Abstract

Theoretical analysis and experimental demonstration are presented for the generation of cylindrical vector beams (CVBs) via mode conversion in fiber from HE11 mode to TM01 and TE01 modes, which have radial and azimuthal polarizations, respectively. Intermodal coupling is caused by an acoustic flexural wave applied on the fiber, whereas polarization control is necessary for the mode conversion, i.e. HE11xTM01 and HE11yTE01 for acoustic vibration along the x-axis. The frequency of the RF driving signal for actuating the acoustic wave is determined by the phase matching condition that the period of acoustic wave equals the beatlength of two coupled modes. With phase matching condition tunability, this approach can be used to generate different types of CVBs at the same wavelength over a broadband. Experimental demonstration was done in the visible and communication bands.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2015 (5)

2013 (4)

S. Ramachandran and P. Kristensen, “Optical vortices in fiber,” Nanophotonics 2(5–6), 455–474 (2013).

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Min, Z. Shen, J. Shen, Y. Zhang, H. Fang, G. Yuan, L. Du, S. Zhu, T. Lei, and X. Yuan, “Focused plasmonic trapping of metallic particles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2891 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Du, D. Y. Lei, G. Yuan, H. Fang, X. Zhang, Q. Wang, D. Tang, C. Min, S. A. Maier, and X. Yuan, “Mapping plasmonic near-field profiles and interferences by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3064 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kang, J. Ko, S. M. Lee, S. K. Choi, B. Y. Kim, and H. S. Park, “Measurement of the entanglement between photonic spatial modes in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(2), 020502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Liu, P. Li, T. Peng, and J. Zhao, “Generation of arbitrary spatially variant polarization beams with a trapezoid Sagnac interferometer,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21715–21721 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

N. K. Viswanathan and V. V. G. K. Inavalli, “Generation of optical vector beams using a two-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1189–1191 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. W. Zhan, “Cylindrical vector beams: from mathematical concepts to applications,” Adv. Opt. Photonics 1(1), 1–57 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

2006 (6)

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

Q. Zhan, “Trapping metallic Rayleigh particles with radial polarization,” Opt. Express 12(15), 3377–3382 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Volpe and D. Petrov, “Generation of cylindrical vector beams with few-mode fibers excited by Laguerre-Gaussian beams,” Opt. Commun. 237(1-3), 89–95 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Biss and T. G. Brown, “Polarization-vortex-driven second-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 28(11), 923–925 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

1999 (1)

E. M. Furst and A. P. Gast, “Micromechanics of dipolar chains using optical tweezers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4130–4133 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

M. Stalder and M. Schadt, “Linearly polarized light with axial symmetry generated by liquid-crystal polarization converters,” Opt. Lett. 21(23), 1948–1950 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, and D. O. Culverhouse, “The acousto-optic effect in single–mode fiber tapers and couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(11), 2519–2529 (1996).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

D. Pohl, “Operation of a ruby laser in the purely transverse electric mode TE01,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20(7), 266–267 (1972).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, M. A.

Aït-Ameur, K.

Alfano, R. R.

Alhassen, F.

P. Z. Dashti, F. Alhassen, and H. P. Lee, “Observation of orbital angular momentum transfer between acoustic and optical vortices in optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(4), 043604 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biener, G.

Birks, T. A.

T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, and D. O. Culverhouse, “The acousto-optic effect in single–mode fiber tapers and couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(11), 2519–2529 (1996).
[Crossref]

Biss, D. P.

Bisson, J. F.

Bomzon, Z.

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, T. G.

Brüning, R.

Bu, J.

K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, D. K. Y. Low, and R. E. Burge, “Direct noninterference cylindrical vector beam generation applied in the femtosecond regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251114 (2006).
[Crossref]

Burge, R. E.

K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, D. K. Y. Low, and R. E. Burge, “Direct noninterference cylindrical vector beam generation applied in the femtosecond regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251114 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cai, X.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, R. S.

