Abstract

We report on the generation of an indistinguishable heralded single-photon state, using highly nondegenerate spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC). Spectrally factorable photon pairs can be generated by incorporating a broadband pump pulse and a group-velocity matching (GVM) condition in a periodically-poled potassium titanyl phosphate (PPKTP) crystal. The heralding photon is in the near IR, close to the peak detection efficiency of off-the-shelf Si single-photon detectors; meanwhile, the heralded photon is in the telecom L-band where fiber losses are at a minimum. We observe spectral factorability of the SPDC source and consequently high purity (90%) of the produced heralded single photons by several different techniques. Because this source can also realize a high heralding efficiency (> 90%), it would be suitable for time-multiplexing techniques, enabling a pseudo-deterministic single-photon source, a critical resource for optical quantum information and communication technology.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

16 May 2016: A correction was made to the appendices.


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2016 (1)

2015 (2)

2014 (2)

B. Fang, O. Cohen, M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, and V. O. Lorenz, “Fast and highly resolved capture of the joint spectral density of photon pairs,” Optica 1, 281 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. B. Dixon, D. Rosenberg, V. Stelmakh, M. E. Grein, R. S. Bennink, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and F. N. C. Wong, “Heralding efficiency and correlated-mode coupling of near-IR fiber-coupled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 043804 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (10)

T. Guerreiro, A. Martin, B. Sanguinetti, N. Bruno, H. Zbinden, and R. T. Thew, “High efficiency coupling of photon pairs in practice,” Opt. Express 21, 27641 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Liscidini and J. E. Sipe, “Stimulated emission tomography,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 193602 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R.-B. Jin, R. Shimizu, K. Wakui, H. Benichi, and M. Sasaki, “Widely tunable single photon source with high purity at telecom wavelength,” Opt. Express 21, 10659–10666 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pereira, F. E. Becerra, B. L. Glebov, J. Fan, S. W. Nam, and A. L. Migdall, “Demonstrating highly symmetric single-mode, single-photon heralding efficiency in spontaneous parametric downconversion,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1609 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Giustina, A. Mech, S. Ramelow, B. Wittmann, J. Kofler, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. Nam, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Bell violation using entangled photons without the fair-sampling assumption,” Nature 497, 227–230 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. G. Christensen, K. T. McCusker, J. Altepeter, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, A. Miller, L. K. Shalm, Y. Zhang, S. W. Nam, N. Brunner, C. C. W. Lim, N. Gisin, and P. G. Kwiat, “Detection-loophole-free test of quantum nonlocality, and applications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Childs, D. Gosset, and Z. Webb, “Universal computation by multiparticle quantum walk,” Science 339, 791–794 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. Stuart, J. A. Slater, F. Bussieres, and W. Tittel, “Flexible source of nondegenerate entangled photons based on a two-crystal Sagnac interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 012301 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Krapick, H. Herrmann, V. Quiring, B. Brecht, H. Suche, and C. Silberhorn, “An efficient integrated two-color source for heralded single photons,” New J. Phys. 15, 033010 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Ben Dixon, J. H. Shapiro, and F. N. Wong, “Spectral engineering by Gaussian phase-matching for quantum photonics,” Opt. Express 21, 5879–5890 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

E. Pomarico, B. Sanguinetti, T. Guerreiro, R. Thew, and H. Zbinden, “MHz rate and efficient synchronous heralding of single photons at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express 20, 23846–23855 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yabuno, R. Shimizu, Y. Mitsumori, H. Kosaka, and K. Edamatsu, “Four-photon quantum interferometry at a telecom wavelength,” Phys. Rev. A 86, 010302 (2012).
[Crossref]

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, P. Xu, H. Lu, G.-S. Pan, X.-H. Bao, C.-Z. Peng, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Observation of eight-photon entanglement,” Nat. Photonics 6, 225–228 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

Y.-F. Huang, B.-H. Liu, L. Peng, Y.-H. Li, L. Li, C.-F. Li, and G.-C. Guo, “Experimental generation of an eight-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state,” Nat. Commun. 2, 546 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Christ, K. Laiho, A. Eckstein, K. N. Cassemiro, and C. Silberhorn, “Probing multimode squeezing with correlation functions,” New J. Phys. 13, 033027 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. D. Eisaman, J. Fan, A. Migdall, and S. V. Polyakov, “Invited Review Article: Single-photon sources and detectors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 071101 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Brańczyk, A. Fedrizzi, T. M. Stace, T. C. Ralph, and A. G. White, “Engineered optical nonlinearity for quantum light sources,” Opt. Express 19, 55–65 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

