Abstract

The light emitting diodes (LEDs) with high light quality were investigated to enhance the color appearance of the illuminated objects and increase the white light perception of the ambience. The spectral power distributions of the LED lights were optimized by addition of the RGB components and by shifting the color coordinate below the blackbody line to get desired color rendering index (CRI) and high gamut area index (GAI). The results of the human factor study reveal that the “perfect” white light can be achieved to both enhance color saturation and improve light visual impression. The effects of observer metamerism were studied to clarify the observed phenomenon that the white lights with the same color coordinates were perceived differently by real observers.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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  4. J. A. Veitch, G. R. Newsham, P. R. Boyce, and C. C. Jones, “Lighting appraisal, well-being and performance in open-plan offices: A linked mechanisms approach,” Lighting Res. Tech. 40(2), 133–151 (2008).
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  5. A. Borisuit, F. Linhart, J. L. Scartezzini, and M. Munch, “Effects of realistic office daylighting and electric lighting conditions on visual comfort, alertness and mood,” Lighting Res. Tech. 47(2), 192–209 (2015).
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    [Crossref]

2015 (1)

A. Borisuit, F. Linhart, J. L. Scartezzini, and M. Munch, “Effects of realistic office daylighting and electric lighting conditions on visual comfort, alertness and mood,” Lighting Res. Tech. 47(2), 192–209 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

J. H. Oh, S. J. Yang, and Y. R. Do, “Healthy, natural, efficient and tunable lighting: four-package white LED for optimizing the circadian effect, color quality and vision performance,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, 1–9 (2014).

2013 (5)

P. Bodrogi, S. Bruckner, T. Q. Khanh, and H. Winkler, “Visual assessment of light source color quality,” Color Res. Appl. 38(1), 4–13 (2013).
[Crossref]

O. Masuda and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Best lighting for naturalness and preference,” J. Vis. 13(7), 4 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rea and J. Freyssinier, “White lighting for residential applications,” Lighting Res. Tech. 45(3), 331–344 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Rea and J. Freyssinier, “White lighting,” Color Res. Appl. 38(2), 82–92 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. David, M. R. Krames, and K. W. Houser, “Whiteness metric for light sources of arbitrary color temperatures: proposal and application to light-emitting-diodes,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16702–16715 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

M. P. Royer, K. W. Houser, and A. M. Wilkerson, “Color discrimination capability under highly structured spectra,” Color Res. Appl. 37(6), 441–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

O. Barlı, M. Aktan, B. Bilgili, and S. Dane, “Lighting, indoor color, buying behavior and time spent in a store,” Color Res. Appl. 37(6), 465–468 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

D. Hinks and R. Shamey, “Review of retail store lighting: implications for colour control of products,” Color Technol. 127(2), 121–128 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Colour appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Correlation between color quality metric predictions and visual appreciation of light sources,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8151–8166 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, and M. Shur, “Solid-state lamps with optimized color saturation ability,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2287–2295 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier, “Color rendering: Beyond pride and prejudice,” Color Res. Appl. 35(6), 401–409 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Custers, Y. de Kort, W. IJsselsteijn, and M. de Kruiff, “Lighting in retail environments: Atmosphere perception in the real world,” Lighting Res. Tech. 42(3), 331–343 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

R. Ramanath, “Minimizing observer metamerism in display systems,” Color Res. Appl. 34(5), 391–398 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Approaches to color rendering measurement,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(13), 1412–1419 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

L. Beke, G. Kutas, Y. Kwak, G. Y. Sung, D. S. Park, and P. Bodrogi, “Color preference of aged observers compared to young observers,” Color Res. Appl. 33(5), 381–394 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Csuti and J. Schanda, “Colour matching experiments with RGB-LED,” Color Res. Appl. 33(2), 108–112 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: A tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl. 33(3), 192–202 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. A. Veitch, G. R. Newsham, P. R. Boyce, and C. C. Jones, “Lighting appraisal, well-being and performance in open-plan offices: A linked mechanisms approach,” Lighting Res. Tech. 40(2), 133–151 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

K. Hashimoto, T. Yano, M. Shimizu, and Y. Nayatani, “New method for specifying color rendering properties of light sources based on feeling of contrast,” Color Res. Appl. 32(5), 361–371 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

C. Sáenz, B. Hernandez, M. J. Beriain, and G. Lizaso, “Meat color in retail displays with fluorescent illumination,” Color Res. Appl. 30(4), 304–311 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Ohno, “Spectral design considerations for white LED color rendering,” Opt. Eng. 44(11), 111302 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

