Abstract

A sensor system based on a continuous wave, external-cavity quantum-cascade laser (CW EC-QCL) was demonstrated for simultaneous detection of atmospheric H2O, HDO, N2O and CH4 using a compact, dense pattern multi-pass gas cell with an effective path-length of 57.6 m. The EC-QCL with a mode-hop-free spectral range of 1225-1285 cm−1 operating at ~7.8 µm was scanned covering four neighboring absorption lines, for H2O at 1281.161 cm−1, HDO at 1281.455 cm−1, N2O at 1281.53 cm−1 and CH4 at 1281.61 cm−1. A first-harmonic-normalized wavelength modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic detection (WMS-2f/1f) strategy was employed for data processing. An Allan-Werle deviation analysis indicated that minimum detection limits of 1.77 ppmv for H2O, 3.92 ppbv for HDO, 1.43 ppbv for N2O, and 2.2 ppbv for CH4 were achieved with integration times of 50-s, 50-s, 100-s and 129-s, respectively. Experimental measurements of ambient air are also reported.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]

2016 (1)

L. Dong, C. Li, N. P. Sanchez, A. K. Gluszek, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact CH4 sensor system based on a continuous-wave, low power consumption, room temperature interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 011106 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

2014 (5)

M. Jahjah, W. Ren, P. Stefański, R. Lewicki, J. Zhang, W. Jiang, J. Tarka, and F. K. Tittel, “A compact QCL based methane and nitrous oxide sensor for environmental and medical applications,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2065–2069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li, U. Parchatka, and H. Fischer, “A formaldehyde trace gas sensor based on a thermoelectrically cooled CW-DFB quantum cascade laser,” Anal. Methods 6(15), 5483–5488 (2014).
[Crossref]

W. Ren, W. Jiang, and F. K. Tittel, “Single-QCL-based absorption sensor for simultaneous trace-gas detection of CH4 and N2O,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 245–251 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Cao, N. P. Sanchez, W. Jiang, W. Ren, R. Lewicki, D. Jiang, and R. J. Griffin, “Multi-pass absorption spectroscopy for H2O2 detection using a CW DFB-QCL,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3, 549–558 (2014).

I. Bamberger, J. Stieger, N. Buchmann, and W. Eugster, “Spatial variability of methane: attributing atmospheric concentrations to emissions,” Environ. Pollut. 190, 65–74 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, and L. Brown, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Krzempek, M. Jahjah, R. Lewicki, P. Stefański, S. So, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “CW DFB RT diode laser-based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane using a novel compact multipass gas absorption cell,” Appl. Phys. B 112(4), 461–465 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

X. Chao, J. Jeffries, and R. Hanson, “Wavelength-modulation-spectroscopy for real-time, in situ NO detection in combustion gases with a 5.2 μm quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 106(4), 987–997 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Noone, “Pairing measurements of the water vapor isotope ratio with humidity to deduce atmospheric moistening and dehydration in the tropical midtroposphere,” J. Clim. 25(13), 4476–4494 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

S. A. Montzka, E. J. Dlugokencky, and J. H. Butler, “Non-CO2 greenhouse gases and climate change,” Nature 476(7358), 43–50 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

G. Hancock, J. Van Helden, R. Peverall, G. Ritchie, and R. Walker, “Direct and wavelength modulation spectroscopy using a cw external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 201110 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Calibration-free wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for measurements of gas temperature and concentration in harsh environments,” Appl. Opt. 48(29), 5546–5560 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. Curl, F. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

H. Li, A. Farooq, J. Jeffries, and R. Hanson, “Near-infrared diode laser absorption sensor for rapid measurements of temperature and water vapor in a shock tube,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 407–416 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

H. Li, G. B. Rieker, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Extension of wavelength-modulation spectroscopy to large modulation depth for diode laser absorption measurements in high-pressure gases,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1052–1061 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schneider, F. Hase, and T. Blumenstock, “Ground-based remote sensing of HDO/H2O ratio profiles: introduction and validation of an innovative retrieval approach,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 4705–4722 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

G. Wysocki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Maulini, J.-M. Bulliard, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade laser for high resolution spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81(6), 769–777 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3325–3335 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

D. Rehle, D. Leleux, M. Erdelyi, F. Tittel, M. Fraser, and S. Friedfeld, “Ambient formaldehyde detection with a laser spectrometer based on difference-frequency generation in PPLN,” Appl. Phys. B 72(8), 947–952 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

Allen, M.

