Abstract

We fabricate and demonstrate an electro-optic modulator that utilizes the randomness in a photonic crystal waveguide. We exploit a way of using random photonic crystals for device application that involves restricting the area influenced by the randomness. Our random photonic crystal waveguide is in a diffusive regime and the confinement of light is observed only for a W0.98 waveguide (98% of the original width) placed between W1.05 photonic crystal waveguides, where we obtained a transmittance spectrum with an ultra-high Q of 2.4 × 105. A numerical investigation revealed that the experimental yield rate of the appearance of the high-Q confined mode is larger than 80%, by properly designing the length of W0.98. Since the confinement location is predictable, we integrate a p-i-n structure and demonstrate a GHz electro-optic modulation.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. H. Sekoguchi, Y. Takahashi, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Photonic crystal nanocavity with a Q-factor of ~9 million,” Opt. Express 22(1), 916–924 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Takahashi, Y. Inui, M. Chihara, T. Asano, R. Terawaki, and S. Noda, “A micrometre-scale Raman silicon laser with a microwatt threshold,” Nature 498(7455), 470–474 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151112 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  5. K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  11. M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Combrié, N.-V.-Q. Tran, A. De Rossi, R. Gabet, and Y. Jaouën, “Disorder-Induced Coherent Scattering in Slow-Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 253903 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. T. Tetsumoto, Y. Ooka, and T. Takasumi, “High-Q coupled resonances on a PhC waveguide using a tapered nanofiber with high coupling efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16256–16263 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Optical bistable switching action of Si high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2678–2687 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. T. Uesugi, B.-S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Investigation of optical nonlinearities in an ultra-high-Q Si nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Opt. Express 14(1), 377–386 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. X. Yang, C. Husko, C. W. Wong, M. Yu, and D.-L. Kwong, “Observation of femtojoule optical bistability involving Fano resonances in high-Q/Vm silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051113 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  23. L.-D. Haret, T. Tanabe, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Extremely low power optical bistability in silicon demonstrated using 1D photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21108–21117 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. H. C. Nguyen, Y. Sakai, M. Shinkawa, N. Ishikura, and T. Baba, “10 Gb/s operation of photonic crystal silicon optical modulators,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13000–13007 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

N. Mann, A. Javadi, P. D. García, P. Lodahl, and S. Hughes, “Theory and experiments of disorder-induced resonance shifts and mode-edge broadening in deliberately disordered photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 92(2), 023849 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Ooka, T. Tetsumoto, A. Fushimi, W. Yoshiki, and T. Tanabe, “CMOS compatible high-Q photonic crystal nanocavity fabricated with photolithography on silicon photonic platform,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Tetsumoto, Y. Ooka, and T. Takasumi, “High-Q coupled resonances on a PhC waveguide using a tapered nanofiber with high coupling efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16256–16263 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

J. Liu, P. D. Garcia, S. Ek, N. Gregersen, T. Suhr, M. Schubert, J. Mørk, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Sekoguchi, Y. Takahashi, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Photonic crystal nanocavity with a Q-factor of ~9 million,” Opt. Express 22(1), 916–924 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

Y. Takahashi, Y. Inui, M. Chihara, T. Asano, R. Terawaki, and S. Noda, “A micrometre-scale Raman silicon laser with a microwatt threshold,” Nature 498(7455), 470–474 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2009 (4)

L.-D. Haret, T. Tanabe, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Extremely low power optical bistability in silicon demonstrated using 1D photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21108–21117 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Disorder-induced incoherent scattering losses in photonic crystal waveguides: Bloch mode reshaping, multiple scattering, and breakdown of the Beer-Lambert law,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 195305 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Combrié, N.-V.-Q. Tran, A. De Rossi, R. Gabet, and Y. Jaouën, “Disorder-Induced Coherent Scattering in Slow-Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 253903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Le Thomas, H. Zhang, J. Jágerská, V. Zabelin, R. Houdré, I. Sagnes, and A. Talneau, “Light transport regimes in slow light photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 125332 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

2007 (3)

J. Topolancik, F. Vollmer, and B. Ilic, “Random high- Q cavities in disordered photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201102 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, C. Husko, C. W. Wong, M. Yu, and D.-L. Kwong, “Observation of femtojoule optical bistability involving Fano resonances in high-Q/Vm silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051113 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Optical bistable switching action of Si high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2678–2687 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, A. Shinya, T. Watanabe, and L. Ramunno, “Disorder-induced scattering loss of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 161318 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151112 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, “Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(25), 253902 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

Y. A. Vlasov, M. A. Kaliteevski, and V. V. Nikolaev, “Different regimes of light localization in a disordered photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 60(3), 1555–1562 (1999).
[Crossref]

Akahane, Y.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asano, T.