B. J. Babin, D. M. Hardesty, and T. A. Suter, “Color and shopping intentions,” J. Bus. Res. 56(7), 541–551 (2003).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

R. L. Alfvin and M. D. Fairchild, “Observer variability in metameric color matches using color reproduction media,” Color Res. Appl. 22(3), 174–188 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. J. Poza, J. A. Martinez, M. Melgosa, and E. Hita, “A 2° standard deviate observer from the 1955 Stiles-Burch datasheet,” J. Opt. 28(1), 20–25 (1997).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, “NPL colour-matching investigation: Final report,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 6(1), 1–26 (1959).
[Crossref]

Aktan, M.

O. Barlı, M. Aktan, B. Bilgili, and S. Dane, “Lighting, indoor color, buying behavior and time spent in a store,” Color Res. Appl. 37(6), 465–468 (2012).
[Crossref]

Alfvin, R. L.

R. L. Alfvin and M. D. Fairchild, “Observer variability in metameric color matches using color reproduction media,” Color Res. Appl. 22(3), 174–188 (1997).
[Crossref]

Babin, B. J.

B. J. Babin, D. M. Hardesty, and T. A. Suter, “Color and shopping intentions,” J. Bus. Res. 56(7), 541–551 (2003).
[Crossref]

Barli, O.

O. Barlı, M. Aktan, B. Bilgili, and S. Dane, “Lighting, indoor color, buying behavior and time spent in a store,” Color Res. Appl. 37(6), 465–468 (2012).
[Crossref]

Beke, L.

L. Beke, G. Kutas, Y. Kwak, G. Y. Sung, D. S. Park, and P. Bodrogi, “Color preference of aged observers compared to young observers,” Color Res. Appl. 33(5), 381–394 (2008).
[Crossref]

Beriain, M. J.

C. Sáenz, B. Hernandez, M. J. Beriain, and G. Lizaso, “Meat color in retail displays with fluorescent illumination,” Color Res. Appl. 30(4), 304–311 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bilgili, B.

O. Barlı, M. Aktan, B. Bilgili, and S. Dane, “Lighting, indoor color, buying behavior and time spent in a store,” Color Res. Appl. 37(6), 465–468 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bodrogi, P.

P. Bodrogi, S. Bruckner, T. Q. Khanh, and H. Winkler, “Visual assessment of light source color quality,” Color Res. Appl. 38(1), 4–13 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Beke, G. Kutas, Y. Kwak, G. Y. Sung, D. S. Park, and P. Bodrogi, “Color preference of aged observers compared to young observers,” Color Res. Appl. 33(5), 381–394 (2008).
[Crossref]

Borisuit, A.

A. Borisuit, F. Linhart, J. L. Scartezzini, and M. Munch, “Effects of realistic office daylighting and electric lighting conditions on visual comfort, alertness and mood,” Lighting Res. Tech. 47(2), 192–209 (2015).
[Crossref]

Boyce, P. R.

J. A. Veitch, G. R. Newsham, P. R. Boyce, and C. C. Jones, “Lighting appraisal, well-being and performance in open-plan offices: A linked mechanisms approach,” Lighting Res. Tech. 40(2), 133–151 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bruckner, S.

P. Bodrogi, S. Bruckner, T. Q. Khanh, and H. Winkler, “Visual assessment of light source color quality,” Color Res. Appl. 38(1), 4–13 (2013).
[Crossref]

Burch, J. M.

W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, “NPL colour-matching investigation: Final report,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 6(1), 1–26 (1959).
[Crossref]

Csuti, P.

P. Csuti and J. Schanda, “Colour matching experiments with RGB-LED,” Color Res. Appl. 33(2), 108–112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Custers, P.

P. Custers, Y. de Kort, W. IJsselsteijn, and M. de Kruiff, “Lighting in retail environments: Atmosphere perception in the real world,” Lighting Res. Tech. 42(3), 331–343 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dane, S.

O. Barlı, M. Aktan, B. Bilgili, and S. Dane, “Lighting, indoor color, buying behavior and time spent in a store,” Color Res. Appl. 37(6), 465–468 (2012).
[Crossref]

David, A.

Davis, W.

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Approaches to color rendering measurement,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(13), 1412–1419 (2009).
[Crossref]

de Kort, Y.

P. Custers, Y. de Kort, W. IJsselsteijn, and M. de Kruiff, “Lighting in retail environments: Atmosphere perception in the real world,” Lighting Res. Tech. 42(3), 331–343 (2010).
[Crossref]

de Kruiff, M.

