Abstract

Dual-comb spectroscopy allows for the rapid, multiplexed acquisition of high-resolution spectra without the need for moving parts or low-resolution dispersive optics. This method of broadband spectroscopy is most often accomplished via tight phase locking of two mode-locked lasers or via sophisticated signal processing algorithms, and therefore, long integration times of phase coherent signals are difficult to achieve. Here we demonstrate an alternative approach to dual-comb spectroscopy using two phase modulator combs originating from a single continuous-wave laser capable of > 2 hours of coherent real-time averaging. The dual combs were generated by driving the phase modulators with step-recovery diodes where each comb consisted of > 250 teeth with 203 MHz spacing and spanned > 50 GHz region in the near-infrared. The step-recovery diodes are passive devices that provide low-phase-noise harmonics for efficient coupling into an enhancement cavity at picowatt optical powers. With this approach, we demonstrate the sensitivity to simultaneously monitor ambient levels of CO2, CO, HDO, and H2O in a single spectral region at a maximum acquisition rate of 150 kHz. Robust, compact, low-cost and widely tunable dual-comb systems could enable a network of distributed multiplexed optical sensors.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (2)

X. Yi, K. Vahala, J. Li, S. Diddams, G. Ycas, P. Plavchan, S. Leifer, J. Sandhu, G. Vasisht, P. Chen, P. Gao, J. Gagne, E. Furlan, M. Bottom, E. C. Martin, M. P. Fitzgerald, G. Doppmann, and C. Beichman, “Demonstration of a near-IR line-referenced electro-optical laser frequency comb for precision radial velocity measurements in astronomy,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10436 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Coddington, N. Newbury, and W. Swann, “Dual-comb spectroscopy,” Optica 3(4), 414–426 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (7)

Y. Bao, X. Yi, Z. Li, Q. Chen, J. Li, X. Fan, and X. Zhang, “A digitally generated ultrafine optical frequency comb for spectral measurements with 0.01-pm resolution and 0.7- μs response time,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(6), e300 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. B. Hébert, V. Michaud-Belleau, J. D. Anstie, J.-D. Deschênes, A. N. Luiten, and J. Genest, “Self-heterodyne interference spectroscopy using a comb generated by pseudo-random modulation,” Opt. Express 23(21), 27806–27818 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Martín-Mateos, M. Ruiz-Llata, J. Posada-Roman, and P. Acedo, “Dual comb architecture for fast spectroscopic measurements and spectral characterization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1309–1312 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Martín-Mateos, B. Jerez, and P. Acedo, “Dual electro-optic optical frequency combs for multiheterodyne molecular dispersion spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 23(16), 21149–21158 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Millot, S. Pitois, M. Yan, T. Hovhannisyan, A. Bendahmane, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Frequency-agile dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 27–30 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. A. Long, S. Wójtewicz, C. E. Miller, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequencyj-agile, rapid scanning cavity ring-down spectroscopy (FARS-CRDS) measurements of the (30012)←(00001) near-infrared carbon dioxide band,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 161, 35–40 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Durán, S. Tainta, and V. Torres-Company, “Ultrafast electrooptic dual-comb interferometry,” Opt. Express 23(23), 30557–30569 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (7)

A. J. Fleisher, B. J. Bjork, T. Q. Bui, K. C. Cossel, M. Okumura, and J. Ye, “Mid-infrared time-resolved frequency comb spectroscopy of transient free radicals,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(13), 2241–2246 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Long, A. J. Fleisher, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, K. Bielska, J. T. Hodges, and D. F. Plusquellic, “Multiheterodyne spectroscopy with optical frequency combs generated from a continuous-wave laser,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2688–2690 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. A. Long, A. J. Fleisher, S. Wójtewicz, and J. T. Hodges, “Quantum-noise-limited cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 115(2), 149–153 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. A. Long, G.-W. Truong, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy: absorption sensitivity of 2×10−12 cm−1 Hz−1/2 with a tunable diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 114(4), 489–495 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. B. Rieker, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, J. Kofler, A. M. Zolot, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, C. Cromer, G. Petron, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Frequency-comb-based remote sensing of greenhouse gases over kilometer air paths,” Optica 1(5), 290–298 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3375 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Torres-Company and A. M. Weiner, “Optical frequency comb technology for ultra-broadband radio-frequency photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(3), 368–393 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

