Abstract

Composite textile materials, created from a blend of different fibers, have long been used to engineer the properties and performance of fabrics to combine comfort with functionality, such as to create materials with differing optical properties. Some changes to the optical properties of materials in the infrared are subtle and difficult to measure. We present a measurement technique, experimental apparatus, and associated data analysis procedure for detecting small changes in the emissivity of fabrics in the mid-infrared wavelength range (7.5–14 µm). Using this technique, we demonstrate that the emissivity of polyester fabric can be engineered controllably via the inclusion of ceramic microparticles within the fabric fibers.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. B. Warner, Fiber Science (Prentice Hall, 1995), pp. 213–229.
  2. W. H. Hills, “Apparatus for making profiled multi-component yarns,” US Patent, No: 5344297 (1994).
  3. X. Hu, M. Tian, L. Qu, S. Zhu, and G. Han, “Multifunctional cotton fabrics with graphene/polyurethane coatings with far-infrared emission, electrical conductivity, and ultraviolet-blocking properties,” Carbon 95, 625–633 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  4. ISO 20473:2007(E), Optics and Photonics – Spectral Bands, (International Organization for Standardization, 2007).
  5. F. P. Incropera and D. P. Dewitt, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 5th ed (John Wiley & Sons, 2002), pp. 713–717.
  6. D. D. Horinek and M. E. Foumberg, “Lightweight x-ray and gamma radiation shielding fibers and compositions,” US Patent Application Publication, No: 2013/0045382 A1 (2013).
  7. ASTM D1777–96 (2015), Standard Test Method for Thickness of Textile Materials, (ASTM International, 2015).
  8. ASTM D3776 / D3776M–09 (2013), Standard Test Methods for Mass Per Unit Area (Weight) of Fabric, (ASTM International, 2013).
  9. S. Schleimann-Jensen and K. Forsberg, New Test Method for Determination of Emissivity and Reflection Properties of Protective Materials Exposed to Radiant Heat (ASTM International, 1986).

2015 (1)

X. Hu, M. Tian, L. Qu, S. Zhu, and G. Han, “Multifunctional cotton fabrics with graphene/polyurethane coatings with far-infrared emission, electrical conductivity, and ultraviolet-blocking properties,” Carbon 95, 625–633 (2015).
[Crossref]

Han, G.

X. Hu, M. Tian, L. Qu, S. Zhu, and G. Han, “Multifunctional cotton fabrics with graphene/polyurethane coatings with far-infrared emission, electrical conductivity, and ultraviolet-blocking properties,” Carbon 95, 625–633 (2015).
[Crossref]

Hu, X.

X. Hu, M. Tian, L. Qu, S. Zhu, and G. Han, “Multifunctional cotton fabrics with graphene/polyurethane coatings with far-infrared emission, electrical conductivity, and ultraviolet-blocking properties,” Carbon 95, 625–633 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qu, L.

X. Hu, M. Tian, L. Qu, S. Zhu, and G. Han, “Multifunctional cotton fabrics with graphene/polyurethane coatings with far-infrared emission, electrical conductivity, and ultraviolet-blocking properties,” Carbon 95, 625–633 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tian, M.

X. Hu, M. Tian, L. Qu, S. Zhu, and G. Han, “Multifunctional cotton fabrics with graphene/polyurethane coatings with far-infrared emission, electrical conductivity, and ultraviolet-blocking properties,” Carbon 95, 625–633 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, S.

X. Hu, M. Tian, L. Qu, S. Zhu, and G. Han, “Multifunctional cotton fabrics with graphene/polyurethane coatings with far-infrared emission, electrical conductivity, and ultraviolet-blocking properties,” Carbon 95, 625–633 (2015).
[Crossref]

Carbon (1)

X. Hu, M. Tian, L. Qu, S. Zhu, and G. Han, “Multifunctional cotton fabrics with graphene/polyurethane coatings with far-infrared emission, electrical conductivity, and ultraviolet-blocking properties,” Carbon 95, 625–633 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (8)

ISO 20473:2007(E), Optics and Photonics – Spectral Bands, (International Organization for Standardization, 2007).

F. P. Incropera and D. P. Dewitt, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 5th ed (John Wiley & Sons, 2002), pp. 713–717.

D. D. Horinek and M. E. Foumberg, “Lightweight x-ray and gamma radiation shielding fibers and compositions,” US Patent Application Publication, No: 2013/0045382 A1 (2013).

ASTM D1777–96 (2015), Standard Test Method for Thickness of Textile Materials, (ASTM International, 2015).

ASTM D3776 / D3776M–09 (2013), Standard Test Methods for Mass Per Unit Area (Weight) of Fabric, (ASTM International, 2013).

S. Schleimann-Jensen and K. Forsberg, New Test Method for Determination of Emissivity and Reflection Properties of Protective Materials Exposed to Radiant Heat (ASTM International, 1986).

S. B. Warner, Fiber Science (Prentice Hall, 1995), pp. 213–229.

W. H. Hills, “Apparatus for making profiled multi-component yarns,” US Patent, No: 5344297 (1994).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Color optical microscope images of the fabric samples confirm that all samples have the same color and knit structure. Sample identifier numbers are overlaid in white.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental apparatus: a) samples mounted to copper disk, four fabric samples containing different amounts of ceramic additive and one highly reflective brass plate are positioned around the disk at a constant radial distance; b) the copper disk within the measurement rig, an infrared camera is positioned above the disk, melamine foam reduces the radial temperature gradient of the copper and a clear acrylic tube limits convection.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Example composite radiance image and regions extracted for analysis: a) The fabric samples, cavity holes, and the tape framing the brass plate show up as regions of high radiance. The position of the cavity holes and the center of the copper disk, as detected by the automatic image analysis are indicated with green crosses and a red circle, respectively; b) The regions from which radiance data were extracted from each segment are indicated with fabric surface regions shown in white and the brass region shown in pink.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Emissivity of the fabric samples as a function of the percentage mass of added ceramic material. Data points are the mean of 12 independent measurements and the error bars a range of one standard deviation above and below the data point values. The black line shows a linear fit to the data with an R2 value of 0.976.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Emissivity of the fabric containing 1.22% mass of added ceramic particles as a function of temperature over the wavelength range of 7.5 – 14 µm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Physical Properties of Sample Fabrics a

Equations (3)

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P( λ,T )= 2h c 2 λ 2 ( exp( hc k B T )1 ) ,
W g ( T )=ϵ W b ( T ).
W d =ϵ W b +( 1ϵ ) W a ϵ= W d W a W b W a ,

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