö. Tuna, A. Kraus, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, C. Giesen, M. Heuken, A. Hangleiter, G. Gobsch, and R. Goldhahn, “Dielectric function and bowing parameters of InGaN alloys,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(3), 485–488 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. G. Scheibenzuber, U. T. Schwarz, R. G. Veprek, B. Witzigmann, and A. Hangleiter, “Calculation of optical eigenmodes and gain in semipolar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Phys. Rev. B 80(11), 115320 (2009).
[Crossref]

Heuken, M.

E. Sakalauskas, Ö. Tuna, A. Kraus, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, C. Giesen, M. Heuken, A. Hangleiter, G. Gobsch, and R. Goldhahn, “Dielectric function and bowing parameters of InGaN alloys,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(3), 485–488 (2012).
[Crossref]

Höpler, R.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[Crossref]

Houng, D.

D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, M. Tan, D. Houng, S. Y. Wang, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Design of an efficient light-emitting diode with 10 GHz modulation bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 243501 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hsu, P. S.

Y. Zhao, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, and J. S. Speck, “Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y. L.

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, Y. L. Hu, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High-brightness polarized light-emitting diodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(8), e22 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, C. Y.

Y. Zhao, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, and J. S. Speck, “Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, R. B. Chung, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High optical polarization ratio from semipolar (202 1) blue-green InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Huang, K.

N. Gao, K. Huang, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced deep-UV light emitting diodes based on AlGaN multi-quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 2, 816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, S. C.

Y. Zhao, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, and J. S. Speck, “Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

X. Feng, F. Liu, and Y. Huang, “Calculated plasmonic enhancement of spontaneous emission from silicon nanocrystals with metallic gratings,” Opt. Commun. 283(13), 2758–2761 (2010).
[Crossref]

Iso, K.

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated on GaN substrates oriented between (1010) and (1011) planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091105 (2008).
[Crossref]

James, S. S.

D. Feezell, S. S. James, P. D. Steven, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 190–198 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kang, J.

N. Gao, K. Huang, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced deep-UV light emitting diodes based on AlGaN multi-quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 2, 816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kawaguchi, Y.

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green semipolar (20bar 2bar 1) InGaN light-emitting diodes with small wavelength shift and narrow spectral linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, and J. S. Speck, “Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kawakami, Y.

M. Ueda, M. Funato, K. Kojima, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Polarization switching phenomena in semipolar In x Ga 1− x N/GaN quantum well active layers,” Phys. Rev. B 78(23), 233303 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/ GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kelchner, K. M.

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, Y. L. Hu, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High-brightness polarized light-emitting diodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(8), e22 (2012).
[Crossref]

Keller, S.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 60(16), 11564 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kelly, A. E.

J. J. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kojima, K.

M. Ueda, M. Funato, K. Kojima, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Polarization switching phenomena in semipolar In x Ga 1− x N/GaN quantum well active layers,” Phys. Rev. B 78(23), 233303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Krames, M. R.

M. R. Krames, J. Bhat, D. Collins, N. F. Gardner, W. Götz, C. H. Lowery, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, and S. Rudaz, “High‐Power III‐Nitride Emitters for Solid‐State Lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi 192(2), 237–245 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kraus, A.

E. Sakalauskas, Ö. Tuna, A. Kraus, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, C. Giesen, M. Heuken, A. Hangleiter, G. Gobsch, and R. Goldhahn, “Dielectric function and bowing parameters of InGaN alloys,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(3), 485–488 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kubota, M.

M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohta, “Temperature dependence of polarized photoluminescence from nonpolar m-plane InGaN multiple quantum wells for blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011920 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lakhani, A.

Lau, E. K.

Lee, R. K.

Li, J.

N. Gao, K. Huang, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced deep-UV light emitting diodes based on AlGaN multi-quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 2, 816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, S.