G.-W. Truong, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, and D. A. Long, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 532–534 (2013).
[Crossref]

G.-W. Truong, D. A. Long, A. Cygan, D. Lisak, R. D. van Zee, and J. T. Hodges, “Comb-linked, cavity ring-down spectroscopy for measurements of molecular transition frequencies at the kHz-level,” J. Chem. Phys. 138(9), 094201 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Foltynowicz, P. Masłowski, A. J. Fleisher, B. J. Bjork, and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy in the mid-infrared: application to trace detection of hydrogen peroxide,” Appl. Phys. B 110(2), 163–175 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Klee, J. Davila-Rodriguez, C. Williams, and P. J. Delfyett, “Generalized spectral magnitude and phase retrieval algorithm for self-referenced multiheterodyne detection,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(23), 3758–3764 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent dual-comb spectroscopy at high signal-to-noise ratio,” Phys. Rev. A 82(4), 043817 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. R. Newbury, I. Coddington, and W. Swann, “Sensitivity of coherent dual-comb spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7929–7945 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 62(5), 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

J. M. Masciotti, J. M. Lasker, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital lock-in detection for discriminating multiple modulation frequencies with high accuracy and computational efficiency,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 57(1), 182–189 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent multiheterodyne spectroscopy using stabilized optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(1), 013902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb measurements of absolute optical frequencies and population transfer dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(2), 023001 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

S.-J. Lee, B. Widiyatmoko, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, “Ultrafast scanning speed optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb generators,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(2), L878–L880 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. J. Hood, H. J. Kimble, and J. Ye, “Characterization of high-finesse mirrors: Loss, phase shifts, and mode structure in an optical cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 64(3), 033804 (2001).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1993 (1)

M. Kourogi, K. Nakagawa, and M. Ohtsu, “Wide-span optical frequency comb generator for accurate optical frequency difference measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(10), 2693–2701 (1993).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

P. De Biévre, M. Gallet, N. E. Holden, and I. L. Barnes, “Isotopic abundances and atomic weights of the elements,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 13(3), 809–891 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Abshire, J. B.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 62(5), 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

Acedo, P.

P. Martín-Mateos, M. Ruiz-Llata, J. Posada-Roman, and P. Acedo, “Dual comb architecture for fast spectroscopic measurements and spectral characterization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1309–1312 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Martín-Mateos, B. Jerez, and P. Acedo, “Dual electro-optic optical frequency combs for multiheterodyne molecular dispersion spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 23(16), 21149–21158 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allan, G. R.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 62(5), 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

Anstie, J. D.

Babikov, Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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X. Yi, K. Vahala, J. Li, S. Diddams, G. Ycas, P. Plavchan, S. Leifer, J. Sandhu, G. Vasisht, P. Chen, P. Gao, J. Gagne, E. Furlan, M. Bottom, E. C. Martin, M. P. Fitzgerald, G. Doppmann, and C. Beichman, “Demonstration of a near-IR line-referenced electro-optical laser frequency comb for precision radial velocity measurements in astronomy,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10436 (2016).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Bizzocchi, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Cohen, E. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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A. J. Fleisher, B. J. Bjork, T. Q. Bui, K. C. Cossel, M. Okumura, and J. Ye, “Mid-infrared time-resolved frequency comb spectroscopy of transient free radicals,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(13), 2241–2246 (2014).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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X. Yi, K. Vahala, J. Li, S. Diddams, G. Ycas, P. Plavchan, S. Leifer, J. Sandhu, G. Vasisht, P. Chen, P. Gao, J. Gagne, E. Furlan, M. Bottom, E. C. Martin, M. P. Fitzgerald, G. Doppmann, and C. Beichman, “Demonstration of a near-IR line-referenced electro-optical laser frequency comb for precision radial velocity measurements in astronomy,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10436 (2016).
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Fitzgerald, M. P.