R. K. Pachauri, M. Allen, V. Barros, J. Broome, W. Cramer, R. Christ, J. Church, L. Clarke, Q. Dahe, and P. Dasgupta, “Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change” (2014).

Babikov, Y.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, and L. Brown, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baillargeon, J. N.

Bamberger, I.

I. Bamberger, J. Stieger, N. Buchmann, and W. Eugster, “Spatial variability of methane: attributing atmospheric concentrations to emissions,” Environ. Pollut. 190, 65–74 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbe, A.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, and L. Brown, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barros, V.

R. K. Pachauri, M. Allen, V. Barros, J. Broome, W. Cramer, R. Christ, J. Church, L. Clarke, Q. Dahe, and P. Dasgupta, “Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change” (2014).

Benner, D. C.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, and L. Brown, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bergamaschi, P.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bergmann, D.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bernath, P.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, and L. Brown, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Birk, M.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, and L. Brown, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bizzocchi, L.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, and L. Brown, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Blake, D. R.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Blumenstock, T.

M. Schneider, F. Hase, and T. Blumenstock, “Ground-based remote sensing of HDO/H2O ratio profiles: introduction and validation of an innovative retrieval approach,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 4705–4722 (2006).
[Crossref]

Boudon, V.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, and L. Brown, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bour, D.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. Curl, F. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bousquet, P.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Broome, J.

R. K. Pachauri, M. Allen, V. Barros, J. Broome, W. Cramer, R. Christ, J. Church, L. Clarke, Q. Dahe, and P. Dasgupta, “Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change” (2014).

Brown, L.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, and L. Brown, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bruhwiler, L.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Buchmann, N.

I. Bamberger, J. Stieger, N. Buchmann, and W. Eugster, “Spatial variability of methane: attributing atmospheric concentrations to emissions,” Environ. Pollut. 190, 65–74 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bulliard, J.-M.

G. Wysocki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Maulini, J.-M. Bulliard, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade laser for high resolution spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81(6), 769–777 (2005).
[Crossref]

Butler, J. H.

S. A. Montzka, E. J. Dlugokencky, and J. H. Butler, “Non-CO2 greenhouse gases and climate change,” Nature 476(7358), 43–50 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cameron-Smith, P.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Canadell, J. G.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cao, Y.

Y. Cao, N. P. Sanchez, W. Jiang, R. J. Griffin, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, C. E. Zah, and F. K. Tittel, “Simultaneous atmospheric nitrous oxide, methane and water vapor detection with a single continuous wave quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2121–2132 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cao, N. P. Sanchez, W. Jiang, W. Ren, R. Lewicki, D. Jiang, and R. J. Griffin, “Multi-pass absorption spectroscopy for H2O2 detection using a CW DFB-QCL,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3, 549–558 (2014).

Capasso, F.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. Curl, F. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Effective utilization of quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers in absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 39(24), 4425–4430 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castaldi, S.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chao, X.

X. Chao, J. Jeffries, and R. Hanson, “Wavelength-modulation-spectroscopy for real-time, in situ NO detection in combustion gases with a 5.2 μm quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 106(4), 987–997 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chevallier, F.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cho, A. Y.

Christ, R.

R. K. Pachauri, M. Allen, V. Barros, J. Broome, W. Cramer, R. Christ, J. Church, L. Clarke, Q. Dahe, and P. Dasgupta, “Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change” (2014).

Church, J.

R. K. Pachauri, M. Allen, V. Barros, J. Broome, W. Cramer, R. Christ, J. Church, L. Clarke, Q. Dahe, and P. Dasgupta, “Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change” (2014).

Ciais, P.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Clarke, L.

R. K. Pachauri, M. Allen, V. Barros, J. Broome, W. Cramer, R. Christ, J. Church, L. Clarke, Q. Dahe, and P. Dasgupta, “Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change” (2014).

Corzine, S.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. Curl, F. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cramer, W.

R. K. Pachauri, M. Allen, V. Barros, J. Broome, W. Cramer, R. Christ, J. Church, L. Clarke, Q. Dahe, and P. Dasgupta, “Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change” (2014).