H. Sekoguchi, Y. Takahashi, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Photonic crystal nanocavity with a Q-factor of ~9 million,” Opt. Express 22(1), 916–924 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Inui, M. Chihara, T. Asano, R. Terawaki, and S. Noda, “A micrometre-scale Raman silicon laser with a microwatt threshold,” Nature 498(7455), 470–474 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Uesugi, B.-S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Investigation of optical nonlinearities in an ultra-high-Q Si nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Opt. Express 14(1), 377–386 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atatüre, M.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baba, T.

Badolato, A.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beggs, D. M.

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Disorder-induced incoherent scattering losses in photonic crystal waveguides: Bloch mode reshaping, multiple scattering, and breakdown of the Beer-Lambert law,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 195305 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chihara, M.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Inui, M. Chihara, T. Asano, R. Terawaki, and S. Noda, “A micrometre-scale Raman silicon laser with a microwatt threshold,” Nature 498(7455), 470–474 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Combrié, S.

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Combrié, N.-V.-Q. Tran, A. De Rossi, R. Gabet, and Y. Jaouën, “Disorder-Induced Coherent Scattering in Slow-Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 253903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Parini, P. Hamel, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, N.-V.-Q. Tran, Y. Gottesman, R. Gabet, A. Talneau, Y. Jaouën, and G. Vadalà, “Time-wavelength reflectance maps of photonic crystal waveguides: A new view on disorder-induced scattering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(23), 3794–3802 (2008).
[Crossref]

De Rossi, A.

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Combrié, N.-V.-Q. Tran, A. De Rossi, R. Gabet, and Y. Jaouën, “Disorder-Induced Coherent Scattering in Slow-Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 253903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Parini, P. Hamel, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, N.-V.-Q. Tran, Y. Gottesman, R. Gabet, A. Talneau, Y. Jaouën, and G. Vadalà, “Time-wavelength reflectance maps of photonic crystal waveguides: A new view on disorder-induced scattering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(23), 3794–3802 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ek, S.

J. Liu, P. D. Garcia, S. Ek, N. Gregersen, T. Suhr, M. Schubert, J. Mørk, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fält, S.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fushimi, A.

Y. Ooka, T. Tetsumoto, A. Fushimi, W. Yoshiki, and T. Tanabe, “CMOS compatible high-Q photonic crystal nanocavity fabricated with photolithography on silicon photonic platform,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gabet, R.

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Combrié, N.-V.-Q. Tran, A. De Rossi, R. Gabet, and Y. Jaouën, “Disorder-Induced Coherent Scattering in Slow-Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 253903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Parini, P. Hamel, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, N.-V.-Q. Tran, Y. Gottesman, R. Gabet, A. Talneau, Y. Jaouën, and G. Vadalà, “Time-wavelength reflectance maps of photonic crystal waveguides: A new view on disorder-induced scattering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(23), 3794–3802 (2008).
[Crossref]

Garcia, P. D.

J. Liu, P. D. Garcia, S. Ek, N. Gregersen, T. Suhr, M. Schubert, J. Mørk, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

García, P. D.

N. Mann, A. Javadi, P. D. García, P. Lodahl, and S. Hughes, “Theory and experiments of disorder-induced resonance shifts and mode-edge broadening in deliberately disordered photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 92(2), 023849 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gerace, D.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gottesman, Y.

Gregersen, N.

J. Liu, P. D. Garcia, S. Ek, N. Gregersen, T. Suhr, M. Schubert, J. Mørk, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gulde, S.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamel, P.

Haret, L.-D.

Hennessy, K.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Houdré, R.

N. Le Thomas, H. Zhang, J. Jágerská, V. Zabelin, R. Houdré, I. Sagnes, and A. Talneau, “Light transport regimes in slow light photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 125332 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hu, E. L.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hughes, S.

