Abstract

Microresonator based Kerr frequency comb generation has many attractive features, including ultrabroad spectra, chip-level integration, and low power consumption. Achieving precise tuning control over the comb frequencies will be important for a number of practical applications, but has been little explored for microresonator combs. In this paper, we characterize the thermal tuning of a coherent Kerr frequency comb generated from an on-chip silicon nitride microring. When the microring temperature is changed by ~70 °C with an integrated microheater, the line spacing and center frequency of the comb are tuned respectively by −253 MHz (−3.57 MHz/°C) and by −175 GHz (−2.63 GHz/°C); the latter constitutes 75% of the comb line spacing. From these results we obtain a shift of 25 GHz (362.07 MHz/°C) in the comb carrier-envelope offset frequency. Numerical simulations are performed by taking into account the thermo-optic effects in the waveguide core and cladding. The temperature variation of the comb line spacing predicted from simulations is close to that observed in experiments. The time-dependent thermal response of the microheater based tuning scheme is characterized; time constants of 30.9 μs and 0.71ms are observed.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, I. Solomatine, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Tunable optical frequency comb with a crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(9), 093902 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyperparametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 41–45 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
    [Crossref]
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  6. B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare, and M. Lončar, “Diamond nonlinear photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 369–374 (2014).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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2015 (5)

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, A. Coillet, W. Loh, K. Beha, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Phase steps and resonator detuning measurements in microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5668 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode-locked dark pulse Kerr combs in normal-dispersion microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 594–600 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, P.-H. Wang, Y. Liu, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Normal-dispersion microcombs enabled by controllable mode interactions,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), L23–L28 (2015).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Huang, H. Zhou, J. Yang, J. F. McMillan, A. Matsko, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, “Mode-locked ultrashort pulse generation from on-chip normal dispersion microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(5), 053901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (7)

Y.-D. Hsieh, Y. Iyonaga, Y. Sakaguchi, S. Yokoyama, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, F. Hindle, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “Spectrally interleaved, comb-mode-resolved spectroscopy using swept dual terahertz combs,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3816 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, K. Beha, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Self-injection locking and phase-locked states in microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(4), 043905 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare, and M. Lončar, “Diamond nonlinear photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 369–374 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Jung, K. Y. Fong, C. Xiong, and H. X. Tang, “Electrical tuning and switching of an optical frequency comb generated in aluminum nitride microring resonators,” Opt. Lett. 39(1), 84–87 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Liang, A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Generation of a coherent near-infrared Kerr frequency comb in a monolithic microresonator with normal GVD,” Opt. Lett. 39(10), 2920–2923 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, Y. Xuan, X. Xue, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, A. J. Metcalf, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Investigation of mode coupling in normal-dispersion silicon nitride microresonators for Kerr frequency comb generation,” Optica 1(3), 137–144 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

K. Saha, Y. Okawachi, B. Shim, J. S. Levy, R. Salem, A. R. Johnson, M. A. Foster, M. R. E. Lamont, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Modelocking and femtosecond pulse generation in chip-based frequency combs,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1335–1343 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Arbabi and L. L. Goddard, “Measurements of the refractive indices and thermo-optic coefficients of Si3N4 and SiO(x) using microring resonances,” Opt. Lett. 38(19), 3878–3881 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Papp, P. Del’Haye, and S. A. Diddams, “Mechanical control of a microrod-resonator optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. X 3(3), 031003 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

C. L. Tien and T.-W. Lin, “Thermal expansion coefficient and thermomechanical properties of SiN(x) thin films prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Opt. 51(30), 7229–7235 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Hybrid electro-optically modulated microcombs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(26), 263901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 480–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

