Abstract

We present a thorough investigation of surface deformation and thermal properties of high-damage threshold large-area semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) designed for kilowatt average power laser oscillators. We compare temperature rise, thermal lensing, and surface deformation of standard SESAM samples and substrate-removed SESAMs contacted using different techniques. We demonstrate that for all cases the thermal effects scale linearly with the absorbed power, but the contacting technique critically affects the strength of the temperature rise and the thermal lens of the SESAMs (i.e. the slope of the linear change). Our best SESAMs are fabricated using a novel substrate-transfer direct bonding technique and show excellent surface flatness (with non-measureable radii of curvature (ROC), compared to astigmatic ROCs of up to 10 m for standard SESAMs), order-of-magnitude improved heat removal, and negligible deformation with absorbed power. This is achieved without altering the saturation behavior or the recovery parameters of the samples. These SESAMs will be a key enabling component for the next generation of kilowatt-level ultrafast oscillators.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. G. D. Cole, W. Zhang, M. J. Martin, J. Ye, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Tenfold reduction of Brownian noise in optical interferometry,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 644–650 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  26. M. Haiml, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, M. Luysberg, R. C. Lutz, P. Specht, and E. R. Weber, “Optical nonlinearity in low-temperature-grown GaAs: Microscopic limitations and optimization strategies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(21), 3134–3136 (1999).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  28. A. Diebold, F. Emaury, C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Suedmeyer, and U. Keller, “62-fs pulses from a SESAM modelocked Yb:CALGO thin disk laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3842–3845 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429(2), 67–120 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  30. R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  31. D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7571–7579 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, “Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 331–339 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  33. S. L. Schieffer, J. A. Berger, B. L. Rickman, V. P. Nayyar, and W. A. Schroeder, “Thermal effects in semiconductor saturable-absorber mirros,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(4), 543–552 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  34. C. Schriber, F. Emaury, A. Diebold, S. Link, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Dual-gain SESAM modelocked thin disk laser based on Yb:Lu₂O₃ and Yb:Sc₂O₃,” Opt. Express 22(16), 18979–18986 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, and R. Schilling, “Heating by optical absorption and the performance of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 44(11), 7022–7036 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, A. Diebold, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Suedmeyer, and U. Keller, “Toward millijoule-level high-power ultrafast thin-disk oscillators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(1), 1100318 (2015).

F. Emaury, A. Diebold, A. Klenner, C. J. Saraceno, S. Schilt, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Frequency comb offset dynamics of SESAM modelocked thin disk lasers,” Opt. Express 23(17), 21836–21856 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

2013 (3)

A. Diebold, F. Emaury, C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Suedmeyer, and U. Keller, “62-fs pulses from a SESAM modelocked Yb:CALGO thin disk laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3842–3845 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Cutting-edge high-power ultrafast thin disk oscillators,” Appl. Sci. 3(2), 355–395 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. D. Cole, W. Zhang, M. J. Martin, J. Ye, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Tenfold reduction of Brownian noise in optical interferometry,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 644–650 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Schriber, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Sub-100 femtosecond pulses from a SESAM modelocked thin disk laser,” Appl. Phys. B 106(3), 559–562 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. L. Schieffer, J. A. Berger, B. L. Rickman, V. P. Nayyar, and W. A. Schroeder, “Thermal effects in semiconductor saturable-absorber mirros,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(4), 543–552 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in passively mode-locked high-power thin disk laser oscillators,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7054–7065 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “275 W average output power from a femtosecond thin disk oscillator operated in a vacuum environment,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23535–23541 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: design guidelines and damage thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 29–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

T. Südmeyer, C. Kränkel, C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “High-power ultrafast thin disk laser oscillators and their potential for sub-100-femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 281–295 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

T. Südmeyer, S. V. Marchese, S. Hashimoto, C. R. E. Baer, G. Gingras, B. Witzel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond laser oscillators for high-field science,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 599–604 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7571–7579 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429(2), 67–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, “Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 331–339 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

R. Paschotta and U. Keller, “Passive mode locking with slow saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 73(7), 653–662 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

M. Haiml, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, M. Luysberg, R. C. Lutz, P. Specht, and E. R. Weber, “Optical nonlinearity in low-temperature-grown GaAs: Microscopic limitations and optimization strategies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(21), 3134–3136 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(1), 46–56 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

A. Giesen, H. Hügel, A. Voss, K. Wittig, U. Brauch, and H. Opower, “Scalable concept for diode-pumped high-power solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58(5), 365–372 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, and R. Schilling, “Heating by optical absorption and the performance of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 44(11), 7022–7036 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

Amann, M. C.