X. Yi, K. Vahala, J. Li, S. Diddams, G. Ycas, P. Plavchan, S. Leifer, J. Sandhu, G. Vasisht, P. Chen, P. Gao, J. Gagne, E. Furlan, M. Bottom, E. C. Martin, M. P. Fitzgerald, G. Doppmann, and C. Beichman, “Demonstration of a near-IR line-referenced electro-optical laser frequency comb for precision radial velocity measurements in astronomy,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10436 (2016).
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Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Fleisher, A. J.

D. A. Long, A. J. Fleisher, S. Wójtewicz, and J. T. Hodges, “Quantum-noise-limited cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 115(2), 149–153 (2014).
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D. A. Long, A. J. Fleisher, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, K. Bielska, J. T. Hodges, and D. F. Plusquellic, “Multiheterodyne spectroscopy with optical frequency combs generated from a continuous-wave laser,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2688–2690 (2014).
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A. J. Fleisher, B. J. Bjork, T. Q. Bui, K. C. Cossel, M. Okumura, and J. Ye, “Mid-infrared time-resolved frequency comb spectroscopy of transient free radicals,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(13), 2241–2246 (2014).
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A. Foltynowicz, P. Masłowski, A. J. Fleisher, B. J. Bjork, and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy in the mid-infrared: application to trace detection of hydrogen peroxide,” Appl. Phys. B 110(2), 163–175 (2013).
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Foltynowicz, A.

A. Foltynowicz, P. Masłowski, A. J. Fleisher, B. J. Bjork, and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy in the mid-infrared: application to trace detection of hydrogen peroxide,” Appl. Phys. B 110(2), 163–175 (2013).
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Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
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Furlan, E.

X. Yi, K. Vahala, J. Li, S. Diddams, G. Ycas, P. Plavchan, S. Leifer, J. Sandhu, G. Vasisht, P. Chen, P. Gao, J. Gagne, E. Furlan, M. Bottom, E. C. Martin, M. P. Fitzgerald, G. Doppmann, and C. Beichman, “Demonstration of a near-IR line-referenced electro-optical laser frequency comb for precision radial velocity measurements in astronomy,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10436 (2016).
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Gagne, J.

X. Yi, K. Vahala, J. Li, S. Diddams, G. Ycas, P. Plavchan, S. Leifer, J. Sandhu, G. Vasisht, P. Chen, P. Gao, J. Gagne, E. Furlan, M. Bottom, E. C. Martin, M. P. Fitzgerald, G. Doppmann, and C. Beichman, “Demonstration of a near-IR line-referenced electro-optical laser frequency comb for precision radial velocity measurements in astronomy,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10436 (2016).
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Gallet, M.

P. De Biévre, M. Gallet, N. E. Holden, and I. L. Barnes, “Isotopic abundances and atomic weights of the elements,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 13(3), 809–891 (1984).
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Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Gao, P.

X. Yi, K. Vahala, J. Li, S. Diddams, G. Ycas, P. Plavchan, S. Leifer, J. Sandhu, G. Vasisht, P. Chen, P. Gao, J. Gagne, E. Furlan, M. Bottom, E. C. Martin, M. P. Fitzgerald, G. Doppmann, and C. Beichman, “Demonstration of a near-IR line-referenced electro-optical laser frequency comb for precision radial velocity measurements in astronomy,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10436 (2016).
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Genest, J.

Giorgetta, F. R.

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Guelachvili, G.

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3375 (2014).
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T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
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B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010).
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Hall, J. L.

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, T. Daly, and J. L. Hall, “Highly selective terahertz optical frequency comb generator,” Opt. Lett. 22(5), 301–303 (1997).
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R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
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Hänsch, T. W.

G. Millot, S. Pitois, M. Yan, T. Hovhannisyan, A. Bendahmane, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Frequency-agile dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 27–30 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3375 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010).
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Harrison, J. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Hartmann, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Hasselbrack, W. E.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 62(5), 770–783 (2010).
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Hébert, N. B.

Hielscher, A. H.

J. M. Masciotti, J. M. Lasker, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital lock-in detection for discriminating multiple modulation frequencies with high accuracy and computational efficiency,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 57(1), 182–189 (2008).
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Hill, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Hodges, J. T.