A. C. Hryciw, R. D. Kekatpure, S. Yerci, L. Dal Negro, and M. L. Brongersma, “Thermo-optic tuning of erbium-doped amorphous silicon nitride microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(4), 041102 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(6), 063901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. B. Papp and S. A. Diddams, “Spectral and temporal characterization of a fused-quartz-microresonator optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 053833 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyperparametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 41–45 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Shen, M. H. Khan, L. Fan, L. Zhao, Y. Xuan, J. Ouyang, L. T. Varghese, and M. Qi, “Eight-channel reconfigurable microring filters with tunable frequency, extinction ratio and bandwidth,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18067–18076 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Wu, V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Generation of very flat optical frequency combs from continuous-wave lasers using cascaded intensity and phase modulators driven by tailored radio frequency waveforms,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3234–3236 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Frequency comb assisted diode laser spectroscopy for measurement of microcavity dispersion,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 529–533 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, I. Solomatine, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Tunable optical frequency comb with a crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(9), 093902 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2001 (2)

S. Johnson and J. Joannopoulos, “Block-iterative frequency-domain methods for Maxwell’s equations in a planewave basis,” Opt. Express 8(3), 173–190 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Optical frequency synthesis based on mode-locked lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(10), 3749 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J.-H. Zhao, T. Ryan, P. S. Ho, A. J. McKerrow, and W.-Y. Shih, “Measurement of elastic modulus, Poisson ratio, and coefficient of thermal expansion of on-wafer submicron films,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6421 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

C. M. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3323 (1998).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

S. Chongsawangvirod, E. A. Irene, A. Kalintsky, S. P. Tay, and T. P. Ellul, “Refractive Index Profiles of Thermally Grown and Chemically Vapor Deposited Films on Silicon,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 137(11), 3536 (1990).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

Y. Okada and Y. Tokumaru, “Precise determination of lattice parameter and thermal expansion coefficient of silicon between 300 and 1500 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 56(2), 314 (1984).
[Crossref]

Araki, T.

Y.-D. Hsieh, Y. Iyonaga, Y. Sakaguchi, S. Yokoyama, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, F. Hindle, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “Spectrally interleaved, comb-mode-resolved spectroscopy using swept dual terahertz combs,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3816 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arbabi, A.

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Frequency comb assisted diode laser spectroscopy for measurement of microcavity dispersion,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 529–533 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beha, K.

P. Del’Haye, A. Coillet, W. Loh, K. Beha, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Phase steps and resonator detuning measurements in microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5668 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, K. Beha, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Self-injection locking and phase-locked states in microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(4), 043905 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brasch, V.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

A. C. Hryciw, R. D. Kekatpure, S. Yerci, L. Dal Negro, and M. L. Brongersma, “Thermo-optic tuning of erbium-doped amorphous silicon nitride microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(4), 041102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bulu, I.

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare, and M. Lončar, “Diamond nonlinear photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 369–374 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cardenas, J.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carmon, T.

Chen, L.

F. Ferdous, H. Miao, D. E. Leaird, K. Srinivasan, J. Wang, L. Chen, L. T. Varghese, and A. M. Weiner, “Spectral line-by-line pulse shaping of on-chip microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 770–776 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode-locked dark pulse Kerr combs in normal-dispersion microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 594–600 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, Y. Xuan, X. Xue, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, A. J. Metcalf, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Investigation of mode coupling in normal-dispersion silicon nitride microresonators for Kerr frequency comb generation,” Optica 1(3), 137–144 (2014).
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Chongsawangvirod, S.

S. Chongsawangvirod, E. A. Irene, A. Kalintsky, S. P. Tay, and T. P. Ellul, “Refractive Index Profiles of Thermally Grown and Chemically Vapor Deposited Films on Silicon,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 137(11), 3536 (1990).
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Chu, S.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyperparametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 41–45 (2010).
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Coillet, A.

P. Del’Haye, A. Coillet, W. Loh, K. Beha, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Phase steps and resonator detuning measurements in microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5668 (2015).
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Cundiff, S. T.

S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Optical frequency synthesis based on mode-locked lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(10), 3749 (2001).
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Dal Negro, L.

A. C. Hryciw, R. D. Kekatpure, S. Yerci, L. Dal Negro, and M. L. Brongersma, “Thermo-optic tuning of erbium-doped amorphous silicon nitride microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(4), 041102 (2011).
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Del’Haye, P.