Andersen, T. V.

Apolonski, A.

Apolonskiy, A.

Aschwanden, A.

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).
[Crossref]

Asom, M. T.

Aspelmeyer, M.

G. D. Cole, W. Zhang, M. J. Martin, J. Ye, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Tenfold reduction of Brownian noise in optical interferometry,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 644–650 (2013).
[Crossref]

Au, J. A.

Aus der Au, J.

J. Aus der Au, G. J. Spühler, T. Südmeyer, R. Paschotta, R. Hövel, M. Moser, S. Erhard, M. Karszewski, A. Giesen, and U. Keller, “16.2-W average power from a diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:YAG thin disk laser,” Opt. Lett. 25(11), 859–861 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Baer, C. R. E.

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Cutting-edge high-power ultrafast thin disk oscillators,” Appl. Sci. 3(2), 355–395 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: design guidelines and damage thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 29–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Schriber, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Sub-100 femtosecond pulses from a SESAM modelocked thin disk laser,” Appl. Phys. B 106(3), 559–562 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “275 W average output power from a femtosecond thin disk oscillator operated in a vacuum environment,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23535–23541 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in passively mode-locked high-power thin disk laser oscillators,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7054–7065 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Südmeyer, C. Kränkel, C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “High-power ultrafast thin disk laser oscillators and their potential for sub-100-femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 281–295 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Südmeyer, S. V. Marchese, S. Hashimoto, C. R. E. Baer, G. Gingras, B. Witzel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond laser oscillators for high-field science,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 599–604 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bauer, D.

Beil, K.

C. Schriber, F. Emaury, A. Diebold, S. Link, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Dual-gain SESAM modelocked thin disk laser based on Yb:Lu₂O₃ and Yb:Sc₂O₃,” Opt. Express 22(16), 18979–18986 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Cutting-edge high-power ultrafast thin disk oscillators,” Appl. Sci. 3(2), 355–395 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Schriber, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Sub-100 femtosecond pulses from a SESAM modelocked thin disk laser,” Appl. Phys. B 106(3), 559–562 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bellancourt, A.-R.

Berger, J. A.

Boehm, G.

Boyd, G. D.

Brauch, U.

A. Giesen, H. Hügel, A. Voss, K. Wittig, U. Brauch, and H. Opower, “Scalable concept for diode-pumped high-power solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58(5), 365–372 (1994).
[Crossref]

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Brons, J.

Chiu, T. H.

Cole, G. D.

G. D. Cole, W. Zhang, M. J. Martin, J. Ye, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Tenfold reduction of Brownian noise in optical interferometry,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 644–650 (2013).
[Crossref]

Danzmann, K.

W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, and R. Schilling, “Heating by optical absorption and the performance of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 44(11), 7022–7036 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diebold, A.

Eidam, T.

Emaury, F.

F. Emaury, A. Diebold, A. Klenner, C. J. Saraceno, S. Schilt, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Frequency comb offset dynamics of SESAM modelocked thin disk lasers,” Opt. Express 23(17), 21836–21856 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, A. Diebold, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Suedmeyer, and U. Keller, “Toward millijoule-level high-power ultrafast thin-disk oscillators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(1), 1100318 (2015).

C. Schriber, F. Emaury, A. Diebold, S. Link, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Dual-gain SESAM modelocked thin disk laser based on Yb:Lu₂O₃ and Yb:Sc₂O₃,” Opt. Express 22(16), 18979–18986 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast thin-disk laser with 80 μJ pulse energy and 242 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 39(1), 9–12 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Diebold, F. Emaury, C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Suedmeyer, and U. Keller, “62-fs pulses from a SESAM modelocked Yb:CALGO thin disk laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3842–3845 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Cutting-edge high-power ultrafast thin disk oscillators,” Appl. Sci. 3(2), 355–395 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “275 W average output power from a femtosecond thin disk oscillator operated in a vacuum environment,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23535–23541 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erhard, S.

Fedulova, E.

Ferguson, J. F.

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Gabler, T.

Giesen, A.

Gingras, G.

T. Südmeyer, S. V. Marchese, S. Hashimoto, C. R. E. Baer, G. Gingras, B. Witzel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond laser oscillators for high-field science,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 599–604 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gini, E.

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).
[Crossref]

Golling, M.

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, A. Diebold, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Suedmeyer, and U. Keller, “Toward millijoule-level high-power ultrafast thin-disk oscillators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(1), 1100318 (2015).