Chiang, K. S.

J. L. Dong and K. S. Chiang, “Temperature-insensitive mode converters with CO2-laser written long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(9), 1006–1009 (2015).
[Crossref]

Choi, S. K.

Y. Kang, J. Ko, S. M. Lee, S. K. Choi, B. Y. Kim, and H. S. Park, “Measurement of the entanglement between photonic spatial modes in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(2), 020502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Courjon, D.

T. Grosjean, D. Courjon, and M. Spajer, “An all-fiber device for generating radially and other polarized light beams,” Opt. Commun. 203(1-2), 1–5 (2002).
[Crossref]

Culverhouse, D. O.

T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, and D. O. Culverhouse, “The acousto-optic effect in single–mode fiber tapers and couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(11), 2519–2529 (1996).
[Crossref]

Dashti, P. Z.

P. Z. Dashti, F. Alhassen, and H. P. Lee, “Observation of orbital angular momentum transfer between acoustic and optical vortices in optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(4), 043604 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Saint Denis, R.

Ding, J.

Dong, J. L.

J. L. Dong and K. S. Chiang, “Temperature-insensitive mode converters with CO2-laser written long-period fiber gratings,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 27(9), 1006–1009 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Du, C.

Du, L.

C. Min, Z. Shen, J. Shen, Y. Zhang, H. Fang, G. Yuan, L. Du, S. Zhu, T. Lei, and X. Yuan, “Focused plasmonic trapping of metallic particles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2891 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Du, D. Y. Lei, G. Yuan, H. Fang, X. Zhang, Q. Wang, D. Tang, C. Min, S. A. Maier, and X. Yuan, “Mapping plasmonic near-field profiles and interferences by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3064 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duparré, M.

Erdogan, T.

Fang, H.

C. Min, Z. Shen, J. Shen, Y. Zhang, H. Fang, G. Yuan, L. Du, S. Zhu, T. Lei, and X. Yuan, “Focused plasmonic trapping of metallic particles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2891 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Du, D. Y. Lei, G. Yuan, H. Fang, X. Zhang, Q. Wang, D. Tang, C. Min, S. A. Maier, and X. Yuan, “Mapping plasmonic near-field profiles and interferences by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3064 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feurer, T.

M. Meier, V. Romano, and T. Feurer, “Material processing with pulsed radially and azimuthally polarized laser radiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(3), 329–334 (2007).
[Crossref]

Forbes, A.

Furst, E. M.

E. M. Furst and A. P. Gast, “Micromechanics of dipolar chains using optical tweezers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4130–4133 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gao, F.

Gao, W.

Gast, A. P.

E. M. Furst and A. P. Gast, “Micromechanics of dipolar chains using optical tweezers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4130–4133 (1999).
[Crossref]

Graf, T.

Grosjean, T.

T. Grosjean, D. Courjon, and M. Spajer, “An all-fiber device for generating radially and other polarized light beams,” Opt. Commun. 203(1-2), 1–5 (2002).
[Crossref]

Guo, C. S.

Hasman, E.

Hierle, R.

Hu, X.

Huang, H.

Huang, L.

Inavalli, V. V. G. K.

Jiang, B.

Johnson-Morris, B.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, Y.

Y. Kang, J. Ko, S. M. Lee, S. K. Choi, B. Y. Kim, and H. S. Park, “Measurement of the entanglement between photonic spatial modes in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(2), 020502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karimi, E.

Kim, B. Y.

Y. Kang, J. Ko, S. M. Lee, S. K. Choi, B. Y. Kim, and H. S. Park, “Measurement of the entanglement between photonic spatial modes in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(2), 020502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kleiner, V.

Ko, J.

Y. Kang, J. Ko, S. M. Lee, S. K. Choi, B. Y. Kim, and H. S. Park, “Measurement of the entanglement between photonic spatial modes in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(2), 020502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kozawa, Y.