N. Mann, A. Javadi, P. D. García, P. Lodahl, and S. Hughes, “Theory and experiments of disorder-induced resonance shifts and mode-edge broadening in deliberately disordered photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 92(2), 023849 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Combrié, N.-V.-Q. Tran, A. De Rossi, R. Gabet, and Y. Jaouën, “Disorder-Induced Coherent Scattering in Slow-Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 253903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Disorder-induced incoherent scattering losses in photonic crystal waveguides: Bloch mode reshaping, multiple scattering, and breakdown of the Beer-Lambert law,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 195305 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, A. Shinya, T. Watanabe, and L. Ramunno, “Disorder-induced scattering loss of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 161318 (2005).
[Crossref]

Husko, C.

X. Yang, C. Husko, C. W. Wong, M. Yu, and D.-L. Kwong, “Observation of femtojoule optical bistability involving Fano resonances in high-Q/Vm silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ilic, B.

J. Topolancik, F. Vollmer, and B. Ilic, “Random high- Q cavities in disordered photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Imamoglu, A.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inui, Y.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Inui, M. Chihara, T. Asano, R. Terawaki, and S. Noda, “A micrometre-scale Raman silicon laser with a microwatt threshold,” Nature 498(7455), 470–474 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishikura, N.

Jágerská, J.

N. Le Thomas, H. Zhang, J. Jágerská, V. Zabelin, R. Houdré, I. Sagnes, and A. Talneau, “Light transport regimes in slow light photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 125332 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jaouën, Y.

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Combrié, N.-V.-Q. Tran, A. De Rossi, R. Gabet, and Y. Jaouën, “Disorder-Induced Coherent Scattering in Slow-Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 253903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Parini, P. Hamel, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, N.-V.-Q. Tran, Y. Gottesman, R. Gabet, A. Talneau, Y. Jaouën, and G. Vadalà, “Time-wavelength reflectance maps of photonic crystal waveguides: A new view on disorder-induced scattering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(23), 3794–3802 (2008).
[Crossref]

Javadi, A.

N. Mann, A. Javadi, P. D. García, P. Lodahl, and S. Hughes, “Theory and experiments of disorder-induced resonance shifts and mode-edge broadening in deliberately disordered photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 92(2), 023849 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kaliteevski, M. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. A. Kaliteevski, and V. V. Nikolaev, “Different regimes of light localization in a disordered photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 60(3), 1555–1562 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kira, G.

Krauss, T. F.

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Disorder-induced incoherent scattering losses in photonic crystal waveguides: Bloch mode reshaping, multiple scattering, and breakdown of the Beer-Lambert law,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 195305 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. F. Krauss, “Why do we need slow light?” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 448–450 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kuramochi, E.

L.-D. Haret, T. Tanabe, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Extremely low power optical bistability in silicon demonstrated using 1D photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21108–21117 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Optical bistable switching action of Si high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2678–2687 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151112 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, A. Shinya, T. Watanabe, and L. Ramunno, “Disorder-induced scattering loss of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 161318 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kwong, D.-L.

X. Yang, C. Husko, C. W. Wong, M. Yu, and D.-L. Kwong, “Observation of femtojoule optical bistability involving Fano resonances in high-Q/Vm silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Le Thomas, N.

N. Le Thomas, H. Zhang, J. Jágerská, V. Zabelin, R. Houdré, I. Sagnes, and A. Talneau, “Light transport regimes in slow light photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 125332 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, P. D. Garcia, S. Ek, N. Gregersen, T. Suhr, M. Schubert, J. Mørk, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lodahl, P.

N. Mann, A. Javadi, P. D. García, P. Lodahl, and S. Hughes, “Theory and experiments of disorder-induced resonance shifts and mode-edge broadening in deliberately disordered photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 92(2), 023849 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, P. D. Garcia, S. Ek, N. Gregersen, T. Suhr, M. Schubert, J. Mørk, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mann, N.

N. Mann, A. Javadi, P. D. García, P. Lodahl, and S. Hughes, “Theory and experiments of disorder-induced resonance shifts and mode-edge broadening in deliberately disordered photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 92(2), 023849 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mitsugi, S.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151112 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Optical bistable switching action of Si high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2678–2687 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mørk, J.

J. Liu, P. D. Garcia, S. Ek, N. Gregersen, T. Suhr, M. Schubert, J. Mørk, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nguyen, H. C.

Nikolaev, V. V.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. A. Kaliteevski, and V. V. Nikolaev, “Different regimes of light localization in a disordered photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 60(3), 1555–1562 (1999).
[Crossref]

Noda, S.