C. Schriber, F. Emaury, A. Diebold, S. Link, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Dual-gain SESAM modelocked thin disk laser based on Yb:Lu₂O₃ and Yb:Sc₂O₃,” Opt. Express 22(16), 18979–18986 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast thin-disk laser with 80 μJ pulse energy and 242 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 39(1), 9–12 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Diebold, F. Emaury, C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Suedmeyer, and U. Keller, “62-fs pulses from a SESAM modelocked Yb:CALGO thin disk laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3842–3845 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Cutting-edge high-power ultrafast thin disk oscillators,” Appl. Sci. 3(2), 355–395 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Schriber, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Sub-100 femtosecond pulses from a SESAM modelocked thin disk laser,” Appl. Phys. B 106(3), 559–562 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “275 W average output power from a femtosecond thin disk oscillator operated in a vacuum environment,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23535–23541 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: design guidelines and damage thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 29–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Südmeyer, C. Kränkel, C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “High-power ultrafast thin disk laser oscillators and their potential for sub-100-femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 281–295 (2009).
[Crossref]

Grange, R.

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, “Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 331–339 (2004).
[Crossref]

Grasse, C.

Haiml, M.

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, “Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 331–339 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Haiml, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, M. Luysberg, R. C. Lutz, P. Specht, and E. R. Weber, “Optical nonlinearity in low-temperature-grown GaAs: Microscopic limitations and optimization strategies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(21), 3134–3136 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hanf, S.

Häring, R.

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hashimoto, S.

T. Südmeyer, S. V. Marchese, S. Hashimoto, C. R. E. Baer, G. Gingras, B. Witzel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond laser oscillators for high-field science,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 599–604 (2008).
[Crossref]

Heckl, O. H.

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Cutting-edge high-power ultrafast thin disk oscillators,” Appl. Sci. 3(2), 355–395 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: design guidelines and damage thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 29–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “275 W average output power from a femtosecond thin disk oscillator operated in a vacuum environment,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23535–23541 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in passively mode-locked high-power thin disk laser oscillators,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7054–7065 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Schriber, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Sub-100 femtosecond pulses from a SESAM modelocked thin disk laser,” Appl. Phys. B 106(3), 559–562 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Südmeyer, C. Kränkel, C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “High-power ultrafast thin disk laser oscillators and their potential for sub-100-femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 281–295 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, H. D.

Hoffmann, M.

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, A. Diebold, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Suedmeyer, and U. Keller, “Toward millijoule-level high-power ultrafast thin-disk oscillators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(1), 1100318 (2015).

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast thin-disk laser with 80 μJ pulse energy and 242 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 39(1), 9–12 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Cutting-edge high-power ultrafast thin disk oscillators,” Appl. Sci. 3(2), 355–395 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: design guidelines and damage thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 29–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “275 W average output power from a femtosecond thin disk oscillator operated in a vacuum environment,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23535–23541 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hönninger, C.

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(1), 46–56 (1999).
[Crossref]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hövel, R.

Huber, G.

C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Schriber, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Sub-100 femtosecond pulses from a SESAM modelocked thin disk laser,” Appl. Phys. B 106(3), 559–562 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Südmeyer, C. Kränkel, C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “High-power ultrafast thin disk laser oscillators and their potential for sub-100-femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 281–295 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hügel, H.

A. Giesen, H. Hügel, A. Voss, K. Wittig, U. Brauch, and H. Opower, “Scalable concept for diode-pumped high-power solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58(5), 365–372 (1994).
[Crossref]

Iwaniuk, D.

Jung, I. D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kalashnikov, V.

Kalashnikov, V. L.

Karszewski, M.

Kärtner, F. X.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

F. X. Kärtner and U. Keller, “Stabilization of solitonlike pulses with a slow saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 20(1), 16–18 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keller, U.

F. Emaury, A. Diebold, A. Klenner, C. J. Saraceno, S. Schilt, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Frequency comb offset dynamics of SESAM modelocked thin disk lasers,” Opt. Express 23(17), 21836–21856 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, A. Diebold, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Suedmeyer, and U. Keller, “Toward millijoule-level high-power ultrafast thin-disk oscillators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(1), 1100318 (2015).