N. Gao, K. Huang, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced deep-UV light emitting diodes based on AlGaN multi-quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 2, 816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

F. Qian, S. Gradecak, Y. Li, C. Y. Wen, and C. M. Lieber, “Core/multishell nanowire heterostructures as multicolor, high-efficiency light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2287–2291 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lieber, C. M.

F. Qian, S. Gradecak, Y. Li, C. Y. Wen, and C. M. Lieber, “Core/multishell nanowire heterostructures as multicolor, high-efficiency light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2287–2291 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, F.

X. Feng, F. Liu, and Y. Huang, “Calculated plasmonic enhancement of spontaneous emission from silicon nanocrystals with metallic gratings,” Opt. Commun. 283(13), 2758–2761 (2010).
[Crossref]

Loncar, M.

J. Vučković, M. Lončar, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(10), 1131–1144 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lowery, C. H.

M. R. Krames, J. Bhat, D. Collins, N. F. Gardner, W. Götz, C. H. Lowery, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, and S. Rudaz, “High‐Power III‐Nitride Emitters for Solid‐State Lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi 192(2), 237–245 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lu, Z.

H. Fu, Z. Lu, X. Zhao, Y. H. Zhang, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and Y. Zhao, “Study of low efficiency droop in semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN light-emitting diodes by time-resolved photoluminescence,” J. Disp. Technol. (to be published).

Ludowise, M.

M. R. Krames, J. Bhat, D. Collins, N. F. Gardner, W. Götz, C. H. Lowery, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, and S. Rudaz, “High‐Power III‐Nitride Emitters for Solid‐State Lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi 192(2), 237–245 (2002).
[Crossref]

Martin, P. S.

M. R. Krames, J. Bhat, D. Collins, N. F. Gardner, W. Götz, C. H. Lowery, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, and S. Rudaz, “High‐Power III‐Nitride Emitters for Solid‐State Lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi 192(2), 237–245 (2002).
[Crossref]

Massoubre, D.

J. J. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Masui, H.

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated on GaN substrates oriented between (1010) and (1011) planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Matioli, E.

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, Y. L. Hu, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High-brightness polarized light-emitting diodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(8), e22 (2012).
[Crossref]

McKendry, J. J.

J. J. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Menniger, J.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mishra, U. K.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 60(16), 11564 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mørk, J.

Mueller, G.

M. R. Krames, J. Bhat, D. Collins, N. F. Gardner, W. Götz, C. H. Lowery, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, and S. Rudaz, “High‐Power III‐Nitride Emitters for Solid‐State Lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi 192(2), 237–245 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mueller-Mach, R.

M. R. Krames, J. Bhat, D. Collins, N. F. Gardner, W. Götz, C. H. Lowery, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, and S. Rudaz, “High‐Power III‐Nitride Emitters for Solid‐State Lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi 192(2), 237–245 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mukai, T.

M. Ueda, M. Funato, K. Kojima, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Polarization switching phenomena in semipolar In x Ga 1− x N/GaN quantum well active layers,” Phys. Rev. B 78(23), 233303 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/ GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071102 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakamura, S.

D. Feezell, S. S. James, P. D. Steven, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 190–198 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green semipolar (20bar 2bar 1) InGaN light-emitting diodes with small wavelength shift and narrow spectral linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, Q. Yan, D. Feezell, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical polarization characteristics of semipolar (3031¯) and (3031¯) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(101), A53–A59 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, Y. L. Hu, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High-brightness polarized light-emitting diodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(8), e22 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, R. B. Chung, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High optical polarization ratio from semipolar (202 1) blue-green InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated on GaN substrates oriented between (1010) and (1011) planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091105 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Fu, Z. Lu, X. Zhao, Y. H. Zhang, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and Y. Zhao, “Study of low efficiency droop in semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN light-emitting diodes by time-resolved photoluminescence,” J. Disp. Technol. (to be published).

Nami, M.

M. Nami and D. Feezell, “Optical properties of Ag-coated GaN/InGaN axial and core–shell nanowire light-emitting diodes,” J. Opt. 17(2), 025004 (2015).
[Crossref]

Narukawa, Y.