Curl, R.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. Curl, F. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Curl, R. F.

G. Wysocki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Maulini, J.-M. Bulliard, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade laser for high resolution spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81(6), 769–777 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Effective utilization of quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers in absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 39(24), 4425–4430 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dahe, Q.

R. K. Pachauri, M. Allen, V. Barros, J. Broome, W. Cramer, R. Christ, J. Church, L. Clarke, Q. Dahe, and P. Dasgupta, “Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change” (2014).

Dasgupta, P.

R. K. Pachauri, M. Allen, V. Barros, J. Broome, W. Cramer, R. Christ, J. Church, L. Clarke, Q. Dahe, and P. Dasgupta, “Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change” (2014).

Diehl, L.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. Curl, F. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dlugokencky, E. J.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. A. Montzka, E. J. Dlugokencky, and J. H. Butler, “Non-CO2 greenhouse gases and climate change,” Nature 476(7358), 43–50 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dong, L.

L. Dong, C. Li, N. P. Sanchez, A. K. Gluszek, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact CH4 sensor system based on a continuous-wave, low power consumption, room temperature interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 011106 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Dong, Y. Yu, C. Li, S. So, and F. K. Tittel, “Ppb-level formaldehyde detection using a CW room-temperature interband cascade laser and a miniature dense pattern multipass gas cell,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19821–19830 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erdelyi, M.

D. Rehle, D. Leleux, M. Erdelyi, F. Tittel, M. Fraser, and S. Friedfeld, “Ambient formaldehyde detection with a laser spectrometer based on difference-frequency generation in PPLN,” Appl. Phys. B 72(8), 947–952 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eugster, W.

I. Bamberger, J. Stieger, N. Buchmann, and W. Eugster, “Spatial variability of methane: attributing atmospheric concentrations to emissions,” Environ. Pollut. 190, 65–74 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faist, J.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. Curl, F. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Wysocki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Maulini, J.-M. Bulliard, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade laser for high resolution spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81(6), 769–777 (2005).
[Crossref]

Farooq, A.

H. Li, A. Farooq, J. Jeffries, and R. Hanson, “Near-infrared diode laser absorption sensor for rapid measurements of temperature and water vapor in a shock tube,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 407–416 (2007).
[Crossref]

Feng, L.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fischer, H.

J. Li, U. Parchatka, and H. Fischer, “A formaldehyde trace gas sensor based on a thermoelectrically cooled CW-DFB quantum cascade laser,” Anal. Methods 6(15), 5483–5488 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fraser, A.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fraser, M.

D. Rehle, D. Leleux, M. Erdelyi, F. Tittel, M. Fraser, and S. Friedfeld, “Ambient formaldehyde detection with a laser spectrometer based on difference-frequency generation in PPLN,” Appl. Phys. B 72(8), 947–952 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fraser, P. J.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Friedfeld, S.

D. Rehle, D. Leleux, M. Erdelyi, F. Tittel, M. Fraser, and S. Friedfeld, “Ambient formaldehyde detection with a laser spectrometer based on difference-frequency generation in PPLN,” Appl. Phys. B 72(8), 947–952 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giovannini, M.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. Curl, F. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gluszek, A. K.

L. Dong, C. Li, N. P. Sanchez, A. K. Gluszek, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact CH4 sensor system based on a continuous-wave, low power consumption, room temperature interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 011106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gmachl, C.

Gordon, I.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, and L. Brown, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Griffin, R. J.

L. Dong, C. Li, N. P. Sanchez, A. K. Gluszek, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact CH4 sensor system based on a continuous-wave, low power consumption, room temperature interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 011106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Cao, N. P. Sanchez, W. Jiang, R. J. Griffin, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, C. E. Zah, and F. K. Tittel, “Simultaneous atmospheric nitrous oxide, methane and water vapor detection with a single continuous wave quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2121–2132 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cao, N. P. Sanchez, W. Jiang, W. Ren, R. Lewicki, D. Jiang, and R. J. Griffin, “Multi-pass absorption spectroscopy for H2O2 detection using a CW DFB-QCL,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3, 549–558 (2014).

Hancock, G.