P. Del’Haye, A. Coillet, W. Loh, K. Beha, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Phase steps and resonator detuning measurements in microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5668 (2015).
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P. Del’Haye, K. Beha, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Self-injection locking and phase-locked states in microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(4), 043905 (2014).
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S. B. Papp, P. Del’Haye, and S. A. Diddams, “Mechanical control of a microrod-resonator optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. X 3(3), 031003 (2013).
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P. Del’Haye, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Hybrid electro-optically modulated microcombs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(26), 263901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(6), 063901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Frequency comb assisted diode laser spectroscopy for measurement of microcavity dispersion,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 529–533 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deotare, P.

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare, and M. Lončar, “Diamond nonlinear photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 369–374 (2014).
[Crossref]

Diddams, S. A.

P. Del’Haye, A. Coillet, W. Loh, K. Beha, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Phase steps and resonator detuning measurements in microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5668 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, K. Beha, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Self-injection locking and phase-locked states in microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112(4), 043905 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Papp, P. Del’Haye, and S. A. Diddams, “Mechanical control of a microrod-resonator optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. X 3(3), 031003 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Hybrid electro-optically modulated microcombs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(26), 263901 (2012).
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S. B. Papp and S. A. Diddams, “Spectral and temporal characterization of a fused-quartz-microresonator optical frequency comb,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 053833 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
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Duchesne, D.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyperparametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 41–45 (2010).
[Crossref]

Eliyahu, D.

Ellul, T. P.

S. Chongsawangvirod, E. A. Irene, A. Kalintsky, S. P. Tay, and T. P. Ellul, “Refractive Index Profiles of Thermally Grown and Chemically Vapor Deposited Films on Silicon,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 137(11), 3536 (1990).
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A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
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Fan, L.

Ferdous, F.

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Ferrera, M.

L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyperparametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 41–45 (2010).
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Fong, K. Y.

Foster, M. A.

K. Saha, Y. Okawachi, B. Shim, J. S. Levy, R. Salem, A. R. Johnson, M. A. Foster, M. R. E. Lamont, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Modelocking and femtosecond pulse generation in chip-based frequency combs,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1335–1343 (2013).
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J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Freude, W.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
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Gaeta, A. L.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Saha, Y. Okawachi, B. Shim, J. S. Levy, R. Salem, A. R. Johnson, M. A. Foster, M. R. E. Lamont, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Modelocking and femtosecond pulse generation in chip-based frequency combs,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1335–1343 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gavartin, E.

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 480–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(6), 063901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goddard, L. L.

Gondarenko, A.

J. S. Levy, A. Gondarenko, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible multiple-wavelength oscillator for on-chip optical interconnects,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 37–40 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 480–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(6), 063901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Frequency comb assisted diode laser spectroscopy for measurement of microcavity dispersion,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 529–533 (2009).
[Crossref]

Griffith, A. G.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hall, J. L.

S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Optical frequency synthesis based on mode-locked lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(10), 3749 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hartinger, K.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 480–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hausmann, B. J. M.

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare, and M. Lončar, “Diamond nonlinear photonics,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 369–374 (2014).
[Crossref]

Herr, T.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 480–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(6), 063901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herzinger, C. M.

C. M. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3323 (1998).
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J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
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Hindle, F.

Y.-D. Hsieh, Y. Iyonaga, Y. Sakaguchi, S. Yokoyama, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, F. Hindle, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “Spectrally interleaved, comb-mode-resolved spectroscopy using swept dual terahertz combs,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3816 (2014).
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J.-H. Zhao, T. Ryan, P. S. Ho, A. J. McKerrow, and W.-Y. Shih, “Measurement of elastic modulus, Poisson ratio, and coefficient of thermal expansion of on-wafer submicron films,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6421 (1999).
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Holzwarth, R.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 480–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(6), 063901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Frequency comb assisted diode laser spectroscopy for measurement of microcavity dispersion,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 529–533 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hryciw, A. C.

A. C. Hryciw, R. D. Kekatpure, S. Yerci, L. Dal Negro, and M. L. Brongersma, “Thermo-optic tuning of erbium-doped amorphous silicon nitride microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(4), 041102 (2011).
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Hsieh, Y.-D.