H. Sekoguchi, Y. Takahashi, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Photonic crystal nanocavity with a Q-factor of ~9 million,” Opt. Express 22(1), 916–924 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Inui, M. Chihara, T. Asano, R. Terawaki, and S. Noda, “A micrometre-scale Raman silicon laser with a microwatt threshold,” Nature 498(7455), 470–474 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Uesugi, B.-S. Song, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Investigation of optical nonlinearities in an ultra-high-Q Si nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal slab,” Opt. Express 14(1), 377–386 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Notomi, M.

L.-D. Haret, T. Tanabe, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Extremely low power optical bistability in silicon demonstrated using 1D photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21108–21117 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Optical bistable switching action of Si high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2678–2687 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151112 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, A. Shinya, T. Watanabe, and L. Ramunno, “Disorder-induced scattering loss of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 161318 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, “Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(25), 253902 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Faolain, L.

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Disorder-induced incoherent scattering losses in photonic crystal waveguides: Bloch mode reshaping, multiple scattering, and breakdown of the Beer-Lambert law,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 195305 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ooka, Y.

Y. Ooka, T. Tetsumoto, A. Fushimi, W. Yoshiki, and T. Tanabe, “CMOS compatible high-Q photonic crystal nanocavity fabricated with photolithography on silicon photonic platform,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Tetsumoto, Y. Ooka, and T. Takasumi, “High-Q coupled resonances on a PhC waveguide using a tapered nanofiber with high coupling efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16256–16263 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parini, A.

Patterson, M.

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Combrié, N.-V.-Q. Tran, A. De Rossi, R. Gabet, and Y. Jaouën, “Disorder-Induced Coherent Scattering in Slow-Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 253903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Disorder-induced incoherent scattering losses in photonic crystal waveguides: Bloch mode reshaping, multiple scattering, and breakdown of the Beer-Lambert law,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 195305 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ramunno, L.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, A. Shinya, T. Watanabe, and L. Ramunno, “Disorder-induced scattering loss of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 161318 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sagnes, I.

N. Le Thomas, H. Zhang, J. Jágerská, V. Zabelin, R. Houdré, I. Sagnes, and A. Talneau, “Light transport regimes in slow light photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 125332 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sakai, Y.

Schubert, M.

J. Liu, P. D. Garcia, S. Ek, N. Gregersen, T. Suhr, M. Schubert, J. Mørk, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schulz, S.

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Disorder-induced incoherent scattering losses in photonic crystal waveguides: Bloch mode reshaping, multiple scattering, and breakdown of the Beer-Lambert law,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 195305 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sekoguchi, H.

Shinkawa, M.

Shinya, A.

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Optical bistable switching action of Si high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2678–2687 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151112 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, A. Shinya, T. Watanabe, and L. Ramunno, “Disorder-induced scattering loss of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 161318 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, “Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(25), 253902 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, B. S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, B.-S.

Stobbe, S.

J. Liu, P. D. Garcia, S. Ek, N. Gregersen, T. Suhr, M. Schubert, J. Mørk, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suhr, T.

J. Liu, P. D. Garcia, S. Ek, N. Gregersen, T. Suhr, M. Schubert, J. Mørk, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahashi, C.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, “Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(25), 253902 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahashi, J.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, “Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(25), 253902 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takahashi, Y.

H. Sekoguchi, Y. Takahashi, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Photonic crystal nanocavity with a Q-factor of ~9 million,” Opt. Express 22(1), 916–924 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Inui, M. Chihara, T. Asano, R. Terawaki, and S. Noda, “A micrometre-scale Raman silicon laser with a microwatt threshold,” Nature 498(7455), 470–474 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takasumi, T.

Talneau, A.

Tanabe, T.

Y. Ooka, T. Tetsumoto, A. Fushimi, W. Yoshiki, and T. Tanabe, “CMOS compatible high-Q photonic crystal nanocavity fabricated with photolithography on silicon photonic platform,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L.-D. Haret, T. Tanabe, E. Kuramochi, and M. Notomi, “Extremely low power optical bistability in silicon demonstrated using 1D photonic crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 17(23), 21108–21117 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Notomi, A. Shinya, S. Mitsugi, G. Kira, E. Kuramochi, and T. Tanabe, “Optical bistable switching action of Si high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavities,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2678–2687 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151112 (2005).
[Crossref]

Terawaki, R.

