Abstract

The practical realization of long-distance entanglement-based quantum communication systems strongly rely on the observation of highly stable quantum interference between correlated single photons. This task must accompany active stabilization of the optical path lengths within the single-photon coherence length. Here, we provide two-step interferometer stabilization methods employing continuous optical length control and experimentally demonstrate two-photon quantum interference using an actively stabilized 6-km-long fiber-optic Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer. The two-step active control techniques are applied for measuring highly stable two-photon interference fringes by scanning the optical path-length difference. The obtained two-photon interference visibilities with and without accidental subtraction are found to be approximately 90.7% and 65.4%, respectively.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Z. S. Yuan, X. H. Bao, C. Y. Lu, J. Zhang, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Entangled photons and quantum communication,” Phys. Rep. 497(1), 1–40 (2010).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  3. H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, D. Collins, and N. Gisin, “Long distance quantum teleportation in a quantum relay configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 047904 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance entanglement swapping with photons from separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A 71(5), 050302 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. W. Pan, D. Bouwmeester, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental entanglement swapping: entangling photons that never interacted,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(18), 3891–3894 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum interference with photon pairs created in spatially separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A 67(2), 022301 (2003).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. G. B. Xavier and J. P. von der Weid, “Stable single-photon interference in a 1 km fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer with continuous phase adjustment,” Opt. Lett. 36(10), 1764–1766 (2011).
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2015 (1)

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

E. Megidish, A. Halevy, T. Shacham, T. Dvir, L. Dovrat, and H. S. Eisenberg, “Entanglement swapping between photons that have never coexisted,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(21), 210403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

J. W. Pan, Z. B. Chen, C. Y. Lu, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Żukowski, “Multiphoton entanglement and interferometry,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84(2), 777–838 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

Z. S. Yuan, X. H. Bao, C. Y. Lu, J. Zhang, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Entangled photons and quantum communication,” Phys. Rep. 497(1), 1–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

R. Kaltenbaek, B. Blauensteiner, M. Żukowski, M. Aspelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental interference of independent photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(24), 240502 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T.-G. Noh, H. Kim, C. Youn, S.-B. Cho, J. Hong, T. Zyung, and J. Kim, “Noncollinear correlated photon pair source in the 1550 nm telecommunication band,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2805–2810 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

M. Halder, S. Tanzilli, H. de Riedmatten, A. Beveratos, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Photon-bunching measurement after two 25-km-long optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 71(4), 042335 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance entanglement swapping with photons from separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A 71(5), 050302 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, D. Collins, and N. Gisin, “Long distance quantum teleportation in a quantum relay configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 047904 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

H. Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum interference with photon pairs created in spatially separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A 67(2), 022301 (2003).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. W. Pan, D. Bouwmeester, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental entanglement swapping: entangling photons that never interacted,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(18), 3891–3894 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1987 (1)

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(18), 2044–2046 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agarwal, A.

Aspelmeyer, M.

R. Kaltenbaek, B. Blauensteiner, M. Żukowski, M. Aspelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental interference of independent photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(24), 240502 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bajoni, D.

Bao, X. H.

Z. S. Yuan, X. H. Bao, C. Y. Lu, J. Zhang, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Entangled photons and quantum communication,” Phys. Rep. 497(1), 1–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Beveratos, A.

M. Halder, S. Tanzilli, H. de Riedmatten, A. Beveratos, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Photon-bunching measurement after two 25-km-long optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 71(4), 042335 (2005).
[Crossref]

Blauensteiner, B.

R. Kaltenbaek, B. Blauensteiner, M. Żukowski, M. Aspelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental interference of independent photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(24), 240502 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouwmeester, D.

J. W. Pan, D. Bouwmeester, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental entanglement swapping: entangling photons that never interacted,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(18), 3891–3894 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z. B.

J. W. Pan, Z. B. Chen, C. Y. Lu, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Żukowski, “Multiphoton entanglement and interferometry,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84(2), 777–838 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cho, S. B.

Cho, S.-B.

Collins, D.

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, D. Collins, and N. Gisin, “Long distance quantum teleportation in a quantum relay configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 047904 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dailey, J. M.

de Riedmatten, H.