D. A. Long, S. Wójtewicz, C. E. Miller, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequencyj-agile, rapid scanning cavity ring-down spectroscopy (FARS-CRDS) measurements of the (30012)←(00001) near-infrared carbon dioxide band,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 161, 35–40 (2015).
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D. A. Long, A. J. Fleisher, S. Wójtewicz, and J. T. Hodges, “Quantum-noise-limited cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 115(2), 149–153 (2014).
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D. A. Long, G.-W. Truong, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy: absorption sensitivity of 2×10−12 cm−1 Hz−1/2 with a tunable diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 114(4), 489–495 (2014).
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D. A. Long, A. J. Fleisher, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, K. Bielska, J. T. Hodges, and D. F. Plusquellic, “Multiheterodyne spectroscopy with optical frequency combs generated from a continuous-wave laser,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2688–2690 (2014).
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G.-W. Truong, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, and D. A. Long, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 532–534 (2013).
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G.-W. Truong, D. A. Long, A. Cygan, D. Lisak, R. D. van Zee, and J. T. Hodges, “Comb-linked, cavity ring-down spectroscopy for measurements of molecular transition frequencies at the kHz-level,” J. Chem. Phys. 138(9), 094201 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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J. T. Hodges, S. E. Maxwell, Z. D. Reed, H. Lin, K. Sung, V. M. Devi, T. Warneke, P. Spietz, H. Tran, and T. Delahaye, “Precise methane absorption measurements in the 1.64 μm spectral region for the MERLIN mission,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos.under review.

Holden, N. E.

P. De Biévre, M. Gallet, N. E. Holden, and I. L. Barnes, “Isotopic abundances and atomic weights of the elements,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 13(3), 809–891 (1984).
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Holzner, S.

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010).
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Hood, C. J.

C. J. Hood, H. J. Kimble, and J. Ye, “Characterization of high-finesse mirrors: Loss, phase shifts, and mode structure in an optical cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 64(3), 033804 (2001).
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Hough, J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
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Hovhannisyan, T.

G. Millot, S. Pitois, M. Yan, T. Hovhannisyan, A. Bendahmane, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Frequency-agile dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 27–30 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, C.-B.

Ideguchi, T.

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3375 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ideguchi, S. Holzner, B. Bernhardt, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Coherent Raman spectro-imaging with laser frequency combs,” Nature 502(7471), 355–358 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Jacquet, P.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010).
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Jacquey, M.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010).
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Jerez, B.

Jolly, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Kawa, S. R.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 62(5), 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kimble, H. J.

C. J. Hood, H. J. Kimble, and J. Ye, “Characterization of high-finesse mirrors: Loss, phase shifts, and mode structure in an optical cavity,” Phys. Rev. A 64(3), 033804 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klee, A.

Kobayashi, Y.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010).
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Kofler, J.

Kourogi, M.

S.-J. Lee, B. Widiyatmoko, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, “Ultrafast scanning speed optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb generators,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(2), L878–L880 (2001).
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M. Kourogi, K. Nakagawa, and M. Ohtsu, “Wide-span optical frequency comb generator for accurate optical frequency difference measurement,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(10), 2693–2701 (1993).
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Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[Crossref]

Lamouroux, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lasker, J. M.

J. M. Masciotti, J. M. Lasker, and A. H. Hielscher, “Digital lock-in detection for discriminating multiple modulation frequencies with high accuracy and computational efficiency,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 57(1), 182–189 (2008).
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X. Yi, K. Vahala, J. Li, S. Diddams, G. Ycas, P. Plavchan, S. Leifer, J. Sandhu, G. Vasisht, P. Chen, P. Gao, J. Gagne, E. Furlan, M. Bottom, E. C. Martin, M. P. Fitzgerald, G. Doppmann, and C. Beichman, “Demonstration of a near-IR line-referenced electro-optical laser frequency comb for precision radial velocity measurements in astronomy,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10436 (2016).
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Plusquellic, D. F.

D. A. Long, G.-W. Truong, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy: absorption sensitivity of 2×10−12 cm−1 Hz−1/2 with a tunable diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 114(4), 489–495 (2014).
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D. A. Long, A. J. Fleisher, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, K. Bielska, J. T. Hodges, and D. F. Plusquellic, “Multiheterodyne spectroscopy with optical frequency combs generated from a continuous-wave laser,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2688–2690 (2014).
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G.-W. Truong, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, and D. A. Long, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 532–534 (2013).
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Poisson, A.