C. Schriber, F. Emaury, A. Diebold, S. Link, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Dual-gain SESAM modelocked thin disk laser based on Yb:Lu₂O₃ and Yb:Sc₂O₃,” Opt. Express 22(16), 18979–18986 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast thin-disk laser with 80 μJ pulse energy and 242 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 39(1), 9–12 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Diebold, F. Emaury, C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Suedmeyer, and U. Keller, “62-fs pulses from a SESAM modelocked Yb:CALGO thin disk laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3842–3845 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Cutting-edge high-power ultrafast thin disk oscillators,” Appl. Sci. 3(2), 355–395 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Schriber, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Sub-100 femtosecond pulses from a SESAM modelocked thin disk laser,” Appl. Phys. B 106(3), 559–562 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “275 W average output power from a femtosecond thin disk oscillator operated in a vacuum environment,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23535–23541 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in passively mode-locked high-power thin disk laser oscillators,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7054–7065 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: design guidelines and damage thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 29–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Südmeyer, C. Kränkel, C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “High-power ultrafast thin disk laser oscillators and their potential for sub-100-femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 281–295 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Südmeyer, S. V. Marchese, S. Hashimoto, C. R. E. Baer, G. Gingras, B. Witzel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond laser oscillators for high-field science,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 599–604 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7571–7579 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429(2), 67–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, “Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 331–339 (2004).
[Crossref]

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Paschotta and U. Keller, “Passive mode locking with slow saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 73(7), 653–662 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Aus der Au, G. J. Spühler, T. Südmeyer, R. Paschotta, R. Hövel, M. Moser, S. Erhard, M. Karszewski, A. Giesen, and U. Keller, “16.2-W average power from a diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:YAG thin disk laser,” Opt. Lett. 25(11), 859–861 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(1), 46–56 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Haiml, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, M. Luysberg, R. C. Lutz, P. Specht, and E. R. Weber, “Optical nonlinearity in low-temperature-grown GaAs: Microscopic limitations and optimization strategies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(21), 3134–3136 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. A. Au, D. Kopf, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “60-fs pulses from a diode-pumped Nd:glass laser,” Opt. Lett. 22(5), 307–309 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

F. X. Kärtner and U. Keller, “Stabilization of solitonlike pulses with a slow saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 20(1), 16–18 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Keller, D. A. B. Miller, G. D. Boyd, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and M. T. Asom, “Solid-state low-loss intracavity saturable absorber for Nd:YLF lasers: an antiresonant semiconductor Fabry-Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17(7), 505–507 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klenner, A.

Kopf, D.

J. A. Au, D. Kopf, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “60-fs pulses from a diode-pumped Nd:glass laser,” Opt. Lett. 22(5), 307–309 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kränkel, C.

C. Schriber, F. Emaury, A. Diebold, S. Link, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Dual-gain SESAM modelocked thin disk laser based on Yb:Lu₂O₃ and Yb:Sc₂O₃,” Opt. Express 22(16), 18979–18986 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Cutting-edge high-power ultrafast thin disk oscillators,” Appl. Sci. 3(2), 355–395 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Schriber, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Sub-100 femtosecond pulses from a SESAM modelocked thin disk laser,” Appl. Phys. B 106(3), 559–562 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in passively mode-locked high-power thin disk laser oscillators,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7054–7065 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Südmeyer, C. Kränkel, C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “High-power ultrafast thin disk laser oscillators and their potential for sub-100-femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 281–295 (2009).
[Crossref]

Krausz, F.

Limpert, J.

Link, S.

Lutz, R. C.

M. Haiml, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, M. Luysberg, R. C. Lutz, P. Specht, and E. R. Weber, “Optical nonlinearity in low-temperature-grown GaAs: Microscopic limitations and optimization strategies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(21), 3134–3136 (1999).
[Crossref]

Luysberg, M.

M. Haiml, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, M. Luysberg, R. C. Lutz, P. Specht, and E. R. Weber, “Optical nonlinearity in low-temperature-grown GaAs: Microscopic limitations and optimization strategies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(21), 3134–3136 (1999).
[Crossref]

Maas, D. J. H. C.

Magni, V.

Mangold, M.

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: design guidelines and damage thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 29–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mans, T.

Marchese, S. V.

T. Südmeyer, S. V. Marchese, S. Hashimoto, C. R. E. Baer, G. Gingras, B. Witzel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond laser oscillators for high-field science,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 599–604 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7571–7579 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, M. J.

G. D. Cole, W. Zhang, M. J. Martin, J. Ye, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Tenfold reduction of Brownian noise in optical interferometry,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 644–650 (2013).
[Crossref]

Matuschek, N.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Miller, D. A. B.

Morier-Genoud, F.

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(1), 46–56 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Haiml, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, M. Luysberg, R. C. Lutz, P. Specht, and E. R. Weber, “Optical nonlinearity in low-temperature-grown GaAs: Microscopic limitations and optimization strategies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(21), 3134–3136 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. A. Au, D. Kopf, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “60-fs pulses from a diode-pumped Nd:glass laser,” Opt. Lett. 22(5), 307–309 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moser, M.

Nayyar, V. P.

Opower, H.