Y. Takahashi, Y. Inui, M. Chihara, T. Asano, R. Terawaki, and S. Noda, “A micrometre-scale Raman silicon laser with a microwatt threshold,” Nature 498(7455), 470–474 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tetsumoto, T.

Y. Ooka, T. Tetsumoto, A. Fushimi, W. Yoshiki, and T. Tanabe, “CMOS compatible high-Q photonic crystal nanocavity fabricated with photolithography on silicon photonic platform,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Tetsumoto, Y. Ooka, and T. Takasumi, “High-Q coupled resonances on a PhC waveguide using a tapered nanofiber with high coupling efficiency,” Opt. Express 23(12), 16256–16263 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Topolancik, J.

J. Topolancik, F. Vollmer, and B. Ilic, “Random high- Q cavities in disordered photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tran, N.-V.-Q.

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Combrié, N.-V.-Q. Tran, A. De Rossi, R. Gabet, and Y. Jaouën, “Disorder-Induced Coherent Scattering in Slow-Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 253903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Parini, P. Hamel, A. De Rossi, S. Combrié, N.-V.-Q. Tran, Y. Gottesman, R. Gabet, A. Talneau, Y. Jaouën, and G. Vadalà, “Time-wavelength reflectance maps of photonic crystal waveguides: A new view on disorder-induced scattering,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(23), 3794–3802 (2008).
[Crossref]

Uesugi, T.

Vadalà, G.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. A. Kaliteevski, and V. V. Nikolaev, “Different regimes of light localization in a disordered photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 60(3), 1555–1562 (1999).
[Crossref]

Vollmer, F.

J. Topolancik, F. Vollmer, and B. Ilic, “Random high- Q cavities in disordered photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201102 (2007).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, T.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, A. Shinya, T. Watanabe, and L. Ramunno, “Disorder-induced scattering loss of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 161318 (2005).
[Crossref]

White, T. P.

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Disorder-induced incoherent scattering losses in photonic crystal waveguides: Bloch mode reshaping, multiple scattering, and breakdown of the Beer-Lambert law,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 195305 (2009).
[Crossref]

Winger, M.

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, C. W.

X. Yang, C. Husko, C. W. Wong, M. Yu, and D.-L. Kwong, “Observation of femtojoule optical bistability involving Fano resonances in high-Q/Vm silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yamada, K.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, “Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(25), 253902 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

X. Yang, C. Husko, C. W. Wong, M. Yu, and D.-L. Kwong, “Observation of femtojoule optical bistability involving Fano resonances in high-Q/Vm silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yokohama, I.

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, “Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(25), 253902 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshiki, W.

Y. Ooka, T. Tetsumoto, A. Fushimi, W. Yoshiki, and T. Tanabe, “CMOS compatible high-Q photonic crystal nanocavity fabricated with photolithography on silicon photonic platform,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, M.

X. Yang, C. Husko, C. W. Wong, M. Yu, and D.-L. Kwong, “Observation of femtojoule optical bistability involving Fano resonances in high-Q/Vm silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051113 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zabelin, V.

N. Le Thomas, H. Zhang, J. Jágerská, V. Zabelin, R. Houdré, I. Sagnes, and A. Talneau, “Light transport regimes in slow light photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 125332 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

N. Le Thomas, H. Zhang, J. Jágerská, V. Zabelin, R. Houdré, I. Sagnes, and A. Talneau, “Light transport regimes in slow light photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 125332 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, and E. Kuramochi, “All-optical switches on a silicon chip realized using photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(15), 151112 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Topolancik, F. Vollmer, and B. Ilic, “Random high- Q cavities in disordered photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(20), 201102 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Yang, C. Husko, C. W. Wong, M. Yu, and D.-L. Kwong, “Observation of femtojoule optical bistability involving Fano resonances in high-Q/Vm silicon photonic crystal nanocavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(5), 051113 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

J. Liu, P. D. Garcia, S. Ek, N. Gregersen, T. Suhr, M. Schubert, J. Mørk, S. Stobbe, and P. Lodahl, “Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(4), 285–289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

T. Baba, “Slow light in photonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 465–473 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. F. Krauss, “Why do we need slow light?” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 448–450 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (3)