T. Ideguchi, A. Poisson, G. Guelachvili, N. Picqué, and T. W. Hänsch, “Adaptive real-time dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3375 (2014).
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Polovtseva, E. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Posada-Roman, J.

P. Martín-Mateos, M. Ruiz-Llata, J. Posada-Roman, and P. Acedo, “Dual comb architecture for fast spectroscopic measurements and spectral characterization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1309–1312 (2015).
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Potvin, S.

Reed, Z. D.

J. T. Hodges, S. E. Maxwell, Z. D. Reed, H. Lin, K. Sung, V. M. Devi, T. Warneke, P. Spietz, H. Tran, and T. Delahaye, “Precise methane absorption measurements in the 1.64 μm spectral region for the MERLIN mission,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos.under review.

Richard, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Rieker, G. B.

Riris, H.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 62(5), 770–783 (2010).
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Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Roy, J.

Ruiz-Llata, M.

P. Martín-Mateos, M. Ruiz-Llata, J. Posada-Roman, and P. Acedo, “Dual comb architecture for fast spectroscopic measurements and spectral characterization,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(12), 1309–1312 (2015).
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Sandhu, J.

X. Yi, K. Vahala, J. Li, S. Diddams, G. Ycas, P. Plavchan, S. Leifer, J. Sandhu, G. Vasisht, P. Chen, P. Gao, J. Gagne, E. Furlan, M. Bottom, E. C. Martin, M. P. Fitzgerald, G. Doppmann, and C. Beichman, “Demonstration of a near-IR line-referenced electro-optical laser frequency comb for precision radial velocity measurements in astronomy,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10436 (2016).
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Schiller, S.

Sinclair, L. C.

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Spietz, P.

J. T. Hodges, S. E. Maxwell, Z. D. Reed, H. Lin, K. Sung, V. M. Devi, T. Warneke, P. Spietz, H. Tran, and T. Delahaye, “Precise methane absorption measurements in the 1.64 μm spectral region for the MERLIN mission,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos.under review.

Starikova, E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb measurements of absolute optical frequencies and population transfer dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(2), 023001 (2005).
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Sun, X.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 62(5), 770–783 (2010).
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Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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J. T. Hodges, S. E. Maxwell, Z. D. Reed, H. Lin, K. Sung, V. M. Devi, T. Warneke, P. Spietz, H. Tran, and T. Delahaye, “Precise methane absorption measurements in the 1.64 μm spectral region for the MERLIN mission,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos.under review.

Swann, W.

Swann, W. C.

G. B. Rieker, F. R. Giorgetta, W. C. Swann, J. Kofler, A. M. Zolot, L. C. Sinclair, E. Baumann, C. Cromer, G. Petron, C. Sweeney, P. P. Tans, I. Coddington, and N. R. Newbury, “Frequency-comb-based remote sensing of greenhouse gases over kilometer air paths,” Optica 1(5), 290–298 (2014).
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Tainta, S.

Tans, P. P.

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Tran, H.

J. T. Hodges, S. E. Maxwell, Z. D. Reed, H. Lin, K. Sung, V. M. Devi, T. Warneke, P. Spietz, H. Tran, and T. Delahaye, “Precise methane absorption measurements in the 1.64 μm spectral region for the MERLIN mission,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos.under review.

Truong, G.-W.

D. A. Long, G.-W. Truong, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy: absorption sensitivity of 2×10−12 cm−1 Hz−1/2 with a tunable diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 114(4), 489–495 (2014).
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G.-W. Truong, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, and D. A. Long, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 532–534 (2013).
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G.-W. Truong, D. A. Long, A. Cygan, D. Lisak, R. D. van Zee, and J. T. Hodges, “Comb-linked, cavity ring-down spectroscopy for measurements of molecular transition frequencies at the kHz-level,” J. Chem. Phys. 138(9), 094201 (2013).
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Tyuterev, V. G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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X. Yi, K. Vahala, J. Li, S. Diddams, G. Ycas, P. Plavchan, S. Leifer, J. Sandhu, G. Vasisht, P. Chen, P. Gao, J. Gagne, E. Furlan, M. Bottom, E. C. Martin, M. P. Fitzgerald, G. Doppmann, and C. Beichman, “Demonstration of a near-IR line-referenced electro-optical laser frequency comb for precision radial velocity measurements in astronomy,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10436 (2016).
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van Zee, R. D.

