Abstract

We theoretically demonstrate the generation and detection of broadband multi-channel Orbital Angular Momentum(OAM) by a micrometer-scale meta-reflectarray. The meta-reflectarray composed of patterned silicon bars on a silver ground plane can be designed to realize phase modulation and work as chip-level OAM devices. Compared to traditional methods of OAM generation and detection, our approach shows superiorities of very compact structure size, broadband working wavelength (1250-1750nm), high diffraction efficiency (~70%), simultaneously handling multiplex OAMs, and tunable reflection angle (0-45°). These fascinating advantages provides great potential applications in photonic integrated devices and systems for high-capacity and multi-channel OAM communication.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. C. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Yu, “Potentials and challenges of using orbital angular momentum communications in optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 23(3), 3075–3087 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

X. L. Cai, Y. J. Chen, and S. Y. Yu, “Integrated photonic orbital angular momentum devices and systems:Potentials and challenges,” Sci. China B 56(3), 579–585 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. Cheah, C. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (8)

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: The two dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, A. Kabiri, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Reflection and refraction of light from metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” J. Nanophotonics 6(1), 063532 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. X. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2003 (1)

J. E. Curtis and D. G. Grier, “Structure of optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(13), 133901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

N. R. Heckenberg, R. McDuff, C. P. Smith, and A. G. White, “Generation of optical phase singularities by computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Lett. 17(3), 221–223 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

P. Coullet, L. Gil, and F. Rocca, “Optical vortices,” Opt. Commun. 73(5), 403–408 (1989).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry, “Dislocations in wave trains,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 336(1605), 165–190 (1974).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, N.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. X. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aieta, F.

F. Aieta, A. Kabiri, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Reflection and refraction of light from metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” J. Nanophotonics 6(1), 063532 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, L.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, B.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. Cheah, C. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beijersbergen, M. W.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berry, M. V.

J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry, “Dislocations in wave trains,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. 336(1605), 165–190 (1974).
[Crossref]

Blanchard, R.

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Booth, J.

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: The two dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boyd, R. W.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brener, I.

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Briggs, D. P.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burge, R. E.

Cai, X.

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, X. L.

X. L. Cai, Y. J. Chen, and S. Y. Yu, “Integrated photonic orbital angular momentum devices and systems:Potentials and challenges,” Sci. China B 56(3), 579–585 (2013).
[Crossref]

Campione, S.

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, A. Kabiri, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Reflection and refraction of light from metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” J. Nanophotonics 6(1), 063532 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheah, K.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. Cheah, C. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. Cheah, C. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. T.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. Cheah, C. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. J.

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E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
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K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
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N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
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F. Aieta, A. Kabiri, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Reflection and refraction of light from metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” J. Nanophotonics 6(1), 063532 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gil, L.

P. Coullet, L. Gil, and F. Rocca, “Optical vortices,” Opt. Commun. 73(5), 403–408 (1989).
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C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: The two dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).
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J. E. Curtis and D. G. Grier, “Structure of optical vortices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(13), 133901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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Holloway, C. L.

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J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. X. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
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L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. Cheah, C. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
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T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. C. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
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L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. Cheah, C. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
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L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
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X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
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S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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F. Aieta, A. Kabiri, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Reflection and refraction of light from metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” J. Nanophotonics 6(1), 063532 (2012).
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E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

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F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, A. Kabiri, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Reflection and refraction of light from metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” J. Nanophotonics 6(1), 063532 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
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A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
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K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
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Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
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M. W. Beijersbergen, R. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
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C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: The two dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).
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S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. C. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
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G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
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L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
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L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. Cheah, C. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
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T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. C. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
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T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. C. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
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S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
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T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. C. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
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M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).
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T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. C. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
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K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
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M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4856 (2014).
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K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
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Min, C.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. C. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
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Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
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Moreno, I.