Y.-D. Hsieh, Y. Iyonaga, Y. Sakaguchi, S. Yokoyama, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, F. Hindle, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “Spectrally interleaved, comb-mode-resolved spectroscopy using swept dual terahertz combs,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3816 (2014).
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Huang, S.-W.

S.-W. Huang, H. Zhou, J. Yang, J. F. McMillan, A. Matsko, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, “Mode-locked ultrashort pulse generation from on-chip normal dispersion microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(5), 053901 (2015).
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W. Liang, A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Generation of a coherent near-infrared Kerr frequency comb in a monolithic microresonator with normal GVD,” Opt. Lett. 39(10), 2920–2923 (2014).
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A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, I. Solomatine, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, “Tunable optical frequency comb with a crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(9), 093902 (2008).
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Inaba, H.

Y.-D. Hsieh, Y. Iyonaga, Y. Sakaguchi, S. Yokoyama, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, F. Hindle, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “Spectrally interleaved, comb-mode-resolved spectroscopy using swept dual terahertz combs,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3816 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Irene, E. A.

S. Chongsawangvirod, E. A. Irene, A. Kalintsky, S. P. Tay, and T. P. Ellul, “Refractive Index Profiles of Thermally Grown and Chemically Vapor Deposited Films on Silicon,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 137(11), 3536 (1990).
[Crossref]

Iyonaga, Y.

Y.-D. Hsieh, Y. Iyonaga, Y. Sakaguchi, S. Yokoyama, H. Inaba, K. Minoshima, F. Hindle, T. Araki, and T. Yasui, “Spectrally interleaved, comb-mode-resolved spectroscopy using swept dual terahertz combs,” Sci. Rep. 4, 3816 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joannopoulos, J.

Johnson, A. R.

Johnson, S.

Johs, B.

C. M. Herzinger, B. Johs, W. A. McGahan, J. A. Woollam, and W. Paulson, “Ellipsometric determination of optical constants for silicon and thermally grown silicon dioxide via a multi-sample, multi-wavelength, multi-angle investigation,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(6), 3323 (1998).
[Crossref]

Jost, J. D.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jung, H.

Kalintsky, A.

S. Chongsawangvirod, E. A. Irene, A. Kalintsky, S. P. Tay, and T. P. Ellul, “Refractive Index Profiles of Thermally Grown and Chemically Vapor Deposited Films on Silicon,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 137(11), 3536 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kekatpure, R. D.

A. C. Hryciw, R. D. Kekatpure, S. Yerci, L. Dal Negro, and M. L. Brongersma, “Thermo-optic tuning of erbium-doped amorphous silicon nitride microdisk resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(4), 041102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Khan, M. H.

Kippenberg, T. J.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Herr, K. Hartinger, J. Riemensberger, C. Y. Wang, E. Gavartin, R. Holzwarth, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Universal formation dynamics and noise of Kerr-frequency combs in microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 480–487 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, R. Holzwarth, and S. A. Diddams, “Microresonator-based optical frequency combs,” Science 332(6029), 555–559 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, T. Herr, E. Gavartin, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Octave spanning tunable frequency comb from a microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(6), 063901 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Frequency comb assisted diode laser spectroscopy for measurement of microcavity dispersion,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 529–533 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature 450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kondratiev, N. M.

T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

Koos, C.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwong, D.-L.

S.-W. Huang, H. Zhou, J. Yang, J. F. McMillan, A. Matsko, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, “Mode-locked ultrashort pulse generation from on-chip normal dispersion microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(5), 053901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lamont, M. R. E.

Lau, R. K. W.

A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lauermann, M.

J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leaird, D. E.

