Abstract

We demonstrate label-free imaging of living cells using a GaInAsP semiconductor imaging plate. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity is changed by immersing the semiconductor wafer in different pH solutions and by depositing charged polyelectrolytes on the wafer. Various observations indicate that this phenomenon arises from the radiative and surface recombination rates modified by the Schottky barrier at the charged semiconductor surface. HeLa cancer cells were cultured on the semiconductor, and PL was observed using a near-infrared camera. The semiconductor areas with the cells attached exhibited characteristic PL profiles, which might reflect the attachment and surface condition of the cells, cellular matrix, and other substances.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2015 (3)

H. Abe, M. Narimatsu, T. Watanabe, T. Furumoto, Y. Yokouchi, Y. Nishijima, S. Kita, A. Tomitaka, S. Ota, Y. Takemura, and T. Baba, “Living-cell imaging using a photonic crystal nanolaser array,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17056–17066 (2015).
[PubMed]

K. Watanabe, Y. Kishi, S. Hachuda, T. Watanabe, M. Sakemoto, Y. Nishijima, and T. Baba, “Simultaneous detection of refractive index and surface charges in nanolaser biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 021106 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Nazemi, S. Aithal, W. M. Hassen, E. H. Frost, and J. J. Dubowski, “GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure based photonic biosensor for rapid detection of Escherichia coli in phosphate bufferd saline solution,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 556–562 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

2011 (3)

P. D. Simonson, E. Rothenberg, and P. R. Selvin, “Single-molecule-based super-resolution images in the presence of multiple fluorophores,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 5090–5096 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. K. Gifford, I. E. Sendroiu, R. M. Corn, and A. Lutak, “Attomole detection of mesophilic DNA polymerase products by nanoparticle-enhances SPR imaging on glassified gold surfaces,” J. Am. Chem. 132(27), 9265–9267 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Kita, S. Hachuda, S. Otsuka, T. Endo, Y. Imai, Y. Nishijima, H. Misawa, and T. Baba, “Super-sensitivity in label-free protein sensing using a nanoslot nanolaser,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17683–17690 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

H. A. Budz, M. M. Ali, Y. Li, and R. R. LaPierre, “Photoluminescence model for a hybrid aptamer-GaAs optical biosensor,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(10), 104702 (2010).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

Y. S. Liu, Y. Sun, P. T. Vernier, C. H. Liang, S. Y. C. Chong, and M. A. Gundersen, “pH-sensitive photoluminescence of CdSe/ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots in human ovarian cancer cells,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 111(7), 2872–2878 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Peng, X. He, K. Wang, W. Tan, Y. Wang, and Y. Liu, “Noninvasive monitoring of intracellular pH change induced by drug stimulation using silica nanoparticle sensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 388(3), 645–654 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. H. Warner, A. Hoshino, K. Yamamoto, and R. D. Tilley, “Water-soluble photoluminescent silicon quantum dots,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 44(29), 4550–4554 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

P. W. Barone, S. Baik, D. A. Heller, and M. S. Strano, “Near-infrared optical sensors based on single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 86–92 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels,” Science 281(5385), 2013–2016 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. Nozik and R. Memming, “Physical chemistry of semiconductor liquid interfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. 100(31), 13061–13078 (1996).
[Crossref]

Abe, H.

Aithal, S.

E. Nazemi, S. Aithal, W. M. Hassen, E. H. Frost, and J. J. Dubowski, “GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure based photonic biosensor for rapid detection of Escherichia coli in phosphate bufferd saline solution,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 556–562 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ali, M. M.

H. A. Budz, M. M. Ali, Y. Li, and R. R. LaPierre, “Photoluminescence model for a hybrid aptamer-GaAs optical biosensor,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(10), 104702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Alivisatos, A. P.

M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels,” Science 281(5385), 2013–2016 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ariga, M.

Baba, T.

Baik, S.

P. W. Barone, S. Baik, D. A. Heller, and M. S. Strano, “Near-infrared optical sensors based on single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 86–92 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barone, P. W.

P. W. Barone, S. Baik, D. A. Heller, and M. S. Strano, “Near-infrared optical sensors based on single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 86–92 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruchez, M.

M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels,” Science 281(5385), 2013–2016 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Budz, H. A.

H. A. Budz, M. M. Ali, Y. Li, and R. R. LaPierre, “Photoluminescence model for a hybrid aptamer-GaAs optical biosensor,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(10), 104702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chong, S. Y. C.