A. Giesen, H. Hügel, A. Voss, K. Wittig, U. Brauch, and H. Opower, “Scalable concept for diode-pumped high-power solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58(5), 365–372 (1994).
[Crossref]

Paschotta, R.

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Paschotta and U. Keller, “Passive mode locking with slow saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 73(7), 653–662 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Aus der Au, G. J. Spühler, T. Südmeyer, R. Paschotta, R. Hövel, M. Moser, S. Erhard, M. Karszewski, A. Giesen, and U. Keller, “16.2-W average power from a diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:YAG thin disk laser,” Opt. Lett. 25(11), 859–861 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(1), 46–56 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pervak, V.

Petermann, K.

T. Südmeyer, C. Kränkel, C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “High-power ultrafast thin disk laser oscillators and their potential for sub-100-femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 281–295 (2009).
[Crossref]

Peters, R.

T. Südmeyer, C. Kränkel, C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “High-power ultrafast thin disk laser oscillators and their potential for sub-100-femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 281–295 (2009).
[Crossref]

Poprawe, R.

Pronin, O.

Rickman, B. L.

Rüdiger, A.

W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, and R. Schilling, “Heating by optical absorption and the performance of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 44(11), 7022–7036 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rudin, B.

Russbueldt, P.

Saraceno, C. J.

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, A. Diebold, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Suedmeyer, and U. Keller, “Toward millijoule-level high-power ultrafast thin-disk oscillators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(1), 1100318 (2015).

F. Emaury, A. Diebold, A. Klenner, C. J. Saraceno, S. Schilt, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Frequency comb offset dynamics of SESAM modelocked thin disk lasers,” Opt. Express 23(17), 21836–21856 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast thin-disk laser with 80 μJ pulse energy and 242 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 39(1), 9–12 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schriber, F. Emaury, A. Diebold, S. Link, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Dual-gain SESAM modelocked thin disk laser based on Yb:Lu₂O₃ and Yb:Sc₂O₃,” Opt. Express 22(16), 18979–18986 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Cutting-edge high-power ultrafast thin disk oscillators,” Appl. Sci. 3(2), 355–395 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Diebold, F. Emaury, C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Suedmeyer, and U. Keller, “62-fs pulses from a SESAM modelocked Yb:CALGO thin disk laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3842–3845 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Schriber, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Sub-100 femtosecond pulses from a SESAM modelocked thin disk laser,” Appl. Phys. B 106(3), 559–562 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in passively mode-locked high-power thin disk laser oscillators,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7054–7065 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “275 W average output power from a femtosecond thin disk oscillator operated in a vacuum environment,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23535–23541 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: design guidelines and damage thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 29–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Südmeyer, C. Kränkel, C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “High-power ultrafast thin disk laser oscillators and their potential for sub-100-femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 281–295 (2009).
[Crossref]

Schieffer, S. L.

Schilling, R.

W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, and R. Schilling, “Heating by optical absorption and the performance of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 44(11), 7022–7036 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schilt, S.

Schreiber, T.

Schriber, C.

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, A. Diebold, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Suedmeyer, and U. Keller, “Toward millijoule-level high-power ultrafast thin-disk oscillators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(1), 1100318 (2015).

C. Schriber, F. Emaury, A. Diebold, S. Link, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Dual-gain SESAM modelocked thin disk laser based on Yb:Lu₂O₃ and Yb:Sc₂O₃,” Opt. Express 22(16), 18979–18986 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast thin-disk laser with 80 μJ pulse energy and 242 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 39(1), 9–12 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Diebold, F. Emaury, C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Suedmeyer, and U. Keller, “62-fs pulses from a SESAM modelocked Yb:CALGO thin disk laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3842–3845 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Cutting-edge high-power ultrafast thin disk oscillators,” Appl. Sci. 3(2), 355–395 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Schriber, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Sub-100 femtosecond pulses from a SESAM modelocked thin disk laser,” Appl. Phys. B 106(3), 559–562 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “275 W average output power from a femtosecond thin disk oscillator operated in a vacuum environment,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23535–23541 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in passively mode-locked high-power thin disk laser oscillators,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7054–7065 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: design guidelines and damage thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 29–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

Schroeder, W. A.

Seise, E.

Siegner, U.

M. Haiml, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, M. Luysberg, R. C. Lutz, P. Specht, and E. R. Weber, “Optical nonlinearity in low-temperature-grown GaAs: Microscopic limitations and optimization strategies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(21), 3134–3136 (1999).
[Crossref]

Specht, P.

M. Haiml, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, M. Luysberg, R. C. Lutz, P. Specht, and E. R. Weber, “Optical nonlinearity in low-temperature-grown GaAs: Microscopic limitations and optimization strategies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(21), 3134–3136 (1999).
[Crossref]

Spühler, G. J.