P. Custers, Y. de Kort, W. IJsselsteijn, and M. de Kruiff, “Lighting in retail environments: Atmosphere perception in the real world,” Lighting Res. Tech. 42(3), 331–343 (2010).
[Crossref]

Deconinck, G.

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Colour appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Correlation between color quality metric predictions and visual appreciation of light sources,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8151–8166 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Do, Y. R.

J. H. Oh, S. J. Yang, and Y. R. Do, “Healthy, natural, efficient and tunable lighting: four-package white LED for optimizing the circadian effect, color quality and vision performance,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, 1–9 (2014).

Fairchild, M. D.

R. L. Alfvin and M. D. Fairchild, “Observer variability in metameric color matches using color reproduction media,” Color Res. Appl. 22(3), 174–188 (1997).
[Crossref]

Freyssinier, J.

M. Rea and J. Freyssinier, “White lighting for residential applications,” Lighting Res. Tech. 45(3), 331–344 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Rea and J. Freyssinier, “White lighting,” Color Res. Appl. 38(2), 82–92 (2013).
[Crossref]

Freyssinier, J. P.

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier, “Color rendering: Beyond pride and prejudice,” Color Res. Appl. 35(6), 401–409 (2010).
[Crossref]

Freyssinier-Nova, J. P.

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: A tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl. 33(3), 192–202 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hanselaer, P.

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Colour appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Correlation between color quality metric predictions and visual appreciation of light sources,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8151–8166 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hardesty, D. M.

B. J. Babin, D. M. Hardesty, and T. A. Suter, “Color and shopping intentions,” J. Bus. Res. 56(7), 541–551 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hashimoto, K.

K. Hashimoto, T. Yano, M. Shimizu, and Y. Nayatani, “New method for specifying color rendering properties of light sources based on feeling of contrast,” Color Res. Appl. 32(5), 361–371 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hernandez, B.

C. Sáenz, B. Hernandez, M. J. Beriain, and G. Lizaso, “Meat color in retail displays with fluorescent illumination,” Color Res. Appl. 30(4), 304–311 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hinks, D.

D. Hinks and R. Shamey, “Review of retail store lighting: implications for colour control of products,” Color Technol. 127(2), 121–128 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hita, E.

A. J. Poza, J. A. Martinez, M. Melgosa, and E. Hita, “A 2° standard deviate observer from the 1955 Stiles-Burch datasheet,” J. Opt. 28(1), 20–25 (1997).
[Crossref]

Houser, K. W.

A. David, M. R. Krames, and K. W. Houser, “Whiteness metric for light sources of arbitrary color temperatures: proposal and application to light-emitting-diodes,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16702–16715 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. Royer, K. W. Houser, and A. M. Wilkerson, “Color discrimination capability under highly structured spectra,” Color Res. Appl. 37(6), 441–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

IJsselsteijn, W.

P. Custers, Y. de Kort, W. IJsselsteijn, and M. de Kruiff, “Lighting in retail environments: Atmosphere perception in the real world,” Lighting Res. Tech. 42(3), 331–343 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jones, C. C.

J. A. Veitch, G. R. Newsham, P. R. Boyce, and C. C. Jones, “Lighting appraisal, well-being and performance in open-plan offices: A linked mechanisms approach,” Lighting Res. Tech. 40(2), 133–151 (2008).
[Crossref]

Khanh, T. Q.

P. Bodrogi, S. Bruckner, T. Q. Khanh, and H. Winkler, “Visual assessment of light source color quality,” Color Res. Appl. 38(1), 4–13 (2013).
[Crossref]

Krames, M. R.

Kutas, G.

L. Beke, G. Kutas, Y. Kwak, G. Y. Sung, D. S. Park, and P. Bodrogi, “Color preference of aged observers compared to young observers,” Color Res. Appl. 33(5), 381–394 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kwak, Y.

L. Beke, G. Kutas, Y. Kwak, G. Y. Sung, D. S. Park, and P. Bodrogi, “Color preference of aged observers compared to young observers,” Color Res. Appl. 33(5), 381–394 (2008).
[Crossref]

Linhart, F.

A. Borisuit, F. Linhart, J. L. Scartezzini, and M. Munch, “Effects of realistic office daylighting and electric lighting conditions on visual comfort, alertness and mood,” Lighting Res. Tech. 47(2), 192–209 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lizaso, G.