M. Halder, S. Tanzilli, H. de Riedmatten, A. Beveratos, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Photon-bunching measurement after two 25-km-long optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 71(4), 042335 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance entanglement swapping with photons from separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A 71(5), 050302 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, D. Collins, and N. Gisin, “Long distance quantum teleportation in a quantum relay configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 047904 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dovrat, L.

E. Megidish, A. Halevy, T. Shacham, T. Dvir, L. Dovrat, and H. S. Eisenberg, “Entanglement swapping between photons that have never coexisted,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(21), 210403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dvir, T.

E. Megidish, A. Halevy, T. Shacham, T. Dvir, L. Dovrat, and H. S. Eisenberg, “Entanglement swapping between photons that have never coexisted,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(21), 210403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eisenberg, H. S.

E. Megidish, A. Halevy, T. Shacham, T. Dvir, L. Dovrat, and H. S. Eisenberg, “Entanglement swapping between photons that have never coexisted,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(21), 210403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frejlich, J.

Freschi, A. A.

Galli, M.

Gisin, N.

M. Halder, S. Tanzilli, H. de Riedmatten, A. Beveratos, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Photon-bunching measurement after two 25-km-long optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 71(4), 042335 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance entanglement swapping with photons from separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A 71(5), 050302 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, D. Collins, and N. Gisin, “Long distance quantum teleportation in a quantum relay configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 047904 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum interference with photon pairs created in spatially separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A 67(2), 022301 (2003).
[Crossref]

Grassani, D.

Halder, M.

M. Halder, S. Tanzilli, H. de Riedmatten, A. Beveratos, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Photon-bunching measurement after two 25-km-long optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 71(4), 042335 (2005).
[Crossref]

Halevy, A.

E. Megidish, A. Halevy, T. Shacham, T. Dvir, L. Dovrat, and H. S. Eisenberg, “Entanglement swapping between photons that have never coexisted,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(21), 210403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, C. K.

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(18), 2044–2046 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, J.

Kaltenbaek, R.

R. Kaltenbaek, B. Blauensteiner, M. Żukowski, M. Aspelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental interference of independent photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(24), 240502 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

Kim, J.

Lu, C. Y.

J. W. Pan, Z. B. Chen, C. Y. Lu, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Żukowski, “Multiphoton entanglement and interferometry,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84(2), 777–838 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. S. Yuan, X. H. Bao, C. Y. Lu, J. Zhang, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Entangled photons and quantum communication,” Phys. Rep. 497(1), 1–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mandel, L.

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(18), 2044–2046 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marcikic, I.

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance entanglement swapping with photons from separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A 71(5), 050302 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, D. Collins, and N. Gisin, “Long distance quantum teleportation in a quantum relay configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 047904 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum interference with photon pairs created in spatially separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A 67(2), 022301 (2003).
[Crossref]

Megidish, E.

E. Megidish, A. Halevy, T. Shacham, T. Dvir, L. Dovrat, and H. S. Eisenberg, “Entanglement swapping between photons that have never coexisted,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(21), 210403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noh, T. G.

Noh, T.-G.

Ou, Z. Y.

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(18), 2044–2046 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, J. W.

J. W. Pan, Z. B. Chen, C. Y. Lu, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Żukowski, “Multiphoton entanglement and interferometry,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84(2), 777–838 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. S. Yuan, X. H. Bao, C. Y. Lu, J. Zhang, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Entangled photons and quantum communication,” Phys. Rep. 497(1), 1–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. W. Pan, D. Bouwmeester, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental entanglement swapping: entangling photons that never interacted,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(18), 3891–3894 (1998).
[Crossref]

Peng, C. Z.

Z. S. Yuan, X. H. Bao, C. Y. Lu, J. Zhang, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Entangled photons and quantum communication,” Phys. Rep. 497(1), 1–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Peters, N. A.

Riedmatten, H.

H. Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum interference with photon pairs created in spatially separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A 67(2), 022301 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shacham, T.

E. Megidish, A. Halevy, T. Shacham, T. Dvir, L. Dovrat, and H. S. Eisenberg, “Entanglement swapping between photons that have never coexisted,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(21), 210403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanzilli, S.

M. Halder, S. Tanzilli, H. de Riedmatten, A. Beveratos, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Photon-bunching measurement after two 25-km-long optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 71(4), 042335 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tittel, W.