Südmeyer, T.

F. Emaury, A. Diebold, A. Klenner, C. J. Saraceno, S. Schilt, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Frequency comb offset dynamics of SESAM modelocked thin disk lasers,” Opt. Express 23(17), 21836–21856 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast thin-disk laser with 80 μJ pulse energy and 242 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 39(1), 9–12 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Schriber, F. Emaury, A. Diebold, S. Link, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Dual-gain SESAM modelocked thin disk laser based on Yb:Lu₂O₃ and Yb:Sc₂O₃,” Opt. Express 22(16), 18979–18986 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Cutting-edge high-power ultrafast thin disk oscillators,” Appl. Sci. 3(2), 355–395 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: design guidelines and damage thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 29–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Schriber, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Sub-100 femtosecond pulses from a SESAM modelocked thin disk laser,” Appl. Phys. B 106(3), 559–562 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Frontiers in passively mode-locked high-power thin disk laser oscillators,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7054–7065 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “275 W average output power from a femtosecond thin disk oscillator operated in a vacuum environment,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23535–23541 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Südmeyer, C. Kränkel, C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “High-power ultrafast thin disk laser oscillators and their potential for sub-100-femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 281–295 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Südmeyer, S. V. Marchese, S. Hashimoto, C. R. E. Baer, G. Gingras, B. Witzel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond laser oscillators for high-field science,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 599–604 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7571–7579 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Aus der Au, G. J. Spühler, T. Südmeyer, R. Paschotta, R. Hövel, M. Moser, S. Erhard, M. Karszewski, A. Giesen, and U. Keller, “16.2-W average power from a diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:YAG thin disk laser,” Opt. Lett. 25(11), 859–861 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suedmeyer, T.

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, A. Diebold, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Suedmeyer, and U. Keller, “Toward millijoule-level high-power ultrafast thin-disk oscillators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(1), 1100318 (2015).

A. Diebold, F. Emaury, C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Suedmeyer, and U. Keller, “62-fs pulses from a SESAM modelocked Yb:CALGO thin disk laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3842–3845 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sutter, D.

Tropper, A. C.

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429(2), 67–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tünnermann, A.

Voss, A.

A. Giesen, H. Hügel, A. Voss, K. Wittig, U. Brauch, and H. Opower, “Scalable concept for diode-pumped high-power solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58(5), 365–372 (1994).
[Crossref]

Weber, E. R.

M. Haiml, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, M. Luysberg, R. C. Lutz, P. Specht, and E. R. Weber, “Optical nonlinearity in low-temperature-grown GaAs: Microscopic limitations and optimization strategies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(21), 3134–3136 (1999).
[Crossref]

Weingarten, K. J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Weitenberg, J.

Winkler, W.

W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, and R. Schilling, “Heating by optical absorption and the performance of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 44(11), 7022–7036 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wirth, C.

Wittig, K.

A. Giesen, H. Hügel, A. Voss, K. Wittig, U. Brauch, and H. Opower, “Scalable concept for diode-pumped high-power solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58(5), 365–372 (1994).
[Crossref]

Witzel, B.

T. Südmeyer, S. V. Marchese, S. Hashimoto, C. R. E. Baer, G. Gingras, B. Witzel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond laser oscillators for high-field science,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 599–604 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ye, J.

G. D. Cole, W. Zhang, M. J. Martin, J. Ye, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Tenfold reduction of Brownian noise in optical interferometry,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 644–650 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

G. D. Cole, W. Zhang, M. J. Martin, J. Ye, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Tenfold reduction of Brownian noise in optical interferometry,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 644–650 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (5)

A. Giesen, H. Hügel, A. Voss, K. Wittig, U. Brauch, and H. Opower, “Scalable concept for diode-pumped high-power solid-state lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58(5), 365–372 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. Paschotta and U. Keller, “Passive mode locking with slow saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 73(7), 653–662 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. Südmeyer, C. Kränkel, C. R. E. Baer, O. H. Heckl, C. J. Saraceno, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “High-power ultrafast thin disk laser oscillators and their potential for sub-100-femtosecond pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(2), 281–295 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, C. Schriber, M. Golling, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, T. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Sub-100 femtosecond pulses from a SESAM modelocked thin disk laser,” Appl. Phys. B 106(3), 559–562 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Haiml, R. Grange, and U. Keller, “Optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(3), 331–339 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Haiml, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, M. Luysberg, R. C. Lutz, P. Specht, and E. R. Weber, “Optical nonlinearity in low-temperature-grown GaAs: Microscopic limitations and optimization strategies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(21), 3134–3136 (1999).
[Crossref]

Appl. Sci. (1)

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, F. Emaury, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Hoffmann, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Cutting-edge high-power ultrafast thin disk oscillators,” Appl. Sci. 3(2), 355–395 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: design guidelines and damage thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18(1), 29–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, A. Diebold, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Suedmeyer, and U. Keller, “Toward millijoule-level high-power ultrafast thin-disk oscillators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1(1), 1100318 (2015).