L. E. Vicent, A. B. U’Ren, R. Rangarajan, C. I. Osorio, J. P. Torres, L. Zhang, and I. A. Walmsley, “Design of bright, fiber-coupled and fully factorable photon pair sources,” New J. Phys. 12, 093027 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. G. Evans, R. S. Bennink, W. P. Grice, T. S. Humble, and J. Schaake, “Bright source of spectrally uncorrelated polarization-entangled photons with nearly single-mode emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 253601 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. S. Bennink, “Optimal collinear Gaussian beams for spontaneous parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 053805 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

V. Giovannetti, S. Lloyd, and L. Maccone, “Quantum metrology,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 010401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Ou, “Temporal distinguishability of an N-photon state and its characterization by quantum interference,” Phys. Rev. A 74, 063808 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

A. B. U’Ren, C. Silberhorn, K. Banaszek, I. A. Walmsley, R. Erdmann, W. P. Grice, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation of pure-state single-photon wavepackets by conditional preparation based on spontaneous parametric downconversion,” Las. Phys. 15, 146–161 (2005).

L. Lamata and J. León, “Dealing with entanglement of continuous variables: Schmidt decomposition with discrete sets of orthogonal functions,” J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 7, 224–229 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Ljunggren and M. Tengner, “Optimal focusing for maximal collection of entangled narrow-band photon pairs into single-mode fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 062301 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2002 (3)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Pittman, B. Jacobs, and J. Franson, “Single photons on pseudodemand from stored parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 042303 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. L. Migdall, D. Branning, and S. Castelletto, “Tailoring single-photon and multiphoton probabilities of a single-photon on-demand source,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 053805 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

E. Knill, R. Laflamme, and G. J. Milburn, “A scheme for efficient quantum computation with linear optics,” Nature 409, 46–52 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

C. Hong, Z. Ou, and L. Mandel, “Measurement of subpicosecond time intervals between two photons by interference,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2044–2046 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

C. Hong and L. Mandel, “Experimental realization of a localized one-photon state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 58–60 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

D. Klyshko, “Use of two-photon light for absolute calibration of photoelectric detectors,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1112 (1980).
[Crossref]

1956 (1)

R. H. Brown and R. Q. Twiss, “Correlation between photons in two coherent beams of light,” Nature 177, 27–29 (1956).
[Crossref]

Altepeter, J.

B. G. Christensen, K. T. McCusker, J. Altepeter, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, A. Miller, L. K. Shalm, Y. Zhang, S. W. Nam, N. Brunner, C. C. W. Lim, N. Gisin, and P. G. Kwiat, “Detection-loophole-free test of quantum nonlocality, and applications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Banaszek, K.

A. B. U’Ren, C. Silberhorn, K. Banaszek, I. A. Walmsley, R. Erdmann, W. P. Grice, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation of pure-state single-photon wavepackets by conditional preparation based on spontaneous parametric downconversion,” Las. Phys. 15, 146–161 (2005).

Bao, X.-H.

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, P. Xu, H. Lu, G.-S. Pan, X.-H. Bao, C.-Z. Peng, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Observation of eight-photon entanglement,” Nat. Photonics 6, 225–228 (2012).
[Crossref]

Becerra, F. E.

Ben Dixon, P.

Benichi, H.

Bennink, R. S.

P. B. Dixon, D. Rosenberg, V. Stelmakh, M. E. Grein, R. S. Bennink, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and F. N. C. Wong, “Heralding efficiency and correlated-mode coupling of near-IR fiber-coupled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 043804 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. S. Bennink, “Optimal collinear Gaussian beams for spontaneous parametric down-conversion,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 053805 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. G. Evans, R. S. Bennink, W. P. Grice, T. S. Humble, and J. Schaake, “Bright source of spectrally uncorrelated polarization-entangled photons with nearly single-mode emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 253601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Beyer, J.

M. Giustina, A. Mech, S. Ramelow, B. Wittmann, J. Kofler, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. Nam, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Bell violation using entangled photons without the fair-sampling assumption,” Nature 497, 227–230 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blauensteiner, B.

Bonneau, D.

Branczyk, A. M.

Branning, D.

A. L. Migdall, D. Branning, and S. Castelletto, “Tailoring single-photon and multiphoton probabilities of a single-photon on-demand source,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 053805 (2002).
[Crossref]

Brecht, B.

S. Krapick, H. Herrmann, V. Quiring, B. Brecht, H. Suche, and C. Silberhorn, “An efficient integrated two-color source for heralded single photons,” New J. Phys. 15, 033010 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brown, R. H.

R. H. Brown and R. Q. Twiss, “Correlation between photons in two coherent beams of light,” Nature 177, 27–29 (1956).
[Crossref]

Brunner, N.

B. G. Christensen, K. T. McCusker, J. Altepeter, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, A. Miller, L. K. Shalm, Y. Zhang, S. W. Nam, N. Brunner, C. C. W. Lim, N. Gisin, and P. G. Kwiat, “Detection-loophole-free test of quantum nonlocality, and applications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruno, N.