Mühlenbernd, H.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
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L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. Cheah, C. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
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L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
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K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
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M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).
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T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. C. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
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X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
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C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: The two dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).
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M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).
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M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4856 (2014).
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E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
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L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. Cheah, C. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
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J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. X. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
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P. Coullet, L. Gil, and F. Rocca, “Optical vortices,” Opt. Commun. 73(5), 403–408 (1989).
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E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
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Shalaev, M. I.

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
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Smith, C. P.

Smith, D. R.

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: The two dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).
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M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4856 (2014).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Staude, I.

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strain, M. J.

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subramania, G. S.

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, J.

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, S.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, Q.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. Cheah, C. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tetienne, J. P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thompson, M. G.

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, D. P.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsukernik, A.

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tur, M.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. X. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Upham, J.

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Valentine, J.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, C. M.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. X. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, A. G.

Willner, A. E.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. X. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Woerdman, J. P.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiao, S.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. C. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yan, Y.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. X. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. Y.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. X. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, K. Y.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, Z.

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, X.

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, C.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. C. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, N.

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, A. Kabiri, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Reflection and refraction of light from metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” J. Nanophotonics 6(1), 063532 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, S.

S. Yu, “Potentials and challenges of using orbital angular momentum communications in optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 23(3), 3075–3087 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, S. Y.

X. L. Cai, Y. J. Chen, and S. Y. Yu, “Integrated photonic orbital angular momentum devices and systems:Potentials and challenges,” Sci. China B 56(3), 579–585 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yuan, X. C.

Yue, Y.

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. X. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zentgraf, T.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. Cheah, C. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. Cheah, C. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. C. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, N.

Zhang, S.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. Cheah, C. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, G.

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. (1)

C. L. Holloway, E. F. Kuester, J. A. Gordon, J. O’Hara, J. Booth, and D. R. Smith, “An overview of the theory and applications of metasurfaces: The two dimensional equivalents of metamaterials,” IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag. 54(2), 10–35 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Nanophotonics (1)

F. Aieta, A. Kabiri, P. Genevet, N. Yu, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Reflection and refraction of light from metasurfaces with phase discontinuities,” J. Nanophotonics 6(1), 063532 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Light Sci. Appl. (2)

T. Lei, M. Zhang, Y. Li, P. Jia, G. N. Liu, X. Xu, Z. Li, C. Min, J. Lin, C. Yu, H. Niu, and X. C. Yuan, “Massive individual orbital angular momentum channels for multiplexing enabled by Dammann gratings,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(3), e257 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. Karimi, S. A. Schulz, I. De Leon, H. Qassim, J. Upham, and R. W. Boyd, “Generating optical orbital angular momentum at visible wavelengths using a plasmonic metasurface,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(5), e167 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (7)

Y. Yang, W. Wang, P. Moitra, I. I. Kravchenko, D. P. Briggs, and J. Valentine, “Dielectric meta-reflectarray for broadband linear polarization conversion and optical vortex generation,” Nano Lett. 14(3), 1394–1399 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. E. Chong, I. Staude, A. James, J. Dominguez, S. Liu, S. Campione, G. S. Subramania, T. S. Luk, M. Decker, D. N. Neshev, I. Brener, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control,” Nano Lett. 15(8), 5369–5374 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Shalaev, J. Sun, A. Tsukernik, A. Pandey, K. Nikolskiy, and N. M. Litchinitser, “High-efficiency all-dielectric metasurfaces for ultracompact beam manipulation in transmission mode,” Nano Lett. 15(9), 6261–6266 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sun, K. Y. Yang, C. M. Wang, T. K. Juan, W. T. Chen, C. Y. Liao, Q. He, S. Xiao, W. T. Kung, G. Y. Guo, L. Zhou, and D. P. Tsai, “High-efficiency broadband anomalous reflection by gradient meta-surfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6223–6229 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, G. Li, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Dispersionless phase discontinuities for controlling light propagation,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5750–5755 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, N. Yu, R. Blanchard, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Aberration-free ultrathin flat lenses and axicons at telecom wavelengths based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(9), 4932–4936 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Yu, F. Aieta, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “A broadband, background-free quarter-wave plate based on plasmonic metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6328–6333 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (2)