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nat. Photonics (2)

T. Südmeyer, S. V. Marchese, S. Hashimoto, C. R. E. Baer, G. Gingras, B. Witzel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond laser oscillators for high-field science,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 599–604 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. D. Cole, W. Zhang, M. J. Martin, J. Ye, and M. Aspelmeyer, “Tenfold reduction of Brownian noise in optical interferometry,” Nat. Photonics 7(8), 644–650 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (10)

T. Eidam, S. Hanf, E. Seise, T. V. Andersen, T. Gabler, C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond fiber CPA system emitting 830 W average output power,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 94–96 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Russbueldt, T. Mans, J. Weitenberg, H. D. Hoffmann, and R. Poprawe, “Compact diode-pumped 1.1 kW Yb:YAG Innoslab femtosecond amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 35(24), 4169–4171 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Pronin, J. Brons, C. Grasse, V. Pervak, G. Boehm, M. C. Amann, V. L. Kalashnikov, A. Apolonski, and F. Krausz, “High-power 200 fs Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:YAG thin-disk oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 36(24), 4746–4748 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Au, D. Kopf, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “60-fs pulses from a diode-pumped Nd:glass laser,” Opt. Lett. 22(5), 307–309 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Keller, D. A. B. Miller, G. D. Boyd, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and M. T. Asom, “Solid-state low-loss intracavity saturable absorber for Nd:YLF lasers: an antiresonant semiconductor Fabry-Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17(7), 505–507 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. X. Kärtner and U. Keller, “Stabilization of solitonlike pulses with a slow saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 20(1), 16–18 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Aus der Au, G. J. Spühler, T. Südmeyer, R. Paschotta, R. Hövel, M. Moser, S. Erhard, M. Karszewski, A. Giesen, and U. Keller, “16.2-W average power from a diode-pumped femtosecond Yb:YAG thin disk laser,” Opt. Lett. 25(11), 859–861 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Brons, V. Pervak, E. Fedulova, D. Bauer, D. Sutter, V. Kalashnikov, A. Apolonskiy, O. Pronin, and F. Krausz, “Energy scaling of Kerr-lens mode-locked thin-disk oscillators,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6442–6445 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Diebold, F. Emaury, C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Golling, T. Suedmeyer, and U. Keller, “62-fs pulses from a SESAM modelocked Yb:CALGO thin disk laser,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3842–3845 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Saraceno, F. Emaury, C. Schriber, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast thin-disk laser with 80 μJ pulse energy and 242 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 39(1), 9–12 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rep. (1)

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429(2), 67–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

W. Winkler, K. Danzmann, A. Rüdiger, and R. Schilling, “Heating by optical absorption and the performance of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 44(11), 7022–7036 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