Y. S. Liu, Y. Sun, P. T. Vernier, C. H. Liang, S. Y. C. Chong, and M. A. Gundersen, “pH-sensitive photoluminescence of CdSe/ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots in human ovarian cancer cells,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 111(7), 2872–2878 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chun, I. S.

L. Tang, I. S. Chun, Z. Wang, J. Li, X. Li, and Y. Lu, “DNA detection using plasmonic enhanced near-infrared photoluminescence of gallium arsenide,” Anal. Chem. 85(20), 9522–9527 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corn, R. M.

L. K. Gifford, I. E. Sendroiu, R. M. Corn, and A. Lutak, “Attomole detection of mesophilic DNA polymerase products by nanoparticle-enhances SPR imaging on glassified gold surfaces,” J. Am. Chem. 132(27), 9265–9267 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dubowski, J. J.

E. Nazemi, S. Aithal, W. M. Hassen, E. H. Frost, and J. J. Dubowski, “GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure based photonic biosensor for rapid detection of Escherichia coli in phosphate bufferd saline solution,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 556–562 (2015).
[Crossref]

Endo, T.

Frost, E. H.

E. Nazemi, S. Aithal, W. M. Hassen, E. H. Frost, and J. J. Dubowski, “GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure based photonic biosensor for rapid detection of Escherichia coli in phosphate bufferd saline solution,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 556–562 (2015).
[Crossref]

Furumoto, T.

Gifford, L. K.

L. K. Gifford, I. E. Sendroiu, R. M. Corn, and A. Lutak, “Attomole detection of mesophilic DNA polymerase products by nanoparticle-enhances SPR imaging on glassified gold surfaces,” J. Am. Chem. 132(27), 9265–9267 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gin, P.

M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels,” Science 281(5385), 2013–2016 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goshima, Y.

Gundersen, M. A.

Y. S. Liu, Y. Sun, P. T. Vernier, C. H. Liang, S. Y. C. Chong, and M. A. Gundersen, “pH-sensitive photoluminescence of CdSe/ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots in human ovarian cancer cells,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 111(7), 2872–2878 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hachuda, S.

Hassen, W. M.

E. Nazemi, S. Aithal, W. M. Hassen, E. H. Frost, and J. J. Dubowski, “GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure based photonic biosensor for rapid detection of Escherichia coli in phosphate bufferd saline solution,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 556–562 (2015).
[Crossref]

He, X.

J. Peng, X. He, K. Wang, W. Tan, Y. Wang, and Y. Liu, “Noninvasive monitoring of intracellular pH change induced by drug stimulation using silica nanoparticle sensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 388(3), 645–654 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heller, D. A.

P. W. Barone, S. Baik, D. A. Heller, and M. S. Strano, “Near-infrared optical sensors based on single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 86–92 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoshino, A.

J. H. Warner, A. Hoshino, K. Yamamoto, and R. D. Tilley, “Water-soluble photoluminescent silicon quantum dots,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 44(29), 4550–4554 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iga, K.

Imai, Y.

Inoshita, K.

Isono, T.

Kishi, Y.

K. Watanabe, Y. Kishi, S. Hachuda, T. Watanabe, M. Sakemoto, Y. Nishijima, and T. Baba, “Simultaneous detection of refractive index and surface charges in nanolaser biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 021106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kita, S.

Koyama, F.

LaPierre, R. R.

H. A. Budz, M. M. Ali, Y. Li, and R. R. LaPierre, “Photoluminescence model for a hybrid aptamer-GaAs optical biosensor,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(10), 104702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

L. Tang, I. S. Chun, Z. Wang, J. Li, X. Li, and Y. Lu, “DNA detection using plasmonic enhanced near-infrared photoluminescence of gallium arsenide,” Anal. Chem. 85(20), 9522–9527 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

L. Tang, I. S. Chun, Z. Wang, J. Li, X. Li, and Y. Lu, “DNA detection using plasmonic enhanced near-infrared photoluminescence of gallium arsenide,” Anal. Chem. 85(20), 9522–9527 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

H. A. Budz, M. M. Ali, Y. Li, and R. R. LaPierre, “Photoluminescence model for a hybrid aptamer-GaAs optical biosensor,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(10), 104702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liang, C. H.

Y. S. Liu, Y. Sun, P. T. Vernier, C. H. Liang, S. Y. C. Chong, and M. A. Gundersen, “pH-sensitive photoluminescence of CdSe/ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots in human ovarian cancer cells,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 111(7), 2872–2878 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

J. Peng, X. He, K. Wang, W. Tan, Y. Wang, and Y. Liu, “Noninvasive monitoring of intracellular pH change induced by drug stimulation using silica nanoparticle sensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 388(3), 645–654 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y. S.