M. Ueda, M. Funato, K. Kojima, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Polarization switching phenomena in semipolar In x Ga 1− x N/GaN quantum well active layers,” Phys. Rev. B 78(23), 233303 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/ GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071102 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Niki, I.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/ GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071102 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, S. H.

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green semipolar (20bar 2bar 1) InGaN light-emitting diodes with small wavelength shift and narrow spectral linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ohta, H.

M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohta, “Temperature dependence of polarized photoluminescence from nonpolar m-plane InGaN multiple quantum wells for blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011920 (2008).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, K.

M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohta, “Temperature dependence of polarized photoluminescence from nonpolar m-plane InGaN multiple quantum wells for blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011920 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/ GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071102 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Painter, O. J.

Pan, C. C.

Y. Zhao, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, and J. S. Speck, “Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, R. B. Chung, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High optical polarization ratio from semipolar (202 1) blue-green InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Park, S. H.

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electronic and optical properties of a-and m-plane wurtzite InGaN–GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ploog, K. H.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Purcell, E. M.

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Qian, F.

F. Qian, S. Gradecak, Y. Li, C. Y. Wen, and C. M. Lieber, “Core/multishell nanowire heterostructures as multicolor, high-efficiency light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2287–2291 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramsteiner, M.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reiche, M.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rossow, U.

E. Sakalauskas, Ö. Tuna, A. Kraus, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, C. Giesen, M. Heuken, A. Hangleiter, G. Gobsch, and R. Goldhahn, “Dielectric function and bowing parameters of InGaN alloys,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(3), 485–488 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rudaz, S.

M. R. Krames, J. Bhat, D. Collins, N. F. Gardner, W. Götz, C. H. Lowery, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, and S. Rudaz, “High‐Power III‐Nitride Emitters for Solid‐State Lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi 192(2), 237–245 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sakalauskas, E.

E. Sakalauskas, Ö. Tuna, A. Kraus, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, C. Giesen, M. Heuken, A. Hangleiter, G. Gobsch, and R. Goldhahn, “Dielectric function and bowing parameters of InGaN alloys,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(3), 485–488 (2012).
[Crossref]

Scheibenzuber, W. G.

W. G. Scheibenzuber, U. T. Schwarz, R. G. Veprek, B. Witzigmann, and A. Hangleiter, “Calculation of optical eigenmodes and gain in semipolar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Phys. Rev. B 80(11), 115320 (2009).
[Crossref]

Scherer, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/ GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071102 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vučković, M. Lončar, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(10), 1131–1144 (2000).
[Crossref]

Y. Xu, J. S. Vučković, R. K. Lee, O. J. Painter, A. Scherer, and A. Yariv, “Finite-difference time-domain calculation of spontaneous emission lifetime in a microcavity,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(3), 465–474 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schwarz, U. T.

W. G. Scheibenzuber, U. T. Schwarz, R. G. Veprek, B. Witzigmann, and A. Hangleiter, “Calculation of optical eigenmodes and gain in semipolar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Phys. Rev. B 80(11), 115320 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shvartser, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Speck, J.

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, Y. L. Hu, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High-brightness polarized light-emitting diodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(8), e22 (2012).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

Y. Zhao, R. M. Farrell, Y. R. Wu, and J. S. Speck, “Valence band states and polarized optical emission from nonpolar and semipolar III–nitride quantum well optoelectronic devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100206 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green semipolar (20bar 2bar 1) InGaN light-emitting diodes with small wavelength shift and narrow spectral linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, Q. Yan, D. Feezell, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical polarization characteristics of semipolar (3031¯) and (3031¯) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(101), A53–A59 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, and J. S. Speck, “Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, R. B. Chung, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High optical polarization ratio from semipolar (202 1) blue-green InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Steven, P. D.

D. Feezell, S. S. James, P. D. Steven, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 190–198 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stutzmann, M.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[Crossref]

Suhr, T.

Tan, M.