C. Sáenz, B. Hernandez, M. J. Beriain, and G. Lizaso, “Meat color in retail displays with fluorescent illumination,” Color Res. Appl. 30(4), 304–311 (2005).
[Crossref]

Martinez, J. A.

A. J. Poza, J. A. Martinez, M. Melgosa, and E. Hita, “A 2° standard deviate observer from the 1955 Stiles-Burch datasheet,” J. Opt. 28(1), 20–25 (1997).
[Crossref]

Masuda, O.

O. Masuda and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Best lighting for naturalness and preference,” J. Vis. 13(7), 4 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Melgosa, M.

A. J. Poza, J. A. Martinez, M. Melgosa, and E. Hita, “A 2° standard deviate observer from the 1955 Stiles-Burch datasheet,” J. Opt. 28(1), 20–25 (1997).
[Crossref]

Munch, M.

A. Borisuit, F. Linhart, J. L. Scartezzini, and M. Munch, “Effects of realistic office daylighting and electric lighting conditions on visual comfort, alertness and mood,” Lighting Res. Tech. 47(2), 192–209 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nascimento, S. M. C.

O. Masuda and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Best lighting for naturalness and preference,” J. Vis. 13(7), 4 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nayatani, Y.

K. Hashimoto, T. Yano, M. Shimizu, and Y. Nayatani, “New method for specifying color rendering properties of light sources based on feeling of contrast,” Color Res. Appl. 32(5), 361–371 (2007).
[Crossref]

Newsham, G. R.

J. A. Veitch, G. R. Newsham, P. R. Boyce, and C. C. Jones, “Lighting appraisal, well-being and performance in open-plan offices: A linked mechanisms approach,” Lighting Res. Tech. 40(2), 133–151 (2008).
[Crossref]

Oh, J. H.

J. H. Oh, S. J. Yang, and Y. R. Do, “Healthy, natural, efficient and tunable lighting: four-package white LED for optimizing the circadian effect, color quality and vision performance,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, 1–9 (2014).

Ohno, Y.

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Approaches to color rendering measurement,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(13), 1412–1419 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. Ohno, “Spectral design considerations for white LED color rendering,” Opt. Eng. 44(11), 111302 (2005).
[Crossref]

Park, D. S.

L. Beke, G. Kutas, Y. Kwak, G. Y. Sung, D. S. Park, and P. Bodrogi, “Color preference of aged observers compared to young observers,” Color Res. Appl. 33(5), 381–394 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pointer, M. R.

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Colour appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Correlation between color quality metric predictions and visual appreciation of light sources,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8151–8166 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poza, A. J.

A. J. Poza, J. A. Martinez, M. Melgosa, and E. Hita, “A 2° standard deviate observer from the 1955 Stiles-Burch datasheet,” J. Opt. 28(1), 20–25 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ramanath, R.

R. Ramanath, “Minimizing observer metamerism in display systems,” Color Res. Appl. 34(5), 391–398 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rea, M.

M. Rea and J. Freyssinier, “White lighting for residential applications,” Lighting Res. Tech. 45(3), 331–344 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Rea and J. Freyssinier, “White lighting,” Color Res. Appl. 38(2), 82–92 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rea, M. S.

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier, “Color rendering: Beyond pride and prejudice,” Color Res. Appl. 35(6), 401–409 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: A tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl. 33(3), 192–202 (2008).
[Crossref]

Royer, M. P.

M. P. Royer, K. W. Houser, and A. M. Wilkerson, “Color discrimination capability under highly structured spectra,” Color Res. Appl. 37(6), 441–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ryckaert, W. R.

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Colour appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Correlation between color quality metric predictions and visual appreciation of light sources,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8151–8166 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sáenz, C.

C. Sáenz, B. Hernandez, M. J. Beriain, and G. Lizaso, “Meat color in retail displays with fluorescent illumination,” Color Res. Appl. 30(4), 304–311 (2005).
[Crossref]

Scartezzini, J. L.

A. Borisuit, F. Linhart, J. L. Scartezzini, and M. Munch, “Effects of realistic office daylighting and electric lighting conditions on visual comfort, alertness and mood,” Lighting Res. Tech. 47(2), 192–209 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schanda, J.

P. Csuti and J. Schanda, “Colour matching experiments with RGB-LED,” Color Res. Appl. 33(2), 108–112 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shamey, R.

D. Hinks and R. Shamey, “Review of retail store lighting: implications for colour control of products,” Color Technol. 127(2), 121–128 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shimizu, M.