M. J. Strain, X. Cai, J. Wang, J. Zhu, D. B. Phillips, L. Chen, M. Lopez-Garcia, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, M. Sorel, and S. Yu, “Fast electrical switching of orbital angular momentum modes using ultra-compact integrated vortex emitters,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4856 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Huang, X. Chen, H. Mühlenbernd, H. Zhang, S. Chen, B. Bai, Q. Tan, G. Jin, K. Cheah, C. Qiu, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical holography using a plasmonic metasurface,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2808 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

N. Yu and F. Capasso, “Flat optics with designer metasurfaces,” Nat. Mater. 13(2), 139–150 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

G. Zheng, H. Mühlenbernd, M. Kenney, G. Li, T. Zentgraf, and S. Zhang, “Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 308–312 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Wang, J. Y. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. X. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
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M. W. Beijersbergen, R. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun. 112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
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X. L. Cai, Y. J. Chen, and S. Y. Yu, “Integrated photonic orbital angular momentum devices and systems:Potentials and challenges,” Sci. China B 56(3), 579–585 (2013).
[Crossref]

Science (4)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: Generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Cai, J. Wang, M. J. Strain, B. Johnson-Morris, J. Zhu, M. Sorel, J. L. O’Brien, M. G. Thompson, and S. Yu, “Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters,” Science 338(6105), 363–366 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Planar photonics with metasurfaces,” Science 339(6125), 1232009 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yin, Z. Ye, J. Rho, Y. Wang, and X. Zhang, “Photonic spin Hall effect at metasurfaces,” Science 339(6126), 1405–1407 (2013).
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L. Allen, S. M. Barnett, and M. J. Padgett, Orbital Angular Momentum (Institute of Physics Publishing, 2003).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of a 3 × 3 OV array generated by a meta-reflectarray. The meta-reflectarray contains 8 kinds of Si-bars providing an incremental phase shift of π/4 [24], including four sizes (length l = 425nm, width w = 200nm; l = 435nm, w = 225nm; l = 450nm, w = 250nm; l = 475nm, w = 275nm) and two inclined ± 45 degree by horizontal direction. The thickness and permittivity of silicon, PMMA, silver layers are 380nm, 200nm, 800nm and 12.376, 2.25, 86.642 + 4.371i (at 1550nm), respectively. The incident light is an s-polarized Gauss beam with a wavelength range from 1250nm to 1750nm, and the reflected OV array is p-polarized. The size of whole meta-reflectarray is about 40 × 40μm2, containing 60 × 60 Si-bars with period size 650 × 650nm2.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Different amounts of OV array generated by meta-reflectarray. (a) Phase hologram of meta-reflectarray combined by a 2-dimentinal Dammann vortex grating for generating 3 × 3 OV array and a gradient phase for tilt reflection. (b) Central part of meta-reflectarray in (a), including Si-bars (blue rectangles) and PMMA layer (light blue background). (c) - (e) are generated 3 × 3, 4 × 4, 5 × 5 OV arrays at 1550nm wavelength with corresponding topological charges l = −4~4, −8~8 and −12~12, respectively. The reflection angle of center point of all OV arrays is 16.5 degree.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) 3 × 3 OV array patterns obtained in the wavelength of 1250nm, 1500nm, 1600nm and 1750nm, respectively. (b) Reflectance as a function of incident wavelength range from 1250 to 1700nm. The solid lines are for normal reflection and dotted lines for tilt reflection of both co- (blue) and cross-(red) polarizations. (c) Far-field OV array intensity distribution as a function of reflection angle for both co- and cross-polarizations. (d) Uniformity of 2 × 2~5 × 5 OV arrays generated by meta-reflectarray. Energy percentage means the ratio of each OV’s energy to the total incident energy.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 OAM’s detection by meta-reflectarray at 1550nm. (a)-(b) are single OAM detection with l = −1 and l = −4, respectively. Detectable Guass point is indicated out with write circle. (c)-(d) are multi-OAMs detection for topological charges l = ± 1 and l = ± 2, respectively.

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