G. Hancock, J. Van Helden, R. Peverall, G. Ritchie, and R. Walker, “Direct and wavelength modulation spectroscopy using a cw external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 201110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hanson, R.

X. Chao, J. Jeffries, and R. Hanson, “Wavelength-modulation-spectroscopy for real-time, in situ NO detection in combustion gases with a 5.2 μm quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 106(4), 987–997 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Li, A. Farooq, J. Jeffries, and R. Hanson, “Near-infrared diode laser absorption sensor for rapid measurements of temperature and water vapor in a shock tube,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 407–416 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hanson, R. K.

Hase, F.

M. Schneider, F. Hase, and T. Blumenstock, “Ground-based remote sensing of HDO/H2O ratio profiles: introduction and validation of an innovative retrieval approach,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 4705–4722 (2006).
[Crossref]

Heimann, M.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Herndon, S.

D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3325–3335 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hodson, E. L.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hofler, G.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. Curl, F. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Houweling, S.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hughes, L. C.

Hutchinson, A. L.

Jahjah, M.

M. Jahjah, W. Ren, P. Stefański, R. Lewicki, J. Zhang, W. Jiang, J. Tarka, and F. K. Tittel, “A compact QCL based methane and nitrous oxide sensor for environmental and medical applications,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2065–2069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Krzempek, M. Jahjah, R. Lewicki, P. Stefański, S. So, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “CW DFB RT diode laser-based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane using a novel compact multipass gas absorption cell,” Appl. Phys. B 112(4), 461–465 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jeffries, J.

X. Chao, J. Jeffries, and R. Hanson, “Wavelength-modulation-spectroscopy for real-time, in situ NO detection in combustion gases with a 5.2 μm quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 106(4), 987–997 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Li, A. Farooq, J. Jeffries, and R. Hanson, “Near-infrared diode laser absorption sensor for rapid measurements of temperature and water vapor in a shock tube,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 407–416 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jeffries, J. B.

Jiang, D.

Y. Cao, N. P. Sanchez, W. Jiang, W. Ren, R. Lewicki, D. Jiang, and R. J. Griffin, “Multi-pass absorption spectroscopy for H2O2 detection using a CW DFB-QCL,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3, 549–558 (2014).

Jiang, W.

Y. Cao, N. P. Sanchez, W. Jiang, R. J. Griffin, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, C. E. Zah, and F. K. Tittel, “Simultaneous atmospheric nitrous oxide, methane and water vapor detection with a single continuous wave quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2121–2132 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Ren, W. Jiang, and F. K. Tittel, “Single-QCL-based absorption sensor for simultaneous trace-gas detection of CH4 and N2O,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 245–251 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Cao, N. P. Sanchez, W. Jiang, W. Ren, R. Lewicki, D. Jiang, and R. J. Griffin, “Multi-pass absorption spectroscopy for H2O2 detection using a CW DFB-QCL,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3, 549–558 (2014).

M. Jahjah, W. Ren, P. Stefański, R. Lewicki, J. Zhang, W. Jiang, J. Tarka, and F. K. Tittel, “A compact QCL based methane and nitrous oxide sensor for environmental and medical applications,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2065–2069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Josse, B.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kirschke, S.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kosterev, A. A.

Krummel, P. B.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Krzempek, K.

K. Krzempek, M. Jahjah, R. Lewicki, P. Stefański, S. So, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “CW DFB RT diode laser-based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane using a novel compact multipass gas absorption cell,” Appl. Phys. B 112(4), 461–465 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lamarque, J.-F.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Langenfelds, R. L.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Le Quéré, C.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Leleux, D.

D. Rehle, D. Leleux, M. Erdelyi, F. Tittel, M. Fraser, and S. Friedfeld, “Ambient formaldehyde detection with a laser spectrometer based on difference-frequency generation in PPLN,” Appl. Phys. B 72(8), 947–952 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lewicki, R.

M. Jahjah, W. Ren, P. Stefański, R. Lewicki, J. Zhang, W. Jiang, J. Tarka, and F. K. Tittel, “A compact QCL based methane and nitrous oxide sensor for environmental and medical applications,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2065–2069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cao, N. P. Sanchez, W. Jiang, W. Ren, R. Lewicki, D. Jiang, and R. J. Griffin, “Multi-pass absorption spectroscopy for H2O2 detection using a CW DFB-QCL,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3, 549–558 (2014).