U. Keller, “Ultrafast solid-state lasers,” in Landolt-Börnstein. Laser Physics and Applications, Subvolume B: Laser Systems. Part I. G. Herziger, H. Weber, and R. Proprawe, eds. (Springer Verlag, 2007), pp. 33–167.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulation of laser cavity stability zones for different SESAM mode size diameters ranging from 0.8 mm, 2.5 mm, 5 mm to 7.5 mm, optimized for initially perfectly flat SESAMs. The cavity design for 2.5 mm SESAM laser spot diameter (blue) is similar to what is used in our current high power thin disk laser cavities, such as in the 275 W average power result [6]. A beam diameter of 5 mm (green) and 7.5 mm (red) with constant SESAM fluences would allow for intracavity average powers of approximately 4 times and 9 times the current values, respectively. In general, the width of the stability zone decreases approximately inversely proportional to the square of the SESAM mode size. In order for the cavity to remain stable, the SESAM focal power F (related for radially symmetric samples to the radius of curvature ROC via F = 2/ROC) must not change by more than approximately 0.35 m−1 compared to its cold value (2.5 mm of initial mode size), 0.07 m−1 (5 mm of initial mode size), and roughly 0.03 m−1 (7.5 mm of initial mode size). Thus, for larger mode sizes we even need to improve the flatness of the cold SESAMs (i.e. without any absorbed power) in order to ensure that astigmatisms are minimized. Additionally, SESAM thermal lensing needs to be addressed. We experimentally observed that increasing the beam diameter beyond 2.5 mm on non-optimized standard SESAMs leads to cavity instabilities.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematics of the different bonding techniques presented in this paper. Color code: gray – GaAs, green – AlAs, red – quantum well absorber section, light blue – etch stop, dark blue - metallization. a) For STND SESAMs, the molecular beam epitaxy grown structure and GaAs substrate are solder-bonded onto the heat sink, usually made of copper. b) For FCB SESAMs, the upside-down grown structure (including an etch stop layer between absorber and GaAs substrate) is metallized and vacuum soldered to a polished copper heat sink. Subsequently, the substrate and the etch stop layer are removed by wet etching. c) For the STB SESAMs contacted by Crystalline Mirror Solutions [25], an etch stop layer is grown between the GaAs substrate and the distributed Bragg reflector section. After growth, the GaAs substrate is removed by a chemo-mechanical etching process, which is followed by a selective wet chemical etch stop removal step. Finally, the remaining layers are directly bonded onto the heat sink, in this case polished silicon carbide. The far right picture for each bonding technique contains a photograph of the finalized samples.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measurements of recovery dynamics and nonlinear reflectivity of different SESAMs used for this study: a) Pump-probe measurements with t1/e, STND = 1.0 ps (red), t1/e,FCB = 1.9 ps (green), t1/e,STB = 1.2 ps (blue), t1/e,low-lossSTND = 50 ps (black). b) Nonlinear reflectivity measurements; the solid lines represent least-squared fits. Resulting parameters (according to [32]): STND SESAM: Fsat = 81 μJ/cm2, ΔR = 1.4%, ΔRns = 0.5%, F2 = 2430 mJ/cm2, FCB SESAM: Fsat = 63 μJ/cm2, ΔR = 1.2%, ΔRns = 0.4%, F2 = 7370 mJ/cm2, STB SESAM: Fsat = 81 μJ/cm2, ΔR = 1.4%, ΔRns = 0.5%, F2 = 4130 mJ/cm2, low-loss STND SESAM: Fsat = 120 μJ/cm2, ΔR = 1.1%, ΔRns < 0.1%, F2 = 7500 mJ/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Interferometric measurements of the cold surfaces of the processed SESAMs. Resulting radii of curvature (ROC): a) STND SESAM ROCx = 19 m, ROCy = −15 m; b) FCB SESAM ROCx = 24 m, ROCy = −16 m; c) Almost perfectly flat STB SESAM

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a) Measurement setup for thermal lensing and temperature rise: a high power single transverse fundamental mode continuous wave or pulsed beam at a center wavelength of 1030 nm is focused onto the SESAM under test. The rise in temperature is tracked by a thermal camera and the change in curvature is recorded by an interferometer. b) Measurement results for continuous wave beams for 200 μm of spot diameter. A clear linear increase in both temperature and focal power is observed. For the slope values extracted from all continuous wave measurements, see Table 1.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measurement for 400 μm spot diameter on the STND samples with average powers reaching up to 60 W (2.4 MHz pulse repetition rate, 1 ps pulse duration, 1030 nm center wavelength). a) Fit extracted from nonlinear reflectivity measurement of our STND SESAM, see Fig. 3(b), with each vertical line indicating one measurement point. b) Temperature and focal power increase over the whole pulsed measurement range. The black solid curve represents an exponential fit to our data. For pulsed incident powers corresponding to roughly 0.8% and 1.3% SESAM loss (indicated by the red and blue line in a) we extracted the slopes to our exponential fit. The corresponding temperature and focal power rises are 0.05°C/Wincident, 0.8 m−1/kWincident (0.8% SESAM losses), and 0.10°C/Wincident, 1.3 m−1/kWincident (1.3% SESAM losses).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Combined data from both our continuous wave and pulsed measurements: temperature changes (in °C/Wincident) and focal power changes (in m−1/kWincident) for 400 μm (a) and 800 μm (b) spot diameters. A clear linear dependence with the SESAM losses (i.e. with the absorbed average power) is visible, see also Table 2.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of continuous wave measurements, showing the temperature and curvature increases per incident continuous wave power unit for different beam spot diameters for the three different bonding techniques. The temperature increase T/Pinc is indicated in °C/Wincident, the focal power increase F/Pinc in m−1/kWincident.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of all continuous wave and pulsed measurements, showing the temperature and curvature increases per absorbed power unit for different beam spot diameters for the three different bonding techniques. The temperature increase T/Pabs is indicated in °C/Wabsorbed, the focal power increase F/Pabs in m−1/kWabsorbed.

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