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, P.-H. Wang, Y. Liu, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Normal-dispersion microcombs enabled by controllable mode interactions,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), L23–L28 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode-locked dark pulse Kerr combs in normal-dispersion microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 594–600 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, Y. Xuan, X. Xue, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, A. J. Metcalf, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Investigation of mode coupling in normal-dispersion silicon nitride microresonators for Kerr frequency comb generation,” Optica 1(3), 137–144 (2014).
[Crossref]

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R. Wu, V. R. Supradeepa, C. M. Long, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Generation of very flat optical frequency combs from continuous-wave lasers using cascaded intensity and phase modulators driven by tailored radio frequency waveforms,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3234–3236 (2010).
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X. Xue, Y. Xuan, P.-H. Wang, Y. Liu, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Normal-dispersion microcombs enabled by controllable mode interactions,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), L23–L28 (2015).
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Y. Liu, Y. Xuan, X. Xue, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, A. J. Metcalf, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Investigation of mode coupling in normal-dispersion silicon nitride microresonators for Kerr frequency comb generation,” Optica 1(3), 137–144 (2014).
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L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyperparametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 41–45 (2010).
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Papp, S. B.

P. Del’Haye, A. Coillet, W. Loh, K. Beha, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Phase steps and resonator detuning measurements in microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5668 (2015).
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X. Xue, Y. Xuan, P.-H. Wang, Y. Liu, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Normal-dispersion microcombs enabled by controllable mode interactions,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), L23–L28 (2015).
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Y. Liu, Y. Xuan, X. Xue, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, A. J. Metcalf, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Investigation of mode coupling in normal-dispersion silicon nitride microresonators for Kerr frequency comb generation,” Optica 1(3), 137–144 (2014).
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L. Razzari, D. Duchesne, M. Ferrera, R. Morandotti, S. Chu, B. E. Little, and D. J. Moss, “CMOS-compatible integrated optical hyperparametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 41–45 (2010).
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J. Pfeifle, V. Brasch, M. Lauermann, Y. Yu, D. Wegner, T. Herr, K. Hartinger, P. Schindler, J. Li, D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, C. Weimann, R. Holzwarth, W. Freude, J. Leuthold, T. J. Kippenberg, and C. Koos, “Coherent terabit communications with microresonator Kerr frequency combs,” Nat. Photonics 8(5), 375–380 (2014).
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W. Liang, A. A. Savchenkov, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, “Generation of a coherent near-infrared Kerr frequency comb in a monolithic microresonator with normal GVD,” Opt. Lett. 39(10), 2920–2923 (2014).
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X. Xue, Y. Xuan, Y. Liu, P.-H. Wang, S. Chen, J. Wang, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Mode-locked dark pulse Kerr combs in normal-dispersion microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 9(9), 594–600 (2015).
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X. Xue, Y. Xuan, P.-H. Wang, Y. Liu, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Normal-dispersion microcombs enabled by controllable mode interactions,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), L23–L28 (2015).
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S.-W. Huang, H. Zhou, J. Yang, J. F. McMillan, A. Matsko, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, “Mode-locked ultrashort pulse generation from on-chip normal dispersion microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(5), 053901 (2015).
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X. Xue, Y. Xuan, P.-H. Wang, Y. Liu, D. E. Leaird, M. Qi, and A. M. Weiner, “Normal-dispersion microcombs enabled by controllable mode interactions,” Laser Photonics Rev. 9(4), L23–L28 (2015).
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Yang, J.

S.-W. Huang, H. Zhou, J. Yang, J. F. McMillan, A. Matsko, M. Yu, D.-L. Kwong, L. Maleki, and C. W. Wong, “Mode-locked ultrashort pulse generation from on-chip normal dispersion microresonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 114(5), 053901 (2015).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

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Nat. Commun. (2)

P. Del’Haye, A. Coillet, W. Loh, K. Beha, S. B. Papp, and S. A. Diddams, “Phase steps and resonator detuning measurements in microresonator frequency combs,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5668 (2015).
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A. G. Griffith, R. K. W. Lau, J. Cardenas, Y. Okawachi, A. Mohanty, R. Fain, Y. H. D. Lee, M. Yu, C. T. Phare, C. B. Poitras, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Silicon-chip mid-infrared frequency comb generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 6299 (2015).
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Nat. Photonics (9)

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T. Herr, V. Brasch, J. D. Jost, C. Y. Wang, N. M. Kondratiev, M. L. Gorodetsky, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Temporal solitons in optical microresonators,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 145–152 (2013).
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P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Frequency comb assisted diode laser spectroscopy for measurement of microcavity dispersion,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 529–533 (2009).
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Nature (1)

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Opt. Express (4)

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Optica (1)

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Sci. Rep. (1)

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J. Ye and S. T. Cundiff, Femtosecond Optical Frequency Comb: Principle, Operation, and Applications (Springer, 2005).