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance entanglement swapping with photons from separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A 71(5), 050302 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, D. Collins, and N. Gisin, “Long distance quantum teleportation in a quantum relay configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 047904 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum interference with photon pairs created in spatially separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A 67(2), 022301 (2003).
[Crossref]

Toliver, P.

van Houwelingen, J. A. W.

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance entanglement swapping with photons from separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A 71(5), 050302 (2005).
[Crossref]

von der Weid, J. P.

Weinfurter, H.

J. W. Pan, Z. B. Chen, C. Y. Lu, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Żukowski, “Multiphoton entanglement and interferometry,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84(2), 777–838 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. W. Pan, D. Bouwmeester, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental entanglement swapping: entangling photons that never interacted,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(18), 3891–3894 (1998).
[Crossref]

Xavier, G. B.

Youn, C.

Yuan, Z. S.

Z. S. Yuan, X. H. Bao, C. Y. Lu, J. Zhang, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Entangled photons and quantum communication,” Phys. Rep. 497(1), 1–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zbinden, H.

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance entanglement swapping with photons from separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A 71(5), 050302 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Halder, S. Tanzilli, H. de Riedmatten, A. Beveratos, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Photon-bunching measurement after two 25-km-long optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 71(4), 042335 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, D. Collins, and N. Gisin, “Long distance quantum teleportation in a quantum relay configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 047904 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum interference with photon pairs created in spatially separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A 67(2), 022301 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zeilinger, A.

J. W. Pan, Z. B. Chen, C. Y. Lu, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Żukowski, “Multiphoton entanglement and interferometry,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84(2), 777–838 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Kaltenbaek, B. Blauensteiner, M. Żukowski, M. Aspelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental interference of independent photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(24), 240502 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Pan, D. Bouwmeester, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental entanglement swapping: entangling photons that never interacted,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(18), 3891–3894 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Z. S. Yuan, X. H. Bao, C. Y. Lu, J. Zhang, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Entangled photons and quantum communication,” Phys. Rep. 497(1), 1–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zukowski, M.

J. W. Pan, Z. B. Chen, C. Y. Lu, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Żukowski, “Multiphoton entanglement and interferometry,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84(2), 777–838 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Kaltenbaek, B. Blauensteiner, M. Żukowski, M. Aspelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental interference of independent photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(24), 240502 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zyung, T.

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rep. (1)

Z. S. Yuan, X. H. Bao, C. Y. Lu, J. Zhang, C. Z. Peng, and J. W. Pan, “Entangled photons and quantum communication,” Phys. Rep. 497(1), 1–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, J. A. W. van Houwelingen, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Long-distance entanglement swapping with photons from separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A 71(5), 050302 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum interference with photon pairs created in spatially separated sources,” Phys. Rev. A 67(2), 022301 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Halder, S. Tanzilli, H. de Riedmatten, A. Beveratos, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Photon-bunching measurement after two 25-km-long optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 71(4), 042335 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, D. Collins, and N. Gisin, “Long distance quantum teleportation in a quantum relay configuration,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(4), 047904 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kaltenbaek, B. Blauensteiner, M. Żukowski, M. Aspelmeyer, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental interference of independent photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(24), 240502 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Megidish, A. Halevy, T. Shacham, T. Dvir, L. Dovrat, and H. S. Eisenberg, “Entanglement swapping between photons that have never coexisted,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(21), 210403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou, and L. Mandel, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(18), 2044–2046 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Pan, D. Bouwmeester, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental entanglement swapping: entangling photons that never interacted,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(18), 3891–3894 (1998).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

J. W. Pan, Z. B. Chen, C. Y. Lu, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Żukowski, “Multiphoton entanglement and interferometry,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84(2), 777–838 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the experimental setup. BS, 50/50 fiber-optic beam splitter; L, spherical lens; FC, fiber collimator; PC, polarization controller; SMF, single-mode fiber; ODL1 and ODL2, optical delay lines; FST, fiber stretcher; WDM1 and WDM2, 1480/1550 nm wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) filters; BPF, band pass filter (1 nm); D1 and D2, single photon detectors; D3, linear photo detector; &, coincidence electronics.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Fluctuation of the relative optical path-length difference between the two interferometer arms with lengths of 6 km. (a) The optical power measured at the one output port of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. (b) The fiber displacement for short-term and (c) long-term monitoring.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Two-photon interference fringe measured as a function of the optical path-length difference. The circle and square symbols represent the measured coincidences and accidentals, respectively.

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