K. Hashimoto, T. Yano, M. Shimizu, and Y. Nayatani, “New method for specifying color rendering properties of light sources based on feeling of contrast,” Color Res. Appl. 32(5), 361–371 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shur, M.

Smet, K.

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Correlation between color quality metric predictions and visual appreciation of light sources,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8151–8166 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Colour appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stiles, W. S.

W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, “NPL colour-matching investigation: Final report,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 6(1), 1–26 (1959).
[Crossref]

Sung, G. Y.

L. Beke, G. Kutas, Y. Kwak, G. Y. Sung, D. S. Park, and P. Bodrogi, “Color preference of aged observers compared to young observers,” Color Res. Appl. 33(5), 381–394 (2008).
[Crossref]

Suter, T. A.

B. J. Babin, D. M. Hardesty, and T. A. Suter, “Color and shopping intentions,” J. Bus. Res. 56(7), 541–551 (2003).
[Crossref]

Vaicekauskas, R.

Veitch, J. A.

J. A. Veitch, G. R. Newsham, P. R. Boyce, and C. C. Jones, “Lighting appraisal, well-being and performance in open-plan offices: A linked mechanisms approach,” Lighting Res. Tech. 40(2), 133–151 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wilkerson, A. M.

M. P. Royer, K. W. Houser, and A. M. Wilkerson, “Color discrimination capability under highly structured spectra,” Color Res. Appl. 37(6), 441–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

Winkler, H.

P. Bodrogi, S. Bruckner, T. Q. Khanh, and H. Winkler, “Visual assessment of light source color quality,” Color Res. Appl. 38(1), 4–13 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, S. J.

J. H. Oh, S. J. Yang, and Y. R. Do, “Healthy, natural, efficient and tunable lighting: four-package white LED for optimizing the circadian effect, color quality and vision performance,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, 1–9 (2014).

Yano, T.

K. Hashimoto, T. Yano, M. Shimizu, and Y. Nayatani, “New method for specifying color rendering properties of light sources based on feeling of contrast,” Color Res. Appl. 32(5), 361–371 (2007).
[Crossref]

Žukauskas, A.

Color Res. Appl. (13)

O. Barlı, M. Aktan, B. Bilgili, and S. Dane, “Lighting, indoor color, buying behavior and time spent in a store,” Color Res. Appl. 37(6), 465–468 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Sáenz, B. Hernandez, M. J. Beriain, and G. Lizaso, “Meat color in retail displays with fluorescent illumination,” Color Res. Appl. 30(4), 304–311 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Hashimoto, T. Yano, M. Shimizu, and Y. Nayatani, “New method for specifying color rendering properties of light sources based on feeling of contrast,” Color Res. Appl. 32(5), 361–371 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Bodrogi, S. Bruckner, T. Q. Khanh, and H. Winkler, “Visual assessment of light source color quality,” Color Res. Appl. 38(1), 4–13 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: A tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl. 33(3), 192–202 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier, “Color rendering: Beyond pride and prejudice,” Color Res. Appl. 35(6), 401–409 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Smet, W. R. Ryckaert, M. R. Pointer, G. Deconinck, and P. Hanselaer, “Colour appearance rating of familiar real objects,” Color Res. Appl. 36(3), 192–200 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Ramanath, “Minimizing observer metamerism in display systems,” Color Res. Appl. 34(5), 391–398 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. L. Alfvin and M. D. Fairchild, “Observer variability in metameric color matches using color reproduction media,” Color Res. Appl. 22(3), 174–188 (1997).
[Crossref]

L. Beke, G. Kutas, Y. Kwak, G. Y. Sung, D. S. Park, and P. Bodrogi, “Color preference of aged observers compared to young observers,” Color Res. Appl. 33(5), 381–394 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Csuti and J. Schanda, “Colour matching experiments with RGB-LED,” Color Res. Appl. 33(2), 108–112 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. P. Royer, K. W. Houser, and A. M. Wilkerson, “Color discrimination capability under highly structured spectra,” Color Res. Appl. 37(6), 441–449 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Rea and J. Freyssinier, “White lighting,” Color Res. Appl. 38(2), 82–92 (2013).
[Crossref]

Color Technol. (1)

D. Hinks and R. Shamey, “Review of retail store lighting: implications for colour control of products,” Color Technol. 127(2), 121–128 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Bus. Res. (1)

B. J. Babin, D. M. Hardesty, and T. A. Suter, “Color and shopping intentions,” J. Bus. Res. 56(7), 541–551 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Approaches to color rendering measurement,” J. Mod. Opt. 56(13), 1412–1419 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

A. J. Poza, J. A. Martinez, M. Melgosa, and E. Hita, “A 2° standard deviate observer from the 1955 Stiles-Burch datasheet,” J. Opt. 28(1), 20–25 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Vis. (1)

O. Masuda and S. M. C. Nascimento, “Best lighting for naturalness and preference,” J. Vis. 13(7), 4 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

J. H. Oh, S. J. Yang, and Y. R. Do, “Healthy, natural, efficient and tunable lighting: four-package white LED for optimizing the circadian effect, color quality and vision performance,” Light Sci. Appl. 2, 1–9 (2014).