D. A. Long, G.-W. Truong, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy: absorption sensitivity of 2×10−12 cm−1 Hz−1/2 with a tunable diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 114(4), 489–495 (2014).
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G.-W. Truong, K. O. Douglass, S. E. Maxwell, R. D. van Zee, D. F. Plusquellic, J. T. Hodges, and D. A. Long, “Frequency-agile, rapid scanning spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 532–534 (2013).
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G.-W. Truong, D. A. Long, A. Cygan, D. Lisak, R. D. van Zee, and J. T. Hodges, “Comb-linked, cavity ring-down spectroscopy for measurements of molecular transition frequencies at the kHz-level,” J. Chem. Phys. 138(9), 094201 (2013).
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Vasisht, G.

X. Yi, K. Vahala, J. Li, S. Diddams, G. Ycas, P. Plavchan, S. Leifer, J. Sandhu, G. Vasisht, P. Chen, P. Gao, J. Gagne, E. Furlan, M. Bottom, E. C. Martin, M. P. Fitzgerald, G. Doppmann, and C. Beichman, “Demonstration of a near-IR line-referenced electro-optical laser frequency comb for precision radial velocity measurements in astronomy,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10436 (2016).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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J. T. Hodges, S. E. Maxwell, Z. D. Reed, H. Lin, K. Sung, V. M. Devi, T. Warneke, P. Spietz, H. Tran, and T. Delahaye, “Precise methane absorption measurements in the 1.64 μm spectral region for the MERLIN mission,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos.under review.

Weaver, C. J.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus B Chem. Phys. Meterol. 62(5), 770–783 (2010).
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Weiner, A. M.

V. Torres-Company and A. M. Weiner, “Optical frequency comb technology for ultra-broadband radio-frequency photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(3), 368–393 (2014).
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F. Ferdous, D. E. Leaird, C.-B. Huang, and A. M. Weiner, “Dual-comb electric-field cross-correlation technique for optical arbitrary waveform characterization,” Opt. Lett. 34(24), 3875–3877 (2009).
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Widiyatmoko, B.

S.-J. Lee, B. Widiyatmoko, M. Kourogi, and M. Ohtsu, “Ultrafast scanning speed optical coherence tomography using optical frequency comb generators,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40(2), L878–L880 (2001).
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Williams, C.

Wójtewicz, S.

D. A. Long, S. Wójtewicz, C. E. Miller, and J. T. Hodges, “Frequencyj-agile, rapid scanning cavity ring-down spectroscopy (FARS-CRDS) measurements of the (30012)←(00001) near-infrared carbon dioxide band,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 161, 35–40 (2015).
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D. A. Long, A. J. Fleisher, S. Wójtewicz, and J. T. Hodges, “Quantum-noise-limited cavity ring-down spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 115(2), 149–153 (2014).
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Yan, M.

G. Millot, S. Pitois, M. Yan, T. Hovhannisyan, A. Bendahmane, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Frequency-agile dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 10(1), 27–30 (2015).
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Ycas, G.

X. Yi, K. Vahala, J. Li, S. Diddams, G. Ycas, P. Plavchan, S. Leifer, J. Sandhu, G. Vasisht, P. Chen, P. Gao, J. Gagne, E. Furlan, M. Bottom, E. C. Martin, M. P. Fitzgerald, G. Doppmann, and C. Beichman, “Demonstration of a near-IR line-referenced electro-optical laser frequency comb for precision radial velocity measurements in astronomy,” Nat. Commun. 7, 10436 (2016).
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Ye, J.