Y. S. Liu, Y. Sun, P. T. Vernier, C. H. Liang, S. Y. C. Chong, and M. A. Gundersen, “pH-sensitive photoluminescence of CdSe/ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots in human ovarian cancer cells,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 111(7), 2872–2878 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.

L. Tang, I. S. Chun, Z. Wang, J. Li, X. Li, and Y. Lu, “DNA detection using plasmonic enhanced near-infrared photoluminescence of gallium arsenide,” Anal. Chem. 85(20), 9522–9527 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lutak, A.

L. K. Gifford, I. E. Sendroiu, R. M. Corn, and A. Lutak, “Attomole detection of mesophilic DNA polymerase products by nanoparticle-enhances SPR imaging on glassified gold surfaces,” J. Am. Chem. 132(27), 9265–9267 (2011).
[Crossref]

Matsutani, A.

Memming, R.

J. Nozik and R. Memming, “Physical chemistry of semiconductor liquid interfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. 100(31), 13061–13078 (1996).
[Crossref]

Misawa, H.

Miyamoto, T.

Moronne, M.

M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels,” Science 281(5385), 2013–2016 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Narimatsu, M.

Nazemi, E.

E. Nazemi, S. Aithal, W. M. Hassen, E. H. Frost, and J. J. Dubowski, “GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure based photonic biosensor for rapid detection of Escherichia coli in phosphate bufferd saline solution,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 207, 556–562 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nishijima, Y.

Nozik, J.

J. Nozik and R. Memming, “Physical chemistry of semiconductor liquid interfaces,” J. Phys. Chem. 100(31), 13061–13078 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ota, S.

Otsuka, S.

Peng, J.

J. Peng, X. He, K. Wang, W. Tan, Y. Wang, and Y. Liu, “Noninvasive monitoring of intracellular pH change induced by drug stimulation using silica nanoparticle sensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 388(3), 645–654 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rothenberg, E.

P. D. Simonson, E. Rothenberg, and P. R. Selvin, “Single-molecule-based super-resolution images in the presence of multiple fluorophores,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 5090–5096 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakemoto, M.

K. Watanabe, Y. Kishi, S. Hachuda, T. Watanabe, M. Sakemoto, Y. Nishijima, and T. Baba, “Simultaneous detection of refractive index and surface charges in nanolaser biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 021106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Selvin, P. R.

P. D. Simonson, E. Rothenberg, and P. R. Selvin, “Single-molecule-based super-resolution images in the presence of multiple fluorophores,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 5090–5096 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sendroiu, I. E.

L. K. Gifford, I. E. Sendroiu, R. M. Corn, and A. Lutak, “Attomole detection of mesophilic DNA polymerase products by nanoparticle-enhances SPR imaging on glassified gold surfaces,” J. Am. Chem. 132(27), 9265–9267 (2011).
[Crossref]

Simonson, P. D.

P. D. Simonson, E. Rothenberg, and P. R. Selvin, “Single-molecule-based super-resolution images in the presence of multiple fluorophores,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 5090–5096 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strano, M. S.

P. W. Barone, S. Baik, D. A. Heller, and M. S. Strano, “Near-infrared optical sensors based on single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Nat. Mater. 4(1), 86–92 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

Y. S. Liu, Y. Sun, P. T. Vernier, C. H. Liang, S. Y. C. Chong, and M. A. Gundersen, “pH-sensitive photoluminescence of CdSe/ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots in human ovarian cancer cells,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 111(7), 2872–2878 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takemura, Y.

Tan, W.

J. Peng, X. He, K. Wang, W. Tan, Y. Wang, and Y. Liu, “Noninvasive monitoring of intracellular pH change induced by drug stimulation using silica nanoparticle sensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 388(3), 645–654 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanaka, H.

Tang, L.

L. Tang, I. S. Chun, Z. Wang, J. Li, X. Li, and Y. Lu, “DNA detection using plasmonic enhanced near-infrared photoluminescence of gallium arsenide,” Anal. Chem. 85(20), 9522–9527 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tilley, R. D.

J. H. Warner, A. Hoshino, K. Yamamoto, and R. D. Tilley, “Water-soluble photoluminescent silicon quantum dots,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 44(29), 4550–4554 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tomitaka, A.

Vernier, P. T.