K. Krzempek, M. Jahjah, R. Lewicki, P. Stefański, S. So, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “CW DFB RT diode laser-based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane using a novel compact multipass gas absorption cell,” Appl. Phys. B 112(4), 461–465 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. Curl, F. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

L. Dong, C. Li, N. P. Sanchez, A. K. Gluszek, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact CH4 sensor system based on a continuous-wave, low power consumption, room temperature interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 011106 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Dong, Y. Yu, C. Li, S. So, and F. K. Tittel, “Ppb-level formaldehyde detection using a CW room-temperature interband cascade laser and a miniature dense pattern multipass gas cell,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19821–19830 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H.

H. Li, A. Farooq, J. Jeffries, and R. Hanson, “Near-infrared diode laser absorption sensor for rapid measurements of temperature and water vapor in a shock tube,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 407–416 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Li, G. B. Rieker, X. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Extension of wavelength-modulation spectroscopy to large modulation depth for diode laser absorption measurements in high-pressure gases,” Appl. Opt. 45(5), 1052–1061 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

J. Li, U. Parchatka, and H. Fischer, “A formaldehyde trace gas sensor based on a thermoelectrically cooled CW-DFB quantum cascade laser,” Anal. Methods 6(15), 5483–5488 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

Maulini, R.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. Curl, F. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Wysocki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Maulini, J.-M. Bulliard, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade laser for high resolution spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81(6), 769–777 (2005).
[Crossref]

McManus, B.

D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3325–3335 (2004).
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Montzka, S. A.

S. A. Montzka, E. J. Dlugokencky, and J. H. Butler, “Non-CO2 greenhouse gases and climate change,” Nature 476(7358), 43–50 (2011).
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Naik, V.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nelson, D. D.

D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3325–3335 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noone, D.

D. Noone, “Pairing measurements of the water vapor isotope ratio with humidity to deduce atmospheric moistening and dehydration in the tropical midtroposphere,” J. Clim. 25(13), 4476–4494 (2012).
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O’Doherty, S.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
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Pachauri, R. K.

R. K. Pachauri, M. Allen, V. Barros, J. Broome, W. Cramer, R. Christ, J. Church, L. Clarke, Q. Dahe, and P. Dasgupta, “Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change” (2014).

Palmer, P. I.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Parchatka, U.

J. Li, U. Parchatka, and H. Fischer, “A formaldehyde trace gas sensor based on a thermoelectrically cooled CW-DFB quantum cascade laser,” Anal. Methods 6(15), 5483–5488 (2014).
[Crossref]

Peverall, R.

G. Hancock, J. Van Helden, R. Peverall, G. Ritchie, and R. Walker, “Direct and wavelength modulation spectroscopy using a cw external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 201110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pison, I.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Plummer, D.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Poulter, B.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Prinn, R. G.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rehle, D.

D. Rehle, D. Leleux, M. Erdelyi, F. Tittel, M. Fraser, and S. Friedfeld, “Ambient formaldehyde detection with a laser spectrometer based on difference-frequency generation in PPLN,” Appl. Phys. B 72(8), 947–952 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, W.

M. Jahjah, W. Ren, P. Stefański, R. Lewicki, J. Zhang, W. Jiang, J. Tarka, and F. K. Tittel, “A compact QCL based methane and nitrous oxide sensor for environmental and medical applications,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2065–2069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cao, N. P. Sanchez, W. Jiang, W. Ren, R. Lewicki, D. Jiang, and R. J. Griffin, “Multi-pass absorption spectroscopy for H2O2 detection using a CW DFB-QCL,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3, 549–558 (2014).

W. Ren, W. Jiang, and F. K. Tittel, “Single-QCL-based absorption sensor for simultaneous trace-gas detection of CH4 and N2O,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 245–251 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rieker, G. B.

Rigby, M.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ringeval, B.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ritchie, G.

G. Hancock, J. Van Helden, R. Peverall, G. Ritchie, and R. Walker, “Direct and wavelength modulation spectroscopy using a cw external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 201110 (2009).
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Rothman, L.

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Sanchez, N. P.