K. Hennessy, A. Badolato, M. Winger, D. Gerace, M. Atatüre, S. Gulde, S. Fält, E. L. Hu, and A. Imamoğlu, “Quantum nature of a strongly coupled single quantum dot-cavity system,” Nature 445(7130), 896–899 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Takahashi, Y. Inui, M. Chihara, T. Asano, R. Terawaki, and S. Noda, “A micrometre-scale Raman silicon laser with a microwatt threshold,” Nature 498(7455), 470–474 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

N. Mann, A. Javadi, P. D. García, P. Lodahl, and S. Hughes, “Theory and experiments of disorder-induced resonance shifts and mode-edge broadening in deliberately disordered photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. A 92(2), 023849 (2015).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

N. Le Thomas, H. Zhang, J. Jágerská, V. Zabelin, R. Houdré, I. Sagnes, and A. Talneau, “Light transport regimes in slow light photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 125332 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Schulz, D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Disorder-induced incoherent scattering losses in photonic crystal waveguides: Bloch mode reshaping, multiple scattering, and breakdown of the Beer-Lambert law,” Phys. Rev. B 80(19), 195305 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Hughes, A. Shinya, T. Watanabe, and L. Ramunno, “Disorder-induced scattering loss of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 72(16), 161318 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. A. Vlasov, M. A. Kaliteevski, and V. V. Nikolaev, “Different regimes of light localization in a disordered photonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. B 60(3), 1555–1562 (1999).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, “Extremely large group-velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(25), 253902 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Patterson, S. Hughes, S. Combrié, N.-V.-Q. Tran, A. De Rossi, R. Gabet, and Y. Jaouën, “Disorder-Induced Coherent Scattering in Slow-Light Photonic Crystal Waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(25), 253903 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

Y. Ooka, T. Tetsumoto, A. Fushimi, W. Yoshiki, and T. Tanabe, “CMOS compatible high-Q photonic crystal nanocavity fabricated with photolithography on silicon photonic platform,” Sci. Rep. 5, 11312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Designed structure of PhC-WG, which consists of a W0.98 waveguide in between W1.05 waveguides. This two-dimensional PhC is based on a silicon slab with a hexagonal lattice clad with SiO2. The inset shows the facet structure. (b) Band structure of designed (ideal) PhC-WG. Blue and orange indicate the stop-band of the WG. The red arrow indicates the input light injected from the left side of the structure. (c) As (b) for the fabricated device containing disorder.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Schematic illustration of the hole position and radius with deviation σpos and σrad. σpos of 2 nm and σrad of 1 nm is used in our 2D FDTD calculation. (b) Transmission spectrum for W0.98 length of L = 40a. A sharp peak appears close at the mode gap at 1587.5 nm. (c) Calculated spatial distribution of Hz component when light at the wavelength of the peak shown in (b) is excited.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Schematic illustration of the fabricated device. The device is clad with SiO2. (b) A transmission spectrum for a device with L = 40a. The confined mode appears at the mode gap and the Q value is 1.5 × 105. (c)-(e) Infrared camera images taken from the top of the slab. The corresponding input wavelength is shown with arrows in (b). Light is injected from the right of the images. Red rectangles denote the area of the PhC-WG and the blue dotted line shows the W0.98 region. The horizontal red lines are the input/output silicon nanowire waveguides. (f) Magnified image of the peak in (b) with different input powers.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Yield of a sharp peak for a simulation (a) and an experiment (b). Transmittance, T, corresponding to those peaks are shown in (c) and (d). Red circles exhibit the average and error bars are corresponding to standard deviation.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Transmittance spectrum of a PhC-WG with L of 100 periods, which is obtained with a 2D FDTD calculation. (b) Field distribution when the structure is excited with 1586.6 nm ± 0.1 nm wavelength light.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Schematic of the EO modulation demonstration. Input continuous wave laser light is modulated at a random PhC-WG device integrated with a pin junction. TLD: Tunable laser diode, EDFA: Erbium doped fiber amplifier, BPF: Bandpass filter (1-nm width), OSO: Optical sampling oscilloscope (Agilent 86103A), PPG: Pulse pattern generator (Keysight 81134A). (b) Transmittance spectrum of the confined mode at different forward bias voltages. (c) Detected output signals when a 500 MHz radio-frequency signal is applied. The red line is at the peak resonance, and the black line is when the input laser is slightly detuned at a wavelength shorter than the resonance. (d) As (c) but with 1-GHz modulation.

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