Y. S. Liu, Y. Sun, P. T. Vernier, C. H. Liang, S. Y. C. Chong, and M. A. Gundersen, “pH-sensitive photoluminescence of CdSe/ZnSe/ZnS quantum dots in human ovarian cancer cells,” J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces 111(7), 2872–2878 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

J. Peng, X. He, K. Wang, W. Tan, Y. Wang, and Y. Liu, “Noninvasive monitoring of intracellular pH change induced by drug stimulation using silica nanoparticle sensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 388(3), 645–654 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

J. Peng, X. He, K. Wang, W. Tan, Y. Wang, and Y. Liu, “Noninvasive monitoring of intracellular pH change induced by drug stimulation using silica nanoparticle sensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 388(3), 645–654 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

L. Tang, I. S. Chun, Z. Wang, J. Li, X. Li, and Y. Lu, “DNA detection using plasmonic enhanced near-infrared photoluminescence of gallium arsenide,” Anal. Chem. 85(20), 9522–9527 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Warner, J. H.

J. H. Warner, A. Hoshino, K. Yamamoto, and R. D. Tilley, “Water-soluble photoluminescent silicon quantum dots,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 44(29), 4550–4554 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, K.

K. Watanabe, Y. Kishi, S. Hachuda, T. Watanabe, M. Sakemoto, Y. Nishijima, and T. Baba, “Simultaneous detection of refractive index and surface charges in nanolaser biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 021106 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Hachuda, S. Otsuka, S. Kita, T. Isono, M. Narimatsu, K. Watanabe, Y. Goshima, and T. Baba, “Selective detection of sub-atto-molar Streptavidin in 1013-fold impure sample using photonic crystal nanolaser sensors,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12815–12821 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, T.

H. Abe, M. Narimatsu, T. Watanabe, T. Furumoto, Y. Yokouchi, Y. Nishijima, S. Kita, A. Tomitaka, S. Ota, Y. Takemura, and T. Baba, “Living-cell imaging using a photonic crystal nanolaser array,” Opt. Express 23(13), 17056–17066 (2015).
[PubMed]

K. Watanabe, Y. Kishi, S. Hachuda, T. Watanabe, M. Sakemoto, Y. Nishijima, and T. Baba, “Simultaneous detection of refractive index and surface charges in nanolaser biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 021106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Weiss, S.

M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels,” Science 281(5385), 2013–2016 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, K.

J. H. Warner, A. Hoshino, K. Yamamoto, and R. D. Tilley, “Water-soluble photoluminescent silicon quantum dots,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 44(29), 4550–4554 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yokouchi, Y.

Yonekura, J.

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

J. Peng, X. He, K. Wang, W. Tan, Y. Wang, and Y. Liu, “Noninvasive monitoring of intracellular pH change induced by drug stimulation using silica nanoparticle sensors,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 388(3), 645–654 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

L. Tang, I. S. Chun, Z. Wang, J. Li, X. Li, and Y. Lu, “DNA detection using plasmonic enhanced near-infrared photoluminescence of gallium arsenide,” Anal. Chem. 85(20), 9522–9527 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

J. H. Warner, A. Hoshino, K. Yamamoto, and R. D. Tilley, “Water-soluble photoluminescent silicon quantum dots,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 44(29), 4550–4554 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Watanabe, Y. Kishi, S. Hachuda, T. Watanabe, M. Sakemoto, Y. Nishijima, and T. Baba, “Simultaneous detection of refractive index and surface charges in nanolaser biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 021106 (2015).
[Crossref]

J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of the GaInAsP bulk wafer coated with ZrO2. (b) PL intensity. (c) Temporal decay of PL. (d) pH dependency of PL intensity and lifetime. (e) Measured lifetime τ, estimated radiative lifetime τr, and surface recombination lifetime τs. Arrows in (d) and (e) indicate pH for measuring (b) and (c).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic band lineups near the surface of GaInAsP. (a), (b) n-type. (c), (d) p-type. (a), (c) At low pH. (b), (d) At high pH.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Various PL intensity characteristics. (a) pH dependency for different doping types of semiconductor. (b) pH dependency for different thicknesses of ZrO2. (c) pH dependency for different salt concentrations. Dashed line shows the fitting curve of a fourth-order function. (d) Variations when charged polyelectrolytes are alternately deposited.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Sensitivity and pH sensing resolution estimated from the dashed line in Fig. 3(c).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Images of HeLa cells on GaInAsP. (a) Optical micrograph. (b) Near-field pattern of PL. (c) Superimposition of (a) and (b) with color processing.

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