D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, M. Tan, D. Houng, S. Y. Wang, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Design of an efficient light-emitting diode with 10 GHz modulation bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 243501 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, S.

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green semipolar (20bar 2bar 1) InGaN light-emitting diodes with small wavelength shift and narrow spectral linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, and J. S. Speck, “Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, R. B. Chung, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High optical polarization ratio from semipolar (202 1) blue-green InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, T.

M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohta, “Temperature dependence of polarized photoluminescence from nonpolar m-plane InGaN multiple quantum wells for blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011920 (2008).
[Crossref]

Trampert, A.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tucker, R. S.

Tuna, Ö.

E. Sakalauskas, Ö. Tuna, A. Kraus, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, C. Giesen, M. Heuken, A. Hangleiter, G. Gobsch, and R. Goldhahn, “Dielectric function and bowing parameters of InGaN alloys,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(3), 485–488 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ueda, M.

M. Ueda, M. Funato, K. Kojima, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Polarization switching phenomena in semipolar In x Ga 1− x N/GaN quantum well active layers,” Phys. Rev. B 78(23), 233303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Van de Walle, C. G.

Y. Zhao, Q. Yan, D. Feezell, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical polarization characteristics of semipolar (3031¯) and (3031¯) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(101), A53–A59 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, and J. S. Speck, “Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, R. B. Chung, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High optical polarization ratio from semipolar (202 1) blue-green InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Veprek, R. G.

W. G. Scheibenzuber, U. T. Schwarz, R. G. Veprek, B. Witzigmann, and A. Hangleiter, “Calculation of optical eigenmodes and gain in semipolar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Phys. Rev. B 80(11), 115320 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vuckovic, J.

J. Vučković, M. Lončar, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(10), 1131–1144 (2000).
[Crossref]

Vuckovic, J. S.

Waltereit, P.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S. Y.

D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, M. Tan, D. Houng, S. Y. Wang, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Design of an efficient light-emitting diode with 10 GHz modulation bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 243501 (2008).
[Crossref]

Weisbuch, C.

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, Y. L. Hu, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High-brightness polarized light-emitting diodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(8), e22 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wen, C. Y.

F. Qian, S. Gradecak, Y. Li, C. Y. Wen, and C. M. Lieber, “Core/multishell nanowire heterostructures as multicolor, high-efficiency light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2287–2291 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Witzigmann, B.

W. G. Scheibenzuber, U. T. Schwarz, R. G. Veprek, B. Witzigmann, and A. Hangleiter, “Calculation of optical eigenmodes and gain in semipolar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Phys. Rev. B 80(11), 115320 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, F.

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green semipolar (20bar 2bar 1) InGaN light-emitting diodes with small wavelength shift and narrow spectral linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, M. C.

Wu, Y. R.

Y. Zhao, R. M. Farrell, Y. R. Wu, and J. S. Speck, “Valence band states and polarized optical emission from nonpolar and semipolar III–nitride quantum well optoelectronic devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100206 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

Yablonovitch, E.

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 60(16), 11564 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yamada, H.

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated on GaN substrates oriented between (1010) and (1011) planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091105 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yan, Q.

Y. Zhao, Q. Yan, D. Feezell, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical polarization characteristics of semipolar (3031¯) and (3031¯) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(101), A53–A59 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, and J. S. Speck, “Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, R. B. Chung, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High optical polarization ratio from semipolar (202 1) blue-green InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051109 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

N. Gao, K. Huang, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced deep-UV light emitting diodes based on AlGaN multi-quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 2, 816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yariv, A.

Yvind, K.

Zhang, Y. H.

H. Fu, Z. Lu, X. Zhao, Y. H. Zhang, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and Y. Zhao, “Study of low efficiency droop in semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN light-emitting diodes by time-resolved photoluminescence,” J. Disp. Technol. (to be published).

Zhao, X.

H. Fu, Z. Lu, X. Zhao, Y. H. Zhang, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and Y. Zhao, “Study of low efficiency droop in semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN light-emitting diodes by time-resolved photoluminescence,” J. Disp. Technol. (to be published).