Lighting Res. Tech. (4)

P. Custers, Y. de Kort, W. IJsselsteijn, and M. de Kruiff, “Lighting in retail environments: Atmosphere perception in the real world,” Lighting Res. Tech. 42(3), 331–343 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. A. Veitch, G. R. Newsham, P. R. Boyce, and C. C. Jones, “Lighting appraisal, well-being and performance in open-plan offices: A linked mechanisms approach,” Lighting Res. Tech. 40(2), 133–151 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Borisuit, F. Linhart, J. L. Scartezzini, and M. Munch, “Effects of realistic office daylighting and electric lighting conditions on visual comfort, alertness and mood,” Lighting Res. Tech. 47(2), 192–209 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Rea and J. Freyssinier, “White lighting for residential applications,” Lighting Res. Tech. 45(3), 331–344 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Acta (Lond.) (1)

W. S. Stiles and J. M. Burch, “NPL colour-matching investigation: Final report,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 6(1), 1–26 (1959).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (2)

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng. 49(3), 033602 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Ohno, “Spectral design considerations for white LED color rendering,” Opt. Eng. 44(11), 111302 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Other (3)

ASSIST, “Recommendations for specifying color properties of light sources for retail merchandising,” Lighting Research Center http://www.lrc.rpi.edu/programs/solidstate/assist/pdf/AR-SpecifyColorRec-March2010.pdf . (2010).

Colour and Vision Research Laboratory, “CIE 2006 physiologically-relevant LMS functions,” http://www.cvrl.org .

Colour and Vision Research Laboratory, “Stiles & Burch individual 10-deg colour matching data,” htp:// www.cvrl.org .

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Spectral power distributions of the nine light sources used. All light sources have same CCT of 3000 K. The LED light sources of LED1 to LED4 have CRI above 90 with Duv varying from 0 on the blackbody line to −0.015 below the blackbody line, and the LED light sources of LED5 to LED8 have CRI of 80 with Duv varying from 0 on the blackbody to −0.015 below the blackbody.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup, the left part of the room installed with the CMH lamps and the right part of the room installed with the LED lamps with eight tunable light scenarios. Mannequins dressed with clothes of six different colors for side by side comparison. Illuminance at the position of the clothes was set to the same level of about 2000 lx.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Questionnaire for observers to evaluate the color appearance of the illuminated clothes and the white light perception of the ambience.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Relationship between RGB ratio and CRI/GAI for different Duv in the case of the same CCT of 3000 K.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Meat ratings of color vividness for the average of six colors under the eight different LED lights. (b) Mean ratings of color vividness for each color under the eight different LED lights. Error bars represent ± one standard error of the mean (n = 20).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Mean ratings of color shift for the average of six colors under the eight different LED lights. (b) Mean ratings of color shift for each color under the eight different LED lights. Error bars represent ± one standard error of the mean (n = 20).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Mean ratings of color preference for the average of six colors under the eight different LED lights. (b) Mean ratings of color preference for each color under the eight different LED lights. Error bars represent ± one standard error of the mean (n = 20).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Mean ratings of white light difference for the eight different LED lights. (b) Mean ratings of white light preference for the eight different LED lights. Error bars represent ± one standard error of the mean (n = 20).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Mean ratings of white light impression for the eight different LED lights.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 (a) Recalculated color coordinates of the pure RGB LED, the phosphor converted warm white LED and the CMH light in the CIE 2006 100 color space. (b) Recalculated color coordinates of the pure RGB LED, the phosphor converted warm white LED and the CMH light in the Stiles & Burch color space. The ellipse is 3 MacAdam ellipse.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a) Recalculated color coordinates of the LED lights mixed with different RGB ratios in the CIE 2006 100 color space. (b) Recalculated color coordinates of the LED lights mixed with different RGB ratios in the Stiles & Burch color space. The ellipse is 3 MacAdam ellipse.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Color characteristics of the nine light sources.

Metrics