A. J. Fleisher, B. J. Bjork, T. Q. Bui, K. C. Cossel, M. Okumura, and J. Ye, “Mid-infrared time-resolved frequency comb spectroscopy of transient free radicals,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(13), 2241–2246 (2014).
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A. Foltynowicz, P. Masłowski, A. J. Fleisher, B. J. Bjork, and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy in the mid-infrared: application to trace detection of hydrogen peroxide,” Appl. Phys. B 110(2), 163–175 (2013).
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A. Marian, M. C. Stowe, D. Felinto, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb measurements of absolute optical frequencies and population transfer dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(2), 023001 (2005).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Block diagram of the dual-comb spectrometer. a, Optical components are illustrated in blue, whereas electronic components are illustrated in black. Fiber optics and free-space laser propagation are illustrated with solid and dashed blue arrows, respectively. Abbreviations used in a are CW, continuous-wave, AOM, acousto-optic modulator, EOM, electro-optic modulator, PD, photodetector, BPF, bandpass filter, A, amplifier, PFD, phase-frequency detector, Ref, reference, LF, loop filter, VCO, voltage-controlled oscillator, FG, function generator, SRD, step-recovery diode, and PC, personal computer. b, c, Time (top) and frequency (bottom) domain spectra of the step-recovery diode (left, gray) and the optical interferogram (right, blue), respectively. In b, the attenuated time trace was sampled using a 4  ×  1010 s−1 oscilloscope with a 4 GHz bandwidth, whereas the attenuated power spectrum was recorded using a frequency-swept spectrum analyzer with a bandwidth of 14 GHz. In c, the time-averaged trace of two interferograms sampled using a 7.5  ×  108 s−1 digitizer is shown, along with the corresponding Fourier transform of an averaged 4 ms time trace.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Coherent averaging of optical interferograms. a, Optical heterodyne beat signal between the 15th harmonics of the probe and local oscillator (LO) combs at a down-converted frequency of 60 MHz. The black trace shows the free-running beating between the two comb teeth, whereas the red trace shows the same beat, but with the AOM phase lock engaged. Both traces were recorded on a spectrum analyzer with 10 s of averaging and a 10 Hz resolution bandwidth (RBW). In the inset, the trace with the AOM phase lock engaged is shown in more detail. This trace was time averaged for 10 s with a 200 mHz RBW. All 257 down-converted comb teeth had a RBW-limited linewidth of 200 mHz when the AOM was phase locked. b, The inverse of the time-domain dual-comb signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at 60 MHz is plotted versus the number of averaged acquisitions n. The acquisition and real-time averaging of successive time traces containing 800 interferograms (4 ms long) was triggered at Δfmod. The red dashed line represents an increase in SNR proportional to n , the expected trend for coherent signal averaging. The measured SNR−1 follows the expected trend for 2  ×  106 averaged acquisitions, or a total time of 2.2 hours as highlighted by the red arrows.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Greater than 250 comb teeth are revealed. The averaged frequency-domain power spectrum of 1  ×  102 (blue) and 1  ×  105 (cyan) acquired time traces, respectively. Each individual time trace was 4 ms long, and real-time coherent averaging was performed with 99.9 % throughput (duty cycle). A 30 dB reduction in the power spectrum (black double-headed arrow) is expected for an increase in the amplitude SNR proportional to n .
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Dual-comb spectrum of synthetic air. Shown in the top panel is the normalized transmission spectrum of CO2, CO, HDO, and H2O in air at a total pressure of 13 kPa (black dots, 1 000 averages). A nonlinear least-squares fit (red line) yielded the following mole fractions: CO2, 320(13) μmol/mol, CO, 131(11) μmol/mol, HDO, 12.8(1.5) μmol/mol, and H2O, 4.1(5) %, respectively. The HDO mole fraction and uncertainty is derived from its known isotopic abundance relative to that of H2O [37]. As seen in the inset, the standard deviation of the spectral noise in areas without molecular absorption was 0.53 %, which corresponds to an intensity absorption coefficient of α  =  1.2  ×  10−8 cm−1 in a total integration time of T = 320 s. The average optical power per comb tooth at the photodetector over the entire 12 GHz-wide inset (60 teeth) was ≈ 650 pW. The fit residuals (maroon line) are shown in their entirety in the bottom panel.

Equations (3)

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E ˜ t ( ν )= E ˜ 0 t m t m exp[ ( α( ν )L+iΔφ( ν ) ) /2 ] 1 r m r m exp( α( ν )LiΔφ( ν ) )
α( ν )=S n x Re( g ˜ ( ν ) )
I t ( ν ) I t,0 ( ν ) = T m exp( α( ν )L /2 ) 1 R m exp( α( ν )L )

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