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, R. M. Farrell, Y. R. Wu, and J. S. Speck, “Valence band states and polarized optical emission from nonpolar and semipolar III–nitride quantum well optoelectronic devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100206 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green semipolar (20bar 2bar 1) InGaN light-emitting diodes with small wavelength shift and narrow spectral linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, Q. Yan, D. Feezell, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Optical polarization characteristics of semipolar (3031¯) and (3031¯) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 21(101), A53–A59 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhao, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, and J. S. Speck, “Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201108 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, R. B. Chung, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High optical polarization ratio from semipolar (202 1) blue-green InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051109 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. Fu, Z. Lu, X. Zhao, Y. H. Zhang, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and Y. Zhao, “Study of low efficiency droop in semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN light-emitting diodes by time-resolved photoluminescence,” J. Disp. Technol. (to be published).

Appl. Phys. Express (2)

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High-power blue-violet semipolar (2021) InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with low efficiency droop at 200 A/cm2,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(8), 082104 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. H. Oh, F. Wu, Y. Kawaguchi, S. Tanaka, K. Fujito, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Green semipolar (20bar 2bar 1) InGaN light-emitting diodes with small wavelength shift and narrow spectral linewidth,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(6), 062102 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

Y. Zhao, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, S. C. Huang, P. S. Hsu, S. Tanaka, C. C. Pan, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Fujito, C. G. Van de Walle, and J. S. Speck, “Indium incorporation and emission properties of nonpolar and semipolar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(20), 201108 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Masui, H. Yamada, K. Iso, S. Nakamura, and S. P. DenBaars, “Optical polarization characteristics of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated on GaN substrates oriented between (1010) and (1011) planes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091105 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohta, “Temperature dependence of polarized photoluminescence from nonpolar m-plane InGaN multiple quantum wells for blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011920 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhao, S. Tanaka, Q. Yan, C. Y. Huang, R. B. Chung, C. C. Pan, K. Fujito, D. Feezell, C. G. Van de Walle, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “High optical polarization ratio from semipolar (202 1) blue-green InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(5), 051109 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Scherer, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and Y. Kawakami, “Surface plasmon enhanced spontaneous emission rate of InGaN/ GaN quantum wells probed by time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(7), 071102 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, M. Tan, D. Houng, S. Y. Wang, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Design of an efficient light-emitting diode with 10 GHz modulation bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(24), 243501 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

J. Vučković, M. Lončar, and A. Scherer, “Surface plasmon enhanced light-emitting diode,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(10), 1131–1144 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electronic and optical properties of a-and m-plane wurtzite InGaN–GaN quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(12), 1175–1182 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

J. J. McKendry, R. P. Green, A. E. Kelly, Z. Gong, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, and M. D. Dawson, “High-speed visible light communications using individual pixels in a micro light-emitting diode array,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 22(18), 1346–1348 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

D. Feezell, S. S. James, P. D. Steven, and S. Nakamura, “Semipolar InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes for high-efficiency solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol. 9(4), 190–198 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

M. Nami and D. Feezell, “Optical properties of Ag-coated GaN/InGaN axial and core–shell nanowire light-emitting diodes,” J. Opt. 17(2), 025004 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Zhao, R. M. Farrell, Y. R. Wu, and J. S. Speck, “Valence band states and polarized optical emission from nonpolar and semipolar III–nitride quantum well optoelectronic devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 100206 (2014).
[Crossref]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, Y. L. Hu, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “High-brightness polarized light-emitting diodes,” Light Sci. Appl. 1(8), e22 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

F. Qian, S. Gradecak, Y. Li, C. Y. Wen, and C. M. Lieber, “Core/multishell nanowire heterostructures as multicolor, high-efficiency light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett. 5(11), 2287–2291 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