Kristensen, P.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ramachandran and P. Kristensen, “Optical vortices in fiber,” Nanophotonics 2(5–6), 455–474 (2013).

Lavery, M. P. J.

Lee, H. P.

P. Z. Dashti, F. Alhassen, and H. P. Lee, “Observation of orbital angular momentum transfer between acoustic and optical vortices in optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(4), 043604 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S. M.

Y. Kang, J. Ko, S. M. Lee, S. K. Choi, B. Y. Kim, and H. S. Park, “Measurement of the entanglement between photonic spatial modes in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(2), 020502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lei, D. Y.

L. Du, D. Y. Lei, G. Yuan, H. Fang, X. Zhang, Q. Wang, D. Tang, C. Min, S. A. Maier, and X. Yuan, “Mapping plasmonic near-field profiles and interferences by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3064 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lei, T.

C. Min, Z. Shen, J. Shen, Y. Zhang, H. Fang, G. Yuan, L. Du, S. Zhu, T. Lei, and X. Yuan, “Focused plasmonic trapping of metallic particles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2891 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leuchs, G.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

Li, P.

Li, S.

Liu, S.

Liu, X.

Low, D. K. Y.

K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, D. K. Y. Low, and R. E. Burge, “Direct noninterference cylindrical vector beam generation applied in the femtosecond regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251114 (2006).
[Crossref]

Maier, S. A.

L. Du, D. Y. Lei, G. Yuan, H. Fang, X. Zhang, Q. Wang, D. Tang, C. Min, S. A. Maier, and X. Yuan, “Mapping plasmonic near-field profiles and interferences by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3064 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mao, D.

Marrucci, L.

McLaren, M.

Meier, M.

M. Meier, V. Romano, and T. Feurer, “Material processing with pulsed radially and azimuthally polarized laser radiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(3), 329–334 (2007).
[Crossref]

Milione, G.

Min, C.

L. Du, D. Y. Lei, G. Yuan, H. Fang, X. Zhang, Q. Wang, D. Tang, C. Min, S. A. Maier, and X. Yuan, “Mapping plasmonic near-field profiles and interferences by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3064 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Min, Z. Shen, J. Shen, Y. Zhang, H. Fang, G. Yuan, L. Du, S. Zhu, T. Lei, and X. Yuan, “Focused plasmonic trapping of metallic particles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2891 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mo, Q.

Moh, K. J.

K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, D. K. Y. Low, and R. E. Burge, “Direct noninterference cylindrical vector beam generation applied in the femtosecond regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(25), 251114 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ndagano, B.

Nesterov, A. V.

Nguyen, T. A.

Ni, W. J.

Niziev, V. G.

Nolan, D. A.

O’Brien, J. L.

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, H. S.

Y. Kang, J. Ko, S. M. Lee, S. K. Choi, B. Y. Kim, and H. S. Park, “Measurement of the entanglement between photonic spatial modes in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(2), 020502 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Passilly, N.

Peng, T.

Petrov, D.

G. Volpe and D. Petrov, “Generation of cylindrical vector beams with few-mode fibers excited by Laguerre-Gaussian beams,” Opt. Commun. 237(1-3), 89–95 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pohl, D.

D. Pohl, “Operation of a ruby laser in the purely transverse electric mode TE01,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20(7), 266–267 (1972).
[Crossref]

Quabis, S.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(23), 233901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ramachandran, S.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ramachandran and P. Kristensen, “Optical vortices in fiber,” Nanophotonics 2(5–6), 455–474 (2013).

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T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, and D. O. Culverhouse, “The acousto-optic effect in single–mode fiber tapers and couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(11), 2519–2529 (1996).
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Shen, Z.