Bussieres, F.

T. E. Stuart, J. A. Slater, F. Bussieres, and W. Tittel, “Flexible source of nondegenerate entangled photons based on a two-crystal Sagnac interferometer,” Phys. Rev. A 88, 012301 (2013).
[Crossref]

Calkins, B.

B. G. Christensen, K. T. McCusker, J. Altepeter, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, A. Miller, L. K. Shalm, Y. Zhang, S. W. Nam, N. Brunner, C. C. W. Lim, N. Gisin, and P. G. Kwiat, “Detection-loophole-free test of quantum nonlocality, and applications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Giustina, A. Mech, S. Ramelow, B. Wittmann, J. Kofler, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. Nam, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Bell violation using entangled photons without the fair-sampling assumption,” Nature 497, 227–230 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Canalias, C.

Cassemiro, K. N.

A. Christ, K. Laiho, A. Eckstein, K. N. Cassemiro, and C. Silberhorn, “Probing multimode squeezing with correlation functions,” New J. Phys. 13, 033027 (2011).
[Crossref]

Castelletto, S.

A. L. Migdall, D. Branning, and S. Castelletto, “Tailoring single-photon and multiphoton probabilities of a single-photon on-demand source,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 053805 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-A.

X.-C. Yao, T.-X. Wang, P. Xu, H. Lu, G.-S. Pan, X.-H. Bao, C.-Z. Peng, C.-Y. Lu, Y.-A. Chen, and J.-W. Pan, “Observation of eight-photon entanglement,” Nat. Photonics 6, 225–228 (2012).
[Crossref]

Childs, A. M.

A. M. Childs, D. Gosset, and Z. Webb, “Universal computation by multiparticle quantum walk,” Science 339, 791–794 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christ, A.

A. Christ, K. Laiho, A. Eckstein, K. N. Cassemiro, and C. Silberhorn, “Probing multimode squeezing with correlation functions,” New J. Phys. 13, 033027 (2011).
[Crossref]

Christensen, B. G.

F. Kaneda, B. G. Christensen, J. J. Wong, H. S. Park, K. T. McCusker, and P. G. Kwiat, “Time-multiplexed heralded single-photon source,” Optica 2, 1010–1013 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. G. Christensen, K. T. McCusker, J. Altepeter, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, A. Miller, L. K. Shalm, Y. Zhang, S. W. Nam, N. Brunner, C. C. W. Lim, N. Gisin, and P. G. Kwiat, “Detection-loophole-free test of quantum nonlocality, and applications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130406 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen, O.

Dauler, E. A.

P. B. Dixon, D. Rosenberg, V. Stelmakh, M. E. Grein, R. S. Bennink, E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, R. J. Molnar, and F. N. C. Wong, “Heralding efficiency and correlated-mode coupling of near-IR fiber-coupled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. A 90, 043804 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dixon, P. B.

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M. Giustina, A. Mech, S. Ramelow, B. Wittmann, J. Kofler, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. Nam, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Bell violation using entangled photons without the fair-sampling assumption,” Nature 497, 227–230 (2013).
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Walmsley, I. A.

L. E. Vicent, A. B. U’Ren, R. Rangarajan, C. I. Osorio, J. P. Torres, L. Zhang, and I. A. Walmsley, “Design of bright, fiber-coupled and fully factorable photon pair sources,” New J. Phys. 12, 093027 (2010).
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A. B. U’Ren, C. Silberhorn, K. Banaszek, I. A. Walmsley, R. Erdmann, W. P. Grice, and M. G. Raymer, “Generation of pure-state single-photon wavepackets by conditional preparation based on spontaneous parametric downconversion,” Las. Phys. 15, 146–161 (2005).

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A. M. Childs, D. Gosset, and Z. Webb, “Universal computation by multiparticle quantum walk,” Science 339, 791–794 (2013).
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Wong, F. N. C.

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Xu, P.

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Zeilinger, A.

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L. E. Vicent, A. B. U’Ren, R. Rangarajan, C. I. Osorio, J. P. Torres, L. Zhang, and I. A. Walmsley, “Design of bright, fiber-coupled and fully factorable photon pair sources,” New J. Phys. 12, 093027 (2010).
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B. G. Christensen, K. T. McCusker, J. Altepeter, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, A. E. Lita, A. Miller, L. K. Shalm, Y. Zhang, S. W. Nam, N. Brunner, C. C. W. Lim, N. Gisin, and P. G. Kwiat, “Detection-loophole-free test of quantum nonlocality, and applications,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 130406 (2013).
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Nat. Commun. (1)