L. Dong, C. Li, N. P. Sanchez, A. K. Gluszek, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact CH4 sensor system based on a continuous-wave, low power consumption, room temperature interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 011106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Cao, N. P. Sanchez, W. Jiang, R. J. Griffin, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, C. E. Zah, and F. K. Tittel, “Simultaneous atmospheric nitrous oxide, methane and water vapor detection with a single continuous wave quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2121–2132 (2015).
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Y. Cao, N. P. Sanchez, W. Jiang, W. Ren, R. Lewicki, D. Jiang, and R. J. Griffin, “Multi-pass absorption spectroscopy for H2O2 detection using a CW DFB-QCL,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3, 549–558 (2014).

Santini, M.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
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Saunois, M.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
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Schmidt, M.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
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M. Schneider, F. Hase, and T. Blumenstock, “Ground-based remote sensing of HDO/H2O ratio profiles: introduction and validation of an innovative retrieval approach,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 4705–4722 (2006).
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Shindell, D. T.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
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Simpson, I. J.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
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Sivco, D. L.

So, S.

L. Dong, Y. Yu, C. Li, S. So, and F. K. Tittel, “Ppb-level formaldehyde detection using a CW room-temperature interband cascade laser and a miniature dense pattern multipass gas cell,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19821–19830 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Krzempek, M. Jahjah, R. Lewicki, P. Stefański, S. So, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “CW DFB RT diode laser-based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane using a novel compact multipass gas absorption cell,” Appl. Phys. B 112(4), 461–465 (2013).
[Crossref]

Spahni, R.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
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Steele, L. P.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
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Stefanski, P.

M. Jahjah, W. Ren, P. Stefański, R. Lewicki, J. Zhang, W. Jiang, J. Tarka, and F. K. Tittel, “A compact QCL based methane and nitrous oxide sensor for environmental and medical applications,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2065–2069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Krzempek, M. Jahjah, R. Lewicki, P. Stefański, S. So, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “CW DFB RT diode laser-based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane using a novel compact multipass gas absorption cell,” Appl. Phys. B 112(4), 461–465 (2013).
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Stieger, J.

I. Bamberger, J. Stieger, N. Buchmann, and W. Eugster, “Spatial variability of methane: attributing atmospheric concentrations to emissions,” Environ. Pollut. 190, 65–74 (2014).
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Strode, S. A.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sudo, K.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Szopa, S.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
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Tarka, J.

M. Jahjah, W. Ren, P. Stefański, R. Lewicki, J. Zhang, W. Jiang, J. Tarka, and F. K. Tittel, “A compact QCL based methane and nitrous oxide sensor for environmental and medical applications,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2065–2069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomazy, D.

K. Krzempek, M. Jahjah, R. Lewicki, P. Stefański, S. So, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “CW DFB RT diode laser-based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane using a novel compact multipass gas absorption cell,” Appl. Phys. B 112(4), 461–465 (2013).
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Tittel, F.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. Curl, F. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
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D. Rehle, D. Leleux, M. Erdelyi, F. Tittel, M. Fraser, and S. Friedfeld, “Ambient formaldehyde detection with a laser spectrometer based on difference-frequency generation in PPLN,” Appl. Phys. B 72(8), 947–952 (2001).
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Tittel, F. K.

L. Dong, C. Li, N. P. Sanchez, A. K. Gluszek, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact CH4 sensor system based on a continuous-wave, low power consumption, room temperature interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 011106 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Dong, Y. Yu, C. Li, S. So, and F. K. Tittel, “Ppb-level formaldehyde detection using a CW room-temperature interband cascade laser and a miniature dense pattern multipass gas cell,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19821–19830 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cao, N. P. Sanchez, W. Jiang, R. J. Griffin, F. Xie, L. C. Hughes, C. E. Zah, and F. K. Tittel, “Simultaneous atmospheric nitrous oxide, methane and water vapor detection with a single continuous wave quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 23(3), 2121–2132 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Jahjah, W. Ren, P. Stefański, R. Lewicki, J. Zhang, W. Jiang, J. Tarka, and F. K. Tittel, “A compact QCL based methane and nitrous oxide sensor for environmental and medical applications,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2065–2069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Ren, W. Jiang, and F. K. Tittel, “Single-QCL-based absorption sensor for simultaneous trace-gas detection of CH4 and N2O,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 245–251 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Krzempek, M. Jahjah, R. Lewicki, P. Stefański, S. So, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “CW DFB RT diode laser-based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane using a novel compact multipass gas absorption cell,” Appl. Phys. B 112(4), 461–465 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Wysocki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Maulini, J.-M. Bulliard, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade laser for high resolution spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81(6), 769–777 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. A. Kosterev, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baillargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Effective utilization of quantum-cascade distributed-feedback lasers in absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 39(24), 4425–4430 (2000).
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Troccoli, M.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. Curl, F. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Urbanski, S.