X. Feng, F. Liu, and Y. Huang, “Calculated plasmonic enhancement of spontaneous emission from silicon nanocrystals with metallic gratings,” Opt. Commun. 283(13), 2758–2761 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. (1)

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Phys. Rev. B (3)

I. Gontijo, M. Boroditsky, E. Yablonovitch, S. Keller, U. K. Mishra, and S. P. DenBaars, “Coupling of InGaN quantum-well photoluminescence to silver surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 60(16), 11564 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Ueda, M. Funato, K. Kojima, Y. Kawakami, Y. Narukawa, and T. Mukai, “Polarization switching phenomena in semipolar In x Ga 1− x N/GaN quantum well active layers,” Phys. Rev. B 78(23), 233303 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. G. Scheibenzuber, U. T. Schwarz, R. G. Veprek, B. Witzigmann, and A. Hangleiter, “Calculation of optical eigenmodes and gain in semipolar and nonpolar InGaN/GaN laser diodes,” Phys. Rev. B 80(11), 115320 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

M. R. Krames, J. Bhat, D. Collins, N. F. Gardner, W. Götz, C. H. Lowery, M. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, G. Mueller, R. Mueller-Mach, and S. Rudaz, “High‐Power III‐Nitride Emitters for Solid‐State Lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi 192(2), 237–245 (2002).
[Crossref]

Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. (1)

E. Sakalauskas, Ö. Tuna, A. Kraus, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, C. Giesen, M. Heuken, A. Hangleiter, G. Gobsch, and R. Goldhahn, “Dielectric function and bowing parameters of InGaN alloys,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 249(3), 485–488 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

N. Gao, K. Huang, J. Li, S. Li, X. Yang, and J. Kang, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced deep-UV light emitting diodes based on AlGaN multi-quantum wells,” Sci. Rep. 2, 816 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

H. Fu, Z. Lu, X. Zhao, Y. H. Zhang, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and Y. Zhao, “Study of low efficiency droop in semipolar (20-2-1) InGaN light-emitting diodes by time-resolved photoluminescence,” J. Disp. Technol. (to be published).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The schematic view of GaN/InGaN QW with silver grating. The period of the grating is 400 nm with 50% duty circle. The dash box indicates the FDTD simulation region. All of the materials are homogenous along the z direction. (b) The schematic view for different polarizations and rotations studied in this work. θ is polarization angle between TE1 and TM; ϕ is the polarization angle between TE2 and TM; φ is the polarization between TE1 and TE2.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) The schematic views for the TE1, TE2 oriented dipoles. Position A is at the center of the gap between metal strips; position B is at the edge of the metal strip, and position C is at the center of metal strip. (b) FP of the dipoles located at A, B and C with different orientation. 0, 90 degrees indicate the TE1/TE2 oriented dipole and TM oriented dipole, respectively. (c) Distribution of FP along x axis. (d) FP of the dipoles rotate in-plane located at A, B and C.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The normalized LEE of dipoles located at A, B, and C with different orientations. Dipoles are rotated by changing θ and ϕ . (b) The normalized LEE of the dipoles located at A, B, and C with different orientations. Dipoles are rotated by changing φ. (c) Mapped normalized LEE along x axis.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) IQEg with metallic grating as a function of IQE0 at A, B and C. (b) EQEg with grating structure as a function of IQE0 at A, B and C. (c) The integrated EQEg over all space versus IQE0 for cases of full lateral diffusion and non later diffusion.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Polarization ratios and main polarization directions of different polar, nonpolar and semipolar InGaN LEDs

Tables Icon

Table 2 Device performance of nonpolar m-plane InGaN LEDs with different dipole orientations

Tables Icon

Table 3 Estimated EQEg for polar, nonpolar and semipolar InGaN LEDs

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F P = 3 4 π 2 ( λ c n ) 3 ( Q V )= R g R 0 = P g P 0
IQE g = F P IQE 0 F P IQE 0 IQE 0 +1
1 τ eff = F P τ r + 1 τ nr
f 3dB 1 2π 1 τ p 2 + τ eff 2

Metrics