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M. Giustina, A. Mech, S. Ramelow, B. Wittmann, J. Kofler, J. Beyer, A. Lita, B. Calkins, T. Gerrits, S. Nam, R. Ursin, and A. Zeilinger, “Bell violation using entangled photons without the fair-sampling assumption,” Nature 497, 227–230 (2013).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of an SPDC source using a PPKTP crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Theoretical predictions. (a) Pump spectral envelope function α s , Ω i ); (b) Phase-matching function ϕk s , Ω i )L), projected to the fiber collection modes (see Appendix B); (c) Fiber-coupled JSI |f s , Ω i )|2; (d) Dispersion parameter D = −(k′pk′s)/(k′pk′i); the dashed line shows where D = 0. (e) Heralding efficiencies versus signal collection beam waist for pump beam and idler collection beam waists of 220 μm and 120 μm, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of experimental setup. (a) Main setup for generation and collection of SPDC photons. (b) Setup for frequency-resolved OPA to reconstruct JSI. Dashed line in (a) is the optical path of the seed laser beam in frequency-resolved OPA measurement. (c) The second-order auto-correlation measurement. (d) Setup for polarization-mode Hong-Ou-Mandel interference experiment. SHG: second harmonic generation, DM: dichroic mirror, IF: interference filter (Δλ = 20 nm), SMF: single-mode optical fiber, PBS: polarizing beam-splitter, HWP: half-wave plate, FPC: fiber polarization controller, APD: avalanche photodiode, LD: laser diode.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a)–(c) Experimentally reconstructed JSI for different pump bandwidth (4.1, 2.1, and 1.0 nm in FWHM). (d)–(f) Corresponding theoretical prediction for the different pump wavelength and bandwidth. (g) Measured single-photon purity versus pump bandwidth. The dashed curve shows our theoretical predictions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Observed HOMI for (a) sequential idler photons and (b) sequential signal photons.

Equations (27)

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Δ ω = ω p ω s ω i = 0 ,
Δ k = k p k s k i + 2 π Λ = 0 ,
| ψ s i = d ω s d ω i f ( ω s , ω i ) | ω s , ω i ,
α ( ω s , ω i ) = exp [ ( ω s + ω i ω p 0 ) 2 σ p 2 ]
= exp [ ( Ω s + Ω i ) 2 σ p 2 ] ,
ϕ ( Δ k L ) = sinc ( Δ k L 2 ) = sin ( Δ k L / 2 ) Δ k L / 2 .
Δ k ( Ω s , Ω i ) k p ( Ω s + Ω i ) k s Ω s k i Ω i ,
h s ( i ) = C S i ( s ) d s ( i ) ,
η s ( i ) = h s ( i ) t s ( i ) ,
g ( 2 ) ( τ = 0 ) = CR S 1 S 2 ,
P = 1 2 ( 1 ε ( τ ) ) ,
ε ( τ ) = d Ω s 1 d Ω i 1 d Ω s 2 d Ω i 2 f * ( Ω s 1 , Ω i 2 ) f * ( Ω s 2 , Ω i 1 ) f ( Ω s 1 , Ω i 1 ) f ( Ω s 2 , Ω i 2 ) e i ( Ω i 2 Ω i 1 ) τ ,
f ( Ω s , Ω i ) exp [ ( Ω s + Ω i ) 2 σ p 2 ] sinc [ ( k p k i ) Ω i L 2 ] .
ε ( τ ) d t exp [ σ p 2 ( τ t ) 2 4 ] T ( t , ( k p k i ) L ) 2 ,
T ( t , a ) = { a | t | ( | t | < a ) 0 ( otherwise ) .
ε ( τ ) exp [ σ p 2 τ 2 2 ] .
| Ψ = | vac + η d k s d k i F ( k s , k i ) a ^ s ( k s ) a ^ i ( k i ) | vac .
F ( k s , k i ) = α ( ω s + ω i ) ϕ ( k s , k i ) ,
ϕ ( k s , k i ) = exp ( i | k _ | 2 2 k p z 0 ) exp [ i 1 2 L ( k p + k s z + k i z 2 π Λ ) ] exp ( 1 4 w 0 2 | k _ | 2 ) sinc ( 1 2 L Δ k ) ,
k _ ( k s x + k i x , k s y + k i y ) ,
Δ k k p | k _ | 2 2 k p k s z k i z + 2 π Λ .
f ( ω s , ω i ) = d k s x d k s y d k i x d k i y F f ( k s , k i ) u ˜ s * ( k s ) u ˜ i * ( k i ) ,
u ˜ μ ( k ) = u ˜ 0 μ exp ( 1 4 w f μ 2 [ sec 2 θ 0 μ ( k x k μ sin θ 0 μ ) 2 + k y 2 ] ) e i h μ k x .
R c = γ c d ω s d ω i | f ( ω s , ω i ) | 2 .
R s = γ s d ω s d ω i I s ( ω s , ω i ) ,
I s ( ω s , ω i ) = d k i | d k s F f ( k s , k i ) u ˜ s * ( k s ) | 2 .
η i R c R s ,

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