C. Min, Z. Shen, J. Shen, Y. Zhang, H. Fang, G. Yuan, L. Du, S. Zhu, T. Lei, and X. Yuan, “Focused plasmonic trapping of metallic particles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2891 (2013).
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L. Du, D. Y. Lei, G. Yuan, H. Fang, X. Zhang, Q. Wang, D. Tang, C. Min, S. A. Maier, and X. Yuan, “Mapping plasmonic near-field profiles and interferences by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3064 (2013).
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X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
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C. Min, Z. Shen, J. Shen, Y. Zhang, H. Fang, G. Yuan, L. Du, S. Zhu, T. Lei, and X. Yuan, “Focused plasmonic trapping of metallic particles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2891 (2013).
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X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
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C. Min, Z. Shen, J. Shen, Y. Zhang, H. Fang, G. Yuan, L. Du, S. Zhu, T. Lei, and X. Yuan, “Focused plasmonic trapping of metallic particles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2891 (2013).
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Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

M. Meier, V. Romano, and T. Feurer, “Material processing with pulsed radially and azimuthally polarized laser radiation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 86(3), 329–334 (2007).
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IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

Nanophotonics (1)

S. Ramachandran and P. Kristensen, “Optical vortices in fiber,” Nanophotonics 2(5–6), 455–474 (2013).

Nat. Commun. (1)

C. Min, Z. Shen, J. Shen, Y. Zhang, H. Fang, G. Yuan, L. Du, S. Zhu, T. Lei, and X. Yuan, “Focused plasmonic trapping of metallic particles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2891 (2013).
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Opt. Express (5)

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Sci. Rep. (1)

L. Du, D. Y. Lei, G. Yuan, H. Fang, X. Zhang, Q. Wang, D. Tang, C. Min, S. A. Maier, and X. Yuan, “Mapping plasmonic near-field profiles and interferences by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3064 (2013).
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Science (2)

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-scale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the index profile of a few-mode fiber denoted with modal indices and intensity patterns for (a) the scalar modes and (b) corresponding groups of the vector modes. Field directions are denoted on the intensity patterns of vector modes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Beatlength and (b) acoustic wave frequency as functions of the resonance wavelength for the SMF-28 fiber (Corning). Insets show the zoomed-in curves at λ = 532 and 633 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The process flow for generating CVBs. (b) Experimental setup for optical communication band based on the Two-Mode Step-Index Fiber (OFS). PC: polarization controller; MO: micro-objective; MS: mode stripper; GT: Glan-Taylor prism polarizer; SMF: single-mode ber; TMF: two-mode fiber; CCD: charge coupled device.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images taken by the CCD in absence of polarizer (a1-f1) and in presence of polarizer at different polarization orientations [(a2 - a5) to (f2 - f5)]. (a, c, e) are for TM01 mode; (b, d, f) are for TE01 mode; (a, b), (c, d), and (e, f) are for λ = 633 nm, 532 nm, and 1550 nm, respectively. The image sizes are 1.8 mm × 1.8 mm (a-d) and 2.25 mm × 2.25 mm (e, f), respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Beatlengths and RF driving frequencies as functions of the resonance wavelength deduced from experimental data denoted as solid dots.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Time waveforms of the interference signal with different power ratios between HE 11 x and TM01 at 633 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 κ ϕ pm for Coupling between Fundamental Modes and LP11-group Higher-order Modes due to the Acoustic Flexural Wave Vibrating along the x-axis

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δn(r,ϕ)= N 0 rcos( ϕ ),
κ pm = π λ ε 0 μ 0 n 0 E t p Δn( r,ϕ ) E t m rdrdϕ .
E t p = u p F 01 (r),
E t m = Φ m (ϕ) F 11 (r),
C=( π/λ ) ε 0 / μ 0 n 0 N 0 ,
κ r = F 01 (r) F 11 (r) r 2 dr,
κ ϕ pm = 0 2π u p Φ m (ϕ)cosϕdϕ ,
f=πR C ext ( Δ n pm /λ ) 2 .
Δ f mm' = 2πR C ext λ 2 Δ n pm Δ n mm' ,
s( t )=β I 1 I 2 cos( 2πft ),

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