D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3325–3335 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van der Werf, G. R.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
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Van Helden, J.

G. Hancock, J. Van Helden, R. Peverall, G. Ritchie, and R. Walker, “Direct and wavelength modulation spectroscopy using a cw external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 201110 (2009).
[Crossref]

van Weele, M.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Voulgarakis, A.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Walker, R.

G. Hancock, J. Van Helden, R. Peverall, G. Ritchie, and R. Walker, “Direct and wavelength modulation spectroscopy using a cw external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 201110 (2009).
[Crossref]

Weiss, R. F.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Williams, J. E.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wysocki, G.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. Curl, F. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Wysocki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Maulini, J.-M. Bulliard, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade laser for high resolution spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81(6), 769–777 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xie, F.

Yu, Y.

Zah, C. E.

Zahniser, M. S.

D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3325–3335 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, G.

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

M. Jahjah, W. Ren, P. Stefański, R. Lewicki, J. Zhang, W. Jiang, J. Tarka, and F. K. Tittel, “A compact QCL based methane and nitrous oxide sensor for environmental and medical applications,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2065–2069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Technol. (1)

Y. Cao, N. P. Sanchez, W. Jiang, W. Ren, R. Lewicki, D. Jiang, and R. J. Griffin, “Multi-pass absorption spectroscopy for H2O2 detection using a CW DFB-QCL,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 3, 549–558 (2014).

Anal. Methods (1)

J. Li, U. Parchatka, and H. Fischer, “A formaldehyde trace gas sensor based on a thermoelectrically cooled CW-DFB quantum cascade laser,” Anal. Methods 6(15), 5483–5488 (2014).
[Crossref]

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

M. Jahjah, W. Ren, P. Stefański, R. Lewicki, J. Zhang, W. Jiang, J. Tarka, and F. K. Tittel, “A compact QCL based methane and nitrous oxide sensor for environmental and medical applications,” Analyst (Lond.) 139(9), 2065–2069 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (7)

D. Rehle, D. Leleux, M. Erdelyi, F. Tittel, M. Fraser, and S. Friedfeld, “Ambient formaldehyde detection with a laser spectrometer based on difference-frequency generation in PPLN,” Appl. Phys. B 72(8), 947–952 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Ren, W. Jiang, and F. K. Tittel, “Single-QCL-based absorption sensor for simultaneous trace-gas detection of CH4 and N2O,” Appl. Phys. B 117(1), 245–251 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Li, A. Farooq, J. Jeffries, and R. Hanson, “Near-infrared diode laser absorption sensor for rapid measurements of temperature and water vapor in a shock tube,” Appl. Phys. B 89(2-3), 407–416 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Wysocki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Maulini, J.-M. Bulliard, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade laser for high resolution spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81(6), 769–777 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. Curl, F. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

X. Chao, J. Jeffries, and R. Hanson, “Wavelength-modulation-spectroscopy for real-time, in situ NO detection in combustion gases with a 5.2 μm quantum-cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 106(4), 987–997 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Krzempek, M. Jahjah, R. Lewicki, P. Stefański, S. So, D. Thomazy, and F. K. Tittel, “CW DFB RT diode laser-based sensor for trace-gas detection of ethane using a novel compact multipass gas absorption cell,” Appl. Phys. B 112(4), 461–465 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. Hancock, J. Van Helden, R. Peverall, G. Ritchie, and R. Walker, “Direct and wavelength modulation spectroscopy using a cw external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(20), 201110 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Dong, C. Li, N. P. Sanchez, A. K. Gluszek, R. J. Griffin, and F. K. Tittel, “Compact CH4 sensor system based on a continuous-wave, low power consumption, room temperature interband cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(1), 011106 (2016).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Schneider, F. Hase, and T. Blumenstock, “Ground-based remote sensing of HDO/H2O ratio profiles: introduction and validation of an innovative retrieval approach,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6(12), 4705–4722 (2006).
[Crossref]