J. Wang, Y. Xuan, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Fast and slow optical modulation of refractive index in a SiN microring,” in CLEO: 2014, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper STh1M.8.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for microcomb generation and tuning characterization. The inset microscope image shows the silicon nitride microring integrated with a microheater. The comb line spacing (frep) is measured by using two independent methods: electro-optic (EO) down-conversion and comb-assisted spectroscopy. PC: polarization controller; EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier; EOM: electro-optic modulator; PD: photodetector; BPs: radio-frequency bandpass filters with center frequencies of 22 MHz, 30 MHz, and 75 MHz.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comb spectra when the pump laser wavelength is tuned from 1549 nm to 1550.4 nm with an increment of 0.1 nm. The spectrum with pump at 1549 nm is plotted in dark blue while the other spectra are plotted in light blue. The voltage applied on the microheater is adjusted to maintain the phase-locked state after each tuning step.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Zoom-in spectra of the comb without (upper) and with (lower) electro-optic (EO) modulation when the pump laser wavelength is 1549.3 nm. The modulation frequency f RF = 19.000000 GHz . (b) Beat note of the 6th modulation sidebands from adjacent microcomb lines (marked with red dashed rectangles in (a)). The resolution bandwidth is 5 kHz. The down-converted intermediate frequency ( f IF ) corresponding to zero in (b) is 3.185582 GHz. The microcomb line spacing is then calculated by f rep = 12 f RF + f IF = 231 .185582 GHz .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Zoom-in view of frequency markers resulting from the scanning laser beating with the reference fiber comb (upper) or with the microcomb (lower). Peak75, peak30, peak22: outputs from the RF bandpass filters with center frequencies of 75 MHz, 30 MHz, and 22 MHz, respectively. (b) Measured relative frequencies of the Kerr comb lines in the C band when the pump laser wavelength is 1549.3 nm. The comb spacing is obtained by linearly fitting the comb frequencies versus the comb numbers, giving f rep = 231 .185603 GHz .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Variation of mode spacing versus temperature and center mode frequency. For the comb measurement, center mode frequency means the pump laser frequency, and mode spacing means the comb line spacing. For the thermally tuned cavity measurement, center mode frequency means the frequency of the resonance which is pumped in comb generation, and mode spacing means the localized free spectral range. (b) Comb carrier-envelope offset frequency versus temperature and pump laser frequency.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Setup for measuring the thermal response time. (b) Upper: dithering voltage applied on the microheater; lower: output voltage of the photodetector. (c) Measured and fitted falling edge at the output of the photodetector.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters for retrieving the thermo-optic coefficients

Equations (11)

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2 π f n p L c = k 2 π
n p f T + f ( n p T + n p f f T ) = 0
d f d T = d n p d T f n g
f rep = c n g L
d f rep d T = d n g d T f rep n g
d f ceo d T = d f d T m d f rep d T ( d n g d T d n p d T ) f n g
d f TE d T = f TE n g,TE ( n p,TE n core d n core d T + n p,TE n cladding d n cladding d T )
d f TM d T = f TM n g,TM ( n p,TM n core d n core d T + n p,TM n cladding d n cladding d T )
n core 2 = 1 + 2 .9257 λ 2 λ 2 0. 14664 2
n cladding 2 = 1 .3000 + 0 .81996 λ 2 λ 2 0 .10396 2 0.0 1 0 82 λ 2
V o ( t ) = V 2 + α 1 ( V 1 V 2 ) exp ( t / τ 1 ) + α 2 ( V 1 V 2 ) exp ( t / τ 2 )

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