Environ. Pollut. (1)

I. Bamberger, J. Stieger, N. Buchmann, and W. Eugster, “Spatial variability of methane: attributing atmospheric concentrations to emissions,” Environ. Pollut. 190, 65–74 (2014).
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J. Clim. (1)

D. Noone, “Pairing measurements of the water vapor isotope ratio with humidity to deduce atmospheric moistening and dehydration in the tropical midtroposphere,” J. Clim. 25(13), 4476–4494 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, and L. Brown, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Geosci. (1)

S. Kirschke, P. Bousquet, P. Ciais, M. Saunois, J. G. Canadell, E. J. Dlugokencky, P. Bergamaschi, D. Bergmann, D. R. Blake, L. Bruhwiler, P. Cameron-Smith, S. Castaldi, F. Chevallier, L. Feng, A. Fraser, M. Heimann, E. L. Hodson, S. Houweling, B. Josse, P. J. Fraser, P. B. Krummel, J.-F. Lamarque, R. L. Langenfelds, C. Le Quéré, V. Naik, S. O’Doherty, P. I. Palmer, I. Pison, D. Plummer, B. Poulter, R. G. Prinn, M. Rigby, B. Ringeval, M. Santini, M. Schmidt, D. T. Shindell, I. J. Simpson, R. Spahni, L. P. Steele, S. A. Strode, K. Sudo, S. Szopa, G. R. van der Werf, A. Voulgarakis, M. van Weele, R. F. Weiss, J. E. Williams, and G. Zeng, “Three decades of global methane sources and sinks,” Nat. Geosci. 6(10), 813–823 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

S. A. Montzka, E. J. Dlugokencky, and J. H. Butler, “Non-CO2 greenhouse gases and climate change,” Nature 476(7358), 43–50 (2011).
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Opt. Express (2)

Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. (1)

D. D. Nelson, B. McManus, S. Urbanski, S. Herndon, and M. S. Zahniser, “High precision measurements of atmospheric nitrous oxide and methane using thermoelectrically cooled mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and detectors,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 60(14), 3325–3335 (2004).
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Other (2)

R. K. Pachauri, M. Allen, V. Barros, J. Broome, W. Cramer, R. Christ, J. Church, L. Clarke, Q. Dahe, and P. Dasgupta, “Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change” (2014).

X. Liu, X. Zhou, A. Feitisch, and G. Sanger, “Pressure-invariant trace gas detection,” U.S. Patent No. 7,508,521 (2009).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 EC-QCL intensity and wavenumber variation with a PZT scan at ~1275.8 cm−1 at 1 Hz scan rate.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic of a CW EC-QCL based sensor system for simultaneous four trace gas species detection.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) HITRAN simulation of absorption spectra of ambient air at 40 Torr, 296 K and 57.6 m path-length in the spectral range of 1281.05-1281.66 cm−1; (b) 2f and (c) 1f signals from experimental measurements.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Normalized WMS-2fp-p/1f signals as a function of modulation depths for H2O, HDO, N2O, and CH4 at 40 Torr.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimental WMS-2fp-p/1f signals of (a) H2O, (b) HDO, (c) N2O, and (d) CH4 as function of respective gas concentrations.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Allan deviation plots of H2O (red), HDO (blue), N2O (wine), and CH4 (green) concentrations as a function of integration time.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Time series of H2O (red), HDO (blue), N2O (wine), and CH4 (green) mixing ratios measured on the Rice University campus during February 1-8, 2016.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Comparison of measured 1-hour averaged H2O vapor mixing ratios with levels calculated based on meteorological data collected at a TCEQ station located in the proximity of the Rice University campus (February 1-8, 2016).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Diurnal variations of atmospheric (a) H2O, (b) HDO, (c) N2O, and (d) CH4 mixing ratios during the period of monitoring. Bottom whisker, bottom box line, top box line, and top whisker indicate 10th, 25th and 75th, 90th percentile, respectively. Line inside the box and solid circle represent the